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What Segments Of The Us Population Are At Increased Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Are Spouses Of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes At Increased Risk Of Developing Diabetes?

Are Spouses Of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes At Increased Risk Of Developing Diabetes?

OBJECTIVE—To determine whether spouses of patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of diabetes compared with spouses of subjects with normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A random sample of spouses of patients with type 2 diabetes (group 1S) attending a general practice diabetes clinic was compared with spouses of nondiabetic subjects (as determined by oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) (group 2S). Spouses in both groups underwent OGTT, fasting lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP) measurements. RESULTS—A total of 245 subjects in group 1S and 234 subjects in group 2S underwent OGTT. Group 1S had a significantly higher incidence of fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or type 2 diabetes (19.1 vs. 9.4%). Group 1S also had higher fasting glucose and triglyceride levels, higher BMI, and a trend toward higher BP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for BMI and age, showed the risk of diabetes in the spouse of a patient with diabetes was 2.11 (95% CI 1.74–5.1), as compared with the spouse of a subject with normal glucose tolerance. Similarly, the risk of any degree of glucose intolerance in a spouse of a patient with type 2 diabetes was 2.32 (1.87–3.98), as compared with a spouse of a subject with normal glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS—Spouses of patients with type 2 diabetes have a significantly increased risk of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes, and they should be classified as high risk for diabetes. This finding has implications for screening programs, which should include spouses of subjects with diabetes. In many parts of the world, type 2 diabetes is increasing in prevalence, particularly among high-risk ethnic populations (1). While genetic influences on the risk of type 2 diabetes are likely to Continue reading >>

How Many People Are Affected/at Risk For Diabetes?

How Many People Are Affected/at Risk For Diabetes?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, diabetes is now estimated to affect 25.8 million Americans, or 8.3% of the population. Seven million of these people are undiagnosed.1 More specifically, the number of people affected or at risk are: Type 1: Approximately 215,000 people age 20 or younger have this form of diabetes and it’s estimated that close to 16,000 more are diagnosed every year.2 About 1 million people in the United States have type 1 diabetes. Type 2: Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in the United States, accounting for almost all of the 25.8 million total: 25.6 million American adults aged 20 and older have it.2 It is more common in certain ethnic groups: specifically African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Alaskan natives, Asian Americans, and Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.3 At 18.7%, African Americans are the largest segment of ethnicities affected, or 77% higher than whites.4 Older adults, especially ages 65 and up, are most often affected: 10.9 million—almost 27%—develop it.2 Gestational: Although current estimates suggest that gestational diabetes develops in approximately 5% of all U.S. pregnancies, or about 200,000 cases a year, the definition of gestational diabetes is currently in flux. Research findings from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) suggest that the definition of gestational diabetes might need to change, which would in turn affect the number of pregnancies affected by the condition.5 Also, 79 million adults ages 20 and older2 are already in the stage known as prediabetes and are at risk for type 2 diabetes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.). National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and predi Continue reading >>

New Cdc Report: More Than 100 Million Americans Have Diabetes Or Prediabetes

New Cdc Report: More Than 100 Million Americans Have Diabetes Or Prediabetes

More than 100 million U.S. adults are now living with diabetes or prediabetes, according to a new report released today by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The report finds that as of 2015, 30.3 million Americans – 9.4 percent of the U.S. population –have diabetes. Another 84.1 million have prediabetes, a condition that if not treated often leads to type 2 diabetes within five years. The report confirms that the rate of new diabetes diagnoses remains steady. However, the disease continues to represent a growing health problem: Diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2015. The report also includes county-level data for the first time, and shows that some areas of the country bear a heavier diabetes burden than others. “Although these findings reveal some progress in diabetes management and prevention, there are still too many Americans with diabetes and prediabetes,” said CDC Director Brenda Fitzgerald, M.D. “More than a third of U.S. adults have prediabetes, and the majority don’t know it. Now, more than ever, we must step up our efforts to reduce the burden of this serious disease.” Diabetes is a serious disease that can often be managed through physical activity, diet, and the appropriate use of insulin and other medications to control blood sugar levels. People with diabetes are at increased risk of serious health complications including premature death, vision loss, heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and amputation of toes, feet, or legs. The National Diabetes Statistics Report, released approximately every two years, provides information on diabetes prevalence and incidence, prediabetes, risk factors for complications, acute and long-term complications, mortality, and costs in the U.S. Key findings from Continue reading >>

Who Gets Diabetes? Top 10 Risk Factors

Who Gets Diabetes? Top 10 Risk Factors

Certain factors can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (which is most common in older people). (Diabetes is not contagious – you cannot "catch it" from another person. Main factors that contribute to diabetes Obesity Over 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight. The more overweight you are, with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or more, the greater your risk of diabetes. Exercise Levels Physical inactivity has been shown to contribute to diabetes. The less exercise you do, the greater your chances of developing diabetes. Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) A healthy person's blood sugar is usually between 70 and 110 mg/dL (milligrams of glucose in 100 millilitres of blood) or, in millimols, between 3.9 and 6.0 mmol/L. Impaired glucose tolerance is a level of blood glucose which is higher than normal, but not high enough to be in the range where doctors classify this as diabetes. Race African Americans, American Indians, Alaskan Natives, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders and Latinos are at higher risk for developing Type 2 diabetes. High Blood Pressure A blood pressure reading of 140/90 mm Hg or higher is considered high blood pressure and puts you at greater risk of developing diabetes. High Cholesterol A poor cholesterol profile increases risk of developing diabaetes. On average, here are the numbers which are considered high cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ("good" cholesterol) levels of 35 or lower and/or triglyceride levels of 250 or higher. Age Approximately 18.4% of Americans over age 65 have type 2 diabetes. Pre-diabetes Before people develop type 2 diabetes, they almost always have "pre-diabetes"—blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Family History Research has shown that pe Continue reading >>

"at Risk" Populations And Diabetes

Diabetes impacts nearly 24 million children and adults in the United States—though one-third don’t know they have it. Another estimated 57 million Americans have pre-diabetes, which means they are at risk of developing diabetes. Are You at Risk? Type 2 diabetes is found at alarmingly high rates in racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S., according to Enrique Caballero, MD, director of Joslin’s Latino Diabetes Initiative. Diabetes is much more common among African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders than among Caucasians. Risk for type 2 diabetes increases with age, particularly after age 45. Being overweight or obese is another major risk factor—particularly if the extra weight is around the waist. Therefore, people younger than 45 years of age can develop type 2 diabetes if they have a strong genetic predisposition and are overweight. A recent study conducted by Dr. Caballero and his team at the Latino Diabetes Initiative at Joslin identified that overweight Hispanic children also have profound abnormalities in their circulation (endothelial dysfunction), which puts them at risk not only for type 2 diabetes, but also for cardiovascular disease. Other risk factors include: family history of type 2 diabetes, an inactive lifestyle, high levels of fat in the blood, particularly high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, or having had gestational diabetes, or having pre-diabetes. Having these risk factors does not mean you’ll get diabetes, but it does mean you should be screened for it regularly. Multicultural Care Joslin has two clinics staffed by bilingual healthcare providers that offer services and resources for prevention and care: the Latino Clinic and the Asian American Clinic. Joslin also of Continue reading >>

29 Million Americans Have Diabetes — But A Quarter Of Them Don’t Realize It

29 Million Americans Have Diabetes — But A Quarter Of Them Don’t Realize It

(ELMER MARTINEZ/AFP/Getty Images) William Herman has spent decades researching diabetes, treating patients grappling with complications from it and trying to educate people on how to prevent it. During those same years, he also has seen the prevalence of the disease grow virtually unabated. “It really is an epidemic, both in the U.S. and globally,” said Herman, director of the University of Michigan’s Center for Diabetes Translational Research and a consultant to the World Health Organization. The statistics are staggering. More than 29 million Americans, or 9.3 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes — but a quarter of them don’t yet realize it, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. An additional 86 million Americans have pre-diabetes, which is marked by higher-than-normal blood-sugar levels and puts them at an elevated risk of developing diabetes. The WHO estimates that nearly 350 million people worldwide have the condition. Year after year, diabetes exacts a massive human and economic toll. Those who have it are at a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney failure and blindness, and of losing toes, feet and legs to amputation. The risk of death for adults with diabetes is 50 percent higher than it is for adults without the disease, according to the CDC. “The costs of diabetes are enormous, and they are growing,” Herman said. “People with diabetes account for a substantial portion of the total cost of health care in the United States.” Medical expenses tend to be twice as high, on average, for people with diabetes than for those without the disease. Collectively, it costs the U.S. health system an estimated $250 billion a year, including major amounts of lost work and productivity. That includes billions spent on inp Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

Lifestyle Risk Factors And New-onset Diabetes Mellitus In Older Adults

Lifestyle Risk Factors And New-onset Diabetes Mellitus In Older Adults

Go to: Abstract The combined impact of lifestyle factors on incidence of diabetes mellitus later in life is not well established. The objective of this study was to determine how lifestyle factors, assessed in combination, relate to new-onset diabetes in a broad and relatively unselected population of older adults. Methods We prospectively examined associations of lifestyle factors, measured using repeated assessments later in life, with incident diabetes mellitus during a 10-year period (1989–1998) among 4883 men and women 65 years or older (mean [SD] age at baseline, 73[6] years) enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Low-risk lifestyle groups were defined by physical activity level (leisure-time activity and walking pace) above the median; dietary score (higher fiber intake and polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio, lower trans-fat intake and lower mean glycemic index) in the top 2 quintiles; never smoked or former smoker more than 20 years ago or for fewer than 5 pack-years; alcohol use (predominantly light or moderate); body mass index less than 25 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); and waist circumference of 88 cm for women or 92 cm for men. The main outcome measure was incident diabetes defined annually by new use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic medications. We also evaluated fasting and 2-hour postchallenge glucose levels. Results During 34 539 person-years, 337 new cases of drug-treated diabetes mellitus occurred (9.8 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, race, educational level, and annual income, each lifestyle factor was independently associated with incident diabetes. Overall, the rate of incident diabetes was 35% lower (relative risk, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.59–0.71) for each 1 addi Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes In The Elderly: Challenges In A Unique Patient Population

Type 2 Diabetes In The Elderly: Challenges In A Unique Patient Population

*Corresponding author: David Bradley, Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, USA, Tel: (614) 685-3333, E-mail: [email protected] J Geriatr Med Gerontol, JGMG-2-014, (Volume 2, Issue 2), Review Article; ISSN: 2469-5858 Citation: Bradley D, Hsueh W (2016) Type 2 Diabetes in the Elderly: Challenges in a Unique Patient Population. J Geriatr Med Gerontol 2:014. 10.23937/2469-5858/1510014 Copyright: © 2016 Bradley D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Continue reading >>

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