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What Tests Do They Do For Diabetes?

Home Blood Glucose Test: How To Test For Diabetes At Home

Home Blood Glucose Test: How To Test For Diabetes At Home

Home blood glucose testing is a safe and affordable way to detect diabetes before it becomes a health issue. Diabetes, especially in the early stages, does not always cause symptoms. Almost half of people with the disease don't know they have it. For people already diagnosed with diabetes, a simple diabetes home test is vital in the management of blood sugar levels. It could even be lifesaving. How to test for diabetes at home Home blood glucose monitoring is designed to offer a picture of how the body is processing glucose. A doctor might recommend testing at three different times, and often over the course of several days: Morning fasting reading: This provides information about blood glucose levels before eating or drinking anything. Morning blood glucose readings give a baseline number that offers clues about how the body processes glucose during the day. Before a meal: Blood glucose before a meal tends to be low, so high blood glucose readings suggest difficulties managing blood sugar. After a meal: Post meal testing gives a good idea about how your body reacts to food, and if sugar is able to efficiently get into the cells for use. Blood glucose readings after a meal can help diagnose gestational diabetes, which happens during pregnancy. Most doctors recommend testing about 2 hours after a meal. For the most accurate testing, people should log the food they eat, and notice trends in their blood glucose readings. Whether you consume a high or low carbohydrate meal, if your blood sugar reading is higher than normal afterwards, this suggests the body is having difficulty managing meals and lowering blood glucose. After consulting a doctor about the right testing schedule and frequency, people should take the following steps: Read the manual for the blood glucose moni Continue reading >>

Testing

Testing

There are a range of tests which will need to be done to monitor your health and your diabetes. Some of these, such as your blood glucose levels, you will be able to do yourself. Others will be done by healthcare professionals. Self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes management. As part of the day-to-day routine it can help with necessary lifestyle and treatment choices as well as help to monitor for symptoms of hypo- or hyperglycaemia. Monitoring can also help you and your healthcare team to alter treatment which in turn can help prevent any long-term complications from developing. Some people with diabetes (but not all) will test their blood glucose levels at home. Home blood glucose testing gives an accurate picture of your blood glucose level at the time of the test. It involves pricking the side of your finger (as opposed to the pad) with a finger-pricking device and putting a drop of blood on a testing strip. Some people can't see the point of testing as they think they know by the way they feel, but the way you feel is not always a good or accurate guide to what is happening. Blood glucose targets It is important that the blood glucose levels being aimed for are as near normal as possible (that is in the range of those of a person who does not have diabetes). These are: 3.5–5.5mmol/l* before meals less than 8mmol/l, two hours after meals. There are many different opinions about the ideal range to aim for. As this is so individual to each person, the target levels must be agreed between the person and their diabetes team. The target blood glucose ranges below are indicated as a guide. Children with Type 1 diabetes (NICE 2015) on waking and before meals: 4–7mmol/l after meals: 5–9mmol/l.after meals: 5–9mmol/l. Adults with Type Continue reading >>

4 Lab Tests For Diabetes

4 Lab Tests For Diabetes

Four blood tests are available to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes: • Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) • Hemoglobin A1c (A1c) test • Random plasma (blood) glucose To make a diagnosis, the results of each test must be confirmed by repeat testing on a different day, unless you have obvious symptoms of elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia). If diabetes is diagnosed, you’ll need periodic A1c tests to monitor your blood glucose control. 1. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test The fasting plasma glucose test is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes in children, men, and nonpregnant women. The test measures blood glucose levels after an overnight fast (no food intake for at least eight hours). A diagnosis of diabetes is made when the fasting blood glucose level is 126 mg/dL or higher on at least two tests. Values of 100 to 125 mg/dL indicate prediabetes. A normal fasting blood glucose level is less than 100 mg/dL. 2. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) This test is done when diabetes is suspected, but you have normal results on a fasting plasma glucose test. For the test, you’ll have to fast overnight and then drink a very sweet solution containing 75 g of glucose. A sample of your blood will be drawn two hours later. Normal glucose levels are less than 140 mg/dL at two hours. The criterion for a diagnosis of diabetes with this test is a two-hour blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL or higher. Prediabetes is diagnosed if the blood glucose level at two hours is 140 to 199 mg/dL. 3. Hemoglobin A1c (A1c) test This blood test measures the amount of glucose attached to hemoglobin—the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells that gives blood its color. The A1c test was originally used to monitor glucose levels in people already diagn Continue reading >>

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

If you experience symptoms of severe increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger, tingling of your hands or feet -- your doctor may run a test for diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some 29 million children and adults in the U.S., or over 9% of the population, have diabetes today. Yet, millions of Americans are unaware that they have diabetes, because there may be no warning signs. To confirm the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, your doctor will order a fasting plasma glucose test or a casual plasma glucose. The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes, because it is easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than other tests, according to the American Diabetes Association. Before taking the blood glucose test, you will not be allowed to eat anything for at least eight hours. During a blood glucose test, blood will be drawn and sent to a lab for analysis. Normal fasting blood glucose -- or blood sugar -- is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL for people who do not have diabetes. The standard diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show that your fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL. However, if you have normal fasting blood sugar, but you have risk factors for diabetes or symptoms of diabetes, your doctor may decide to do a glucose tolerance test (see below) to be sure that you do not have diabetes. Some people have a normal fasting blood sugar reading, but their blood sugar rapidly rises as they eat. These people may have impaired glucose tolerance. If their blood sugar levels are high enough, they may be diagnosed with diabetes. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests

Diabetes Tests

Diabetes is a condition that affects the body’s ability to either produce or use insulin. Insulin helps the body utilize blood sugar for energy. Diabetes results in blood sugar, or blood glucose, that rises to abnormally high levels. Over time, diabetes results in damage to blood vessels and nerves, causing a variety of symptoms, including: difficulty seeing tingling and numbness in the hands and feet increased risk for a heart attack or stroke An early diagnosis means you can start treatment and take steps toward a healthier lifestyle. In its early stages, diabetes may or may not cause many symptoms. You should get tested if you experience any of the early symptoms that do sometimes occur, including: extreme thirst feeling tired all the time feeling very hungry, even after eating blurry vision urinating more often than usual have sores or cuts that won’t heal Some people should be tested for diabetes even if they aren’t experiencing symptoms. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends you undergo diabetes testing if you’re overweight (body mass index greater than 25) and fall into any of the following categories: you’re a high risk ethnicity (African American, Latino, Native American, Pacific Islander, Asian American) you have high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, or heart disease you have a family history of diabetes you have a personal history of abnormal blood sugar levels or signs of insulin resistance you don’t engage in regular physical activity you’re a woman with a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or gestational diabetes The ADA also recommends you undergo an initial blood sugar test if you are over the age of 45. This helps you establish a baseline for blood sugar levels. Because your risk for diabetes i Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Lab Test Results

Understanding Your Lab Test Results

Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires an enormous amount of self-care and that can affect many parts of the body. Because of this, people who have diabetes are generally advised to visit their doctors multiple times a year and also to see various specialists (such as endocrinologists, podiatrists, and eye doctors) periodically to screen for potential problems and treat any complications that arise. Along with blood pressure readings and inspection of the feet and eyes, there are a number of laboratory tests recommended by the American Diabetes Association. These tests are used to track blood glucose control, kidney function, cardiovascular health, and other areas of health. Although you certainly can’t and won’t be expected to analyze the lab report when your test results come back, knowing a little bit about what your report says can be a way for you to more fully understand and take charge of your health. If it isn’t already your doctor’s regular practice to give you copies of your lab reports, ask for a copy the next time you have lab tests done. Use the information in this article to learn more about what lab reports show, and discuss your results with your doctor to learn what your results mean with regards to your health. Lab reports All lab reports share certain standard features, regardless of the test(s) they show. A Federal law, the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act, regulates all aspects of clinical laboratory testing. It states exactly what information must be included in your lab test report. Some of the standard features include the following: • Your name and a unique identification number, which may be either your birth date or a medical record number assigned to you by the lab. • The name and address of the lab that tested your bloo Continue reading >>

Signs, Symptoms And Diagnosis Of Diabetes

Signs, Symptoms And Diagnosis Of Diabetes

The signs and symptoms of Type 1 diabetes usually develop quickly, especially in children, over a period of weeks. In babies and young children, the first indication of Type 1 diabetes may be a yeast infection that causes a severe diaper rash that's far worse than the common red, puffy and tender skin rash. In young children and infants, lethargy, dehydration and abdominal pain also may indicate Type 1 diabetes. Once the symptoms appear, a blood test generally will reveal very high blood glucose. Type 2 diabetes can be detected easily during a routine screening exam and blood test. However, it frequently can go undiagnosed for years unless a physician draws a blood sample to check the blood glucose. In the early stages of Type 2 diabetes, you experience few to no noticeable signs of the disease. As time goes by and the untreated blood glucose continues to rise, symptoms begin. If you're over 40 or have parents or siblings with diabetes, be sure to have your blood glucose checked routinely. The most common symptoms of undiagnosed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are: Extreme thirst and a greater need to urinate: As excess glucose (sugar) builds up in the bloodstream, fluid is pulled from the tissues. The loss of fluid makes you thirsty. As a result, you may drink and urinate more than usual. Frequent hunger: Without enough insulin to move sugar into the cells (Type 1) or insulin resistance prohibiting insulin from entering the cells (Type 2), the muscles and organs are low on energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss: Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, rapid weight loss sometimes occurs. Without the energy that glucose supplies, muscle tissues and fat stores simply shrink. Unexplained weight loss is often one of the first symptoms to be noticed. Blurred Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats - Testing And Monitoring

Diabetes In Cats - Testing And Monitoring

By Kristiina Ruotsalo, DVM, DVSc, Dip ACVP, Margo S. Tant BSc, DVM, DVSc & Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP Diagnosis What tests are suggested for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in cats? Generally, the following screening tests are performed when diabetes mellitus is suspected: a complete blood count (CBC), a serum biochemistry profile, and a urinalysis. Why so many tests? Can't diabetes be diagnosed by an elevated blood sugar value alone? Elevated fasting blood and urine glucose (sugar) values are absolutely essential for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, but other screening tests provide additional information about the severity of the diabetes, any conditions that may be contributing to the diabetes, and any complications related to the diabetic state. Because diabetes mellitus is usually diagnosed in middle-aged to older cats, your cat may have other unrelated conditions that need to be managed along with diabetes. The screening tests will usually alert us to any such conditions. What might a CBC indicate if my cat has diabetes mellitus? The complete blood count evaluates the red blood cells, the white blood cells, and the platelet components of a blood sample. With uncomplicated diabetes mellitus, these components are often within the normal range, but changes may occasionally be seen in the red or white cell values. Despite drinking large quantities of water, diabetic cats lose body water because they produce such dilute urine. Therefore, your cat may actually be dehydrated. Dehydration can be indicated on the CBC by increases in the packed cell volume (PCV - the proportion of the blood volume that is actually occupied by red blood cells) as well as increases in the total red blood cell count. In some severe diabetic states, lysis (rupture) of red bl Continue reading >>

Diagnosis Of Diabetes

Diagnosis Of Diabetes

A diabetes diagnosis often follows a person seeking medical advice after experiencing symptoms of diabetes, such as feeling thirsty, frequent urination, fatigue and unexpected weight loss. A doctor may arrange blood and urine tests to check for high glucose levels which indicate diabetes. How are diabetes and pre-diabetes diagnosed? The following tests are used for the diagnosis of diabetes: HbA1c blood test. An HbA1c reading of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) is the recommended cut off point for diagnosing diabetes. A value below this does not exclude diabetes diagnosed using glucose tests. A fasting plasma glucose test measures your blood glucose after you have gone at least eight hours without eating or drinking anything but plain water. This test is used to detect diabetes or pre-diabetes. An oral glucose tolerance test measures your blood sugar after you have gone at least eight hours without eating and drinking and two hours after you drink a glucose-containing beverage. This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes. In a random plasma glucose test, your doctor checks your blood glucose without regard to when you ate your last meal. This test, along with an assessment of symptoms, is used to diagnose diabetes but not pre-diabetes. Positive test results should be confirmed by repeating the fasting plasma glucose test or the oral glucose tolerance test on a different day. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test The FPG is the preferred test for diagnosing diabetes and is most reliable when done in the morning. Results and their meaning are shown in table 1. If your fasting glucose level is more than 6 but less than 7mmol/l you have impaired fasting glucose (IFG), meaning that you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes but do not have it yet. A level of 7mmol/l or abov Continue reading >>

Diabetes - Tests And Checkups

Diabetes - Tests And Checkups

See your diabetes doctor for an exam every 3 to 6 months. During this exam, your doctor should check your: Blood pressure Weight Feet See your dentist every 6 months, also. Your doctor should check the pulses in your feet and your reflexes at least once a year. Your doctor should also look for: If you have had foot ulcers before, see your doctor every 3 to 6 months. It is always a good idea to ask your doctor to check your feet. An A1c lab test shows how well you are controlling your blood sugar levels over a 3-month period. The normal level is less than 5.7%. Most people with diabetes should aim for an A1C of less than 7%. Some people have a higher target. Your doctor will help decide what your target should be. Higher A1C numbers mean that your blood sugar is higher and that you may be more likely to have complications from your diabetes. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Diagnosis

Diabetes Diagnosis

Tweet Diagnosis for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can occur in a number of different ways. Usually type 2 is diagnosed by diabetes symptoms, such as polyuria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst). Otherwise, diabetes is picked up through screening, hyperglycaemia when doctor investigates a complication, or signs and symptoms prompted by diabetes. What is a diabetes screening test? A screening test determines whether a person has diabetes, and how serious it is. Depending on where you are and what your circumstances are, the screening test will vary. Tests include: Random blood glucose tests - commonly used to test for type 1 diabetes Urine glucose test Fasting plasma glucose tests (FPG tests) Oral glucose tolerance tests Additional diagnostic tests, such as urine ketone tests, GAD autoantibodies tests or C-peptide tests may also be used, as part of the diagnosis, to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. For adults aged between 40 and 50, screening should be considered. For people who have higher risk factors (ethnicity, family history, obesity) screening should be conducted beforehand. More on tests for diabetes If you have recently been diagnosed with diabetes by your healthcare team, please see our guide for newly diagnosed. Measuring hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) can help diagnose cases of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. According to diagnostic guidelines set out by the World Health Organisation (WHO), a HbA1c value of: 6% (below 42 mmol/mol) is considered non-diabetic 6-6.4% (42 to 47 mmol/mol) indicates impaired fasting glucose regulation and is considered prediabetes 6.5% or more (48 mmol/mol and above) indicates the presence of type 2 diabetes Diabetes screening is strongly recommended for adults aged between 40 and 50 years, or earlier fo Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Doctors at Hassenfeld Children’s Hospital at NYU Langone have extensive experience diagnosing type 2 diabetes in children. This chronic condition is characterized by excess blood sugar. After you eat, the body breaks down sugars and starches into glucose, the main source of energy for cells. When glucose enters the bloodstream, the pancreas releases a hormone called insulin, which signals the liver, muscles, and fat cells to remove the glucose from the blood and store it until the body needs energy. If the body becomes less responsive to the effects of insulin—a condition known as insulin resistance—the pancreas compensates and produces more insulin. With insulin resistance, the body has difficulty absorbing sugar from the bloodstream, leading to an increase in blood sugar levels, a condition known as prediabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body stops responding to the insulin signal and the pancreas can no longer make enough insulin to compensate for rising blood sugar levels. Causes and Risk Factors Once referred to as adult-onset diabetes, type 2 diabetes has become increasingly common during childhood and adolescence. This trend appears to be linked to an increase in obesity and sedentary habits among children and teens. Although the exact cause of insulin resistance is not completely understood, evidence suggests that being overweight plays an important role. This is because fat cells—especially those found in the abdomen—produce hormones and other substances that increase inflammation in the body, which can lead to insulin resistance. Being inactive, which can contribute to weight gain and lower muscle mass, may be another cause of insulin resistance. Girls with a hormone condition called polycystic ovary syndrome—which can cause facial hair and t Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes: Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes

What do the results mean? If you experience symptoms of severe increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger, tingling of your hands or feet -- your doctor may suspect diabetes. To confirm the diagnosis, a fasting plasma glucose test or a casual plasma glucose test will be performed. The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is the preferred method of diagnosing diabetes because it is easy to do, convenient and less expensive than other tests, according to the American Diabetes Association. How Do I Prepare for the Test? You will not be allowed to eat anything for 10-12 hours before the FPG test. Blood will be drawn and sent to the lab for analysis. Normal fasting blood glucose is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL for people who do not have diabetes. The standard diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show that your fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL. However, if you have normal fasting blood glucose, but you have risk factors for diabetes or symptoms of diabetes and your fasting blood glucose is normal, your doctor may decide to do a glucose tolerance test (see below) to be sure that you do not have diabetes. Some people have a normal fasting blood glucose reading, but their blood glucose rapidly rises as they eat. These people may have glucose intolerance. If their blood glucose levels are high enough, they may be diagnosed with diabetes. The casual plasma glucose test is another method of diagnosing diabetes. During the test, blood glucose is tested without regard to the time since the person's last meal. You are not required to abstain from eating prior to the test. A glucose level greater than 200 mg/dL may indicate diabetes, especially if the test is repeated at a Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, and symptoms generally come on gradually, they may go unnoticed for a long time, or they may be attributed to something else. For example, increased thirst may be chalked up to a hot summer, or fatigue may be interpreted as a sign of aging or stress. This is unfortunate, because even short-term high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) diminishes your quality of life. And if high blood sugar persists for a long time, it can eventually cause complications such as diabetic retinopathy or kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy) that cannot be completely reversed with improved blood sugar control. Type 2 diabetes can cause a wide range of signs and symptoms, including: Fatigue Dry mouth Thirst Excessive urination Hunger Weight loss Blurry vision Cloudy thinking Irritability Wounds that won't heal Infections associated with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes include gum infections, urinary tract infections (particularly in women), slowly healing wounds with subsequent infections, and infections of the feet. Symptoms in Men Type 2 diabetes symptoms are generally the same for men and women. However, urological problems such as erectile dysfunction (ED) — the inability to achieve or maintain an erection — have been associated with all forms of diabetes, including type 2. According to the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, 20 to 75 percent of men with any type of diabetes have ED. Researchers believe diabetes causes sexual function problems in men due to damage to the body's autonomic nervous system, which controls circulation. If you have the symptoms of ED, it may be a sign you have diabetes. Another urological problem associated with diabetes in men is retrograde ejaculation, or the release of semen into the bladder during ejaculation. Sym Continue reading >>

Glucose Screening And Glucose Tolerance Tests

Glucose Screening And Glucose Tolerance Tests

Why do I need a glucose screening test during pregnancy? Most healthcare practitioners routinely recommend a glucose screening test (also called a glucose challenge test or GCT) between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy to check for gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is a high blood sugar condition that some women get during pregnancy. Between 2 and 5 percent of expectant mothers develop this condition, making it one of the most common health problems during pregnancy. And because the condition rarely causes any symptoms, testing is the only way to find out whether you have it. Like any screening test, the GCT won't give you a diagnosis. Instead, it's designed to identify as many women as possible who may have a problem and need more testing to find out. So a positive result doesn't mean that you have gestational diabetes. In fact, only about a third of women who test positive on the glucose screen actually have the condition. If you test positive on the screening, you'll need to take the glucose tolerance test (GTT) – a longer, more definitive test that tells you for sure whether you have gestational diabetes. Your practitioner may want you to be screened earlier than 24 weeks if a routine urine test shows a lot of sugar in your urine or if you're considered high risk. If the results are normal, you'll be screened again at 24 to 28 weeks. Of course, if you were diagnosed with diabetes before pregnancy, you won't need to be screened. Instead, you'll continue to work with your practitioner to manage your condition during pregnancy. How is the glucose screening test done? When you arrive for the test, you're given a sugar solution that contains 50 grams of glucose. The stuff tastes like a very sweet soda pop (it comes in cola, orange, or lime flavor), and you have to Continue reading >>

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