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What Percentage Of Diabetes Patients Have Type 2? A. 5 - 10% B. 50 - 55% C. 75 - 80% D. 90 - 95%

Aspirin For Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Events In People With Diabetes

Aspirin For Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Events In People With Diabetes

Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in People With Diabetes A position statement of the American Diabetes Association, a scientific statement of the American Heart Association, and an expert consensus document of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Michael Pignone , MD, MPH, FACP,1,* Mark J. Alberts , MD,2 John A. Colwell , MD, PHD, MACP,3 Mary Cushman , MD, MSC,4 Silvio E. Inzucchi , MD,5 Debabrata Mukherjee , MD, MS, FACC,6 Robert S. Rosenson , MD, FACC, FAHA, FACP,7 Craig D. Williams , PHARMD, FNLA,8 Peter W. Wilson , MD,9 and M. Sue Kirkman , MD10 6Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Texas Tech University, Paul Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, Texas; 1Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; 2Department of Neurology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois; 3Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Medical Genetics (Emeritus), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina; 4Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont; 5Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; 6Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Texas Tech University, Paul Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, Texas; 7Mount Sinai Heart, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York; 8College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University and Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon; 9Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; 10American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, Virginia. Corresponding author: M. Sue Kirkman, [email protected] . Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer Copyright 2010 by the American Continue reading >>

Usablestats: View Answered Stats Questions

Usablestats: View Answered Stats Questions

Which is the best approximation of the value of 730 3 ?. . . You are conducting a study on what socio-demographic factors could be behind the behavioral problems of students. You are looking at how many times a. . . how can i find the mean of the remaining observation if the mean of 30 observation is 5 and one of the value is 34?. . . The Boss is a small Italian restaurant with 6 waiters and waitresses. The average service time at the restaurant for a table (of any size) in 80 minut. . . A college is considering making the purchase of a laptop computer a requirement for some of its programs. In the past, only 20% of students. . . If a random sample is to be drawn from a population consisting of 5000 sampling units with a variance of 20% and a desired standard error of 1.6%. Wha. . . 50 machine 5000kg cotton 8 hours 25 machine x cotton 12 hours. . . "Holding all other elements equal, an increase in sample size will result in a wider confidence interval." I want to understand why this is true, I th. . . A manufacturer of small appliances purchases coffeepot handles from an outside vendor. If a handle is cracked, it is considered defective and can't be. . . A random sample will be selected from the adult residents of a particular city, the sample proportion will be used to estimate p, the proportion of al. . . IQ test was administered to 5 person before and after they are trained. The result are givenbelow: 10Candidates: I II III IV VIQ before training. . . IQ test was administered to 5 person before and after they are trained. The result are givenbelow: 10Candidates: I II III IV VIQ before training. . . The heights of 20- to 29-year-old females are known to have a population standard deviation 1) = 2.7 inches. A simple random sample . . . IQ test was administered to 5 pe Continue reading >>

Diabetes | Symptom To Diagnosis: An Evidence-based Guide, 3e | Accessmedicine | Mcgraw-hill Medical

Diabetes | Symptom To Diagnosis: An Evidence-based Guide, 3e | Accessmedicine | Mcgraw-hill Medical

The differential diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) is actually a classification of the different causes of diabetes: Of the persons with DM in Canada, the United States, and Europe, 510% have type 1. Caused by cellular-mediated autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells in genetically susceptible individuals, triggered by an undefined environmental agent Some combination of antibodies against islet cells, insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), or tyrosine phosphatases IA-2 and IA-2beta are found in 8590% of patients. Risk is 0.4% in patients without family history, 56% in siblings and children, and 30% in monozygotic twins. Patients are also prone to autoimmune thyroid disease, Addison disease, vitiligo, celiac sprue, autoimmune hepatitis, myasthenia gravis, and pernicious anemia. Occasionally occurs without a defined HLA association or autoimmunity in patients of African or Asian ancestry Patients are at high risk for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Type 1 DM generally occurs in children, although approximately 7.510% of adults assumed to have type 2 DM actually have type 1, as defined by the presence of circulating antibodies. Type 2 DM is becoming more prevalent in teenagers and young adults, presumably related to the increased prevalence of obesity. In most patients, the distinction between type 1 and type 2 DM is clear. Thus, the primary tasks of the clinician are to determine who should be tested for diabetes, who has diabetes, which complications to monitor, and how to treat the patient. Mrs. D has worried about having diabetes since her father died of complications from the disease. Over the last couple of weeks, she has been urinating more often and notes larger volumes than usual. She is aware that excess urination can be a symptom of diabetes, Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Hyperglycaemia In Type 2 Diabetic Patients In A Primary Care Population Database In A Mediterranean Area (catalonia, Spain)

Treatment Of Hyperglycaemia In Type 2 Diabetic Patients In A Primary Care Population Database In A Mediterranean Area (catalonia, Spain)

Received date January 16, 2014; Accepted date February 10, 2014; Published date February 15, 2014 Citation: Mata-Cases M, Mauricio D, Vinagre I, Morros R, Hermosilla E, et al. (2014) Treatment of Hyperglycaemia in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in a Primary Care Population Database in a Mediterranean Area (Catalonia, Spain). J Diabetes Metab 5: 338. doi: 10.4172/2155-6156.1000338 Copyright: 2014 Mata-Cases M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Aim: To analyse glycaemic control and antihyperglycaemic treatment in patients with varying duration of type 2 diabetes in a population-based database. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 286,791 patients with type 2 diabetes registered in the primary care centres of the Catalan Health Institute (Catalonia, Spain) in 2009. We analysed the effects of types of treatment, diabetes duration and renal function on glycaemic control, adjusting for other clinical variables. Results: Twenty-four percent of patients were treated with lifestyle changes only, 35.5% with oral glucoselowering monotherapy , 21% with oral combinations and 17.7% with insulin (alone or in combination). Insulin was more frequently used in patients with longer duration of diabetes or severe renal impairment . Fifty-six percent of patients achieved the optimal target of HbA1c 7% ( 53 mmol/mol), a result more frequently observed in patients older than 65, early in the course of the disease and at the lower steps of treatment (p<0.001). Impaired renal function was present in 18.4% of patients. A significant number of patients with severe renal impairment were taking met Continue reading >>

Solutions To Review Problems / Swt

Solutions To Review Problems / Swt

Print: These pages changeautomatically for your screen or printer.Underlined text, printedURLs, and the table of contents become live links on screen;and you can use your browsers commands to change the size ofthe text or search for key words.If you print, I suggest black-and-white,two-sided printing. please click to donate! Because this textbook helps you, Write your answer to each question. Theres no work tobe shown. Dont bother with a complete sentence if you cananswer with a word, number, or phrase. 1Disjoint events cannot be independent.Why? Disjoint events, by definition, cant happen on the same trial.That means if A happens, P(B)=0. But if A and B areindependent, whether A happens has no effect on the probability of B.With disjoint events, whether A happens does affect theprobability of B. Therefore disjoint events cant beindependent. (b) For numeric data with sample size under 30, youcheck for outliers by making a box-whisker plotand check for normality by making a normal probabilityplot. 3qualitative=attribute, non-numeric, categorical. Examples:political party affiliation, gender. quantitative=numeric. Examples: height,number of children. Common mistake: Binomial is a subtype of qualitative data so its notreally a synonym. Discrete and continuous are subtypes of numericdata. 4equal to 1/6. The die has no memory: each trial isindependent of all the others. The Gamblers Fallacy is believing that thedie is somehow due for a 6. The Law of Large Numbers saysthat in the long run the proportion of 6s will tendtoward 1/6, but it doesnt tell us anything at all about anyparticular roll. (b) Case 5, Difference between Two Pop. Proportions; or2-PropZTest Common mistake:You must specify which is population 1 and which is population2. Common mistake:The data type is binomi Continue reading >>

Nhg-standaard Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Nhg-standaard Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

NHG-Standaard Diabetes mellitus type 2((derde herziening)) Rutten GEHM, De Grauw WJC, Nijpels G, Houweling ST, Van de Laar FA, Bilo HJ, Holleman F, Burgers JS, Wiersma Tj, Janssen PGH.. Huisarts Wet 2013;56(10):512-525. De standaard en de wetenschappelijke verantwoording zijn geactualiseerd ten opzichte van de vorige versie (Huisarts Wet 2006;49(3):137-52). De richtlijnen zijn gewijzigd. Bij gebruik van een sulfonylureumderivaat gaat de voorkeur uit naar gliclazide. De streefwaarden van het HbA1c zijn aangepast. De intensiteit van de diabetesbehandeling, leeftijd van de patint en de diabetesduur zijn factoren die van invloed zijn op de gewenste HbA1c-streefwaarde. Bij ouderen is de HbA1c-streefwaarde in het algemeen hoger. Er wordt meer aandacht gevraagd voor comorbiditeit. Bij vrouwen met zwangerschapsdiabetes wordt gedurende de daaropvolgende vijf jaar jaarlijks de nuchtere glucosewaarde bepaald. Doel van de behandeling is voorkmen en behandelen van klachten en complicaties zoals (toename van) hart- en vaatziekten, chronische nierschade, retino- en neuropathie. Geef elke patint regelmatig educatie en leefstijladviezen (niet roken, goede voeding, gewichtsbeheersing, voldoende bewegen). Streef naar een goede glykemische instelling en probeer hypoglykemien te voorkomen. Metformine, sulfonylureumderivaten en insuline zijn de belangrijkste middelen bij de behandeling van type-2-diabetes. Uitsluitend indien met deze middelen geen bevredigende glykemische regulatie wordt bereikt of in geval van contra-indicaties of bijwerkingen, kan een ander medicament worden voorgeschreven. Voor diabetespatinten > 70 jaar zijn de HbA1c-streefwaarden gewijzigd. Start orale glucoseverlagende behandeling met metformine en continueer dit middel bij latere uitbreiding van de behandeling (inclu Continue reading >>

Short And Long Term Mortality Rates After A Lower Limb Amputation

Short And Long Term Mortality Rates After A Lower Limb Amputation

To determine mortality rates after a first lower limb amputation and explore the rates for different subpopulations. Retrospective cohort study of all people who underwent a first amputation at or proximal to transtibial level, in an area of 1.7 million people. Analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves and Log Rank tests for univariate associations of psycho-social and health variables. Logistic regression for odds of death at 30-days, 1-year and 5-years. 299 people were included. Median time to death was 20.3 months (95%CI: 13.1; 27.5). 30-day mortality = 22%; odds of death 2.3 times higher in people with history of cerebrovascular disease (95%CI: 1.2; 4.7, P = 0.016). 1 year mortality = 44%; odds of death 3.5 times higher for people with renal disease (95%CI: 1.8; 7.0, P < 0.001). 5-years mortality = 77%; odds of death 5.4 times higher for people with renal disease (95%CI: 1.8; 16.0,P = 0.003). Variation in mortality rates was most apparent in different age groups; people 75–84 years having better short term outcomes than those younger and older. Mortality rates demonstrated the frailty of this population, with almost one quarter of people dying within 30-days, and almost half at 1 year. People with cerebrovascular had higher odds of death at 30 days, and those with renal disease and 1 and 5 years, respectively. Figure 1. Kaplan Meier survival estimates after a first lower limb amputation at or proximal to transtibial level, split for status of diabetes. Based on information presented in Table 2, diabetes n = 143 total, 120 died; non-diabetes n = 140 total 111 died. Median (se) survival for people with diabetes = 25.0 (5.8) months, non-diabetes = 20.7 (5.0), p = 0.969. Continue reading >>

Early Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Clinical Impact And Management

Early Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Clinical Impact And Management

Early onset type 2 diabetes: risk factors, clinical impact and management Emma Wilmot, Department of Diabetes & Endocrinology, Royal Derby Hospital, Uttoxeter Road, Derby, UK; This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly prevalent with a significant impact on the individual, healthcare service delivery and planning. The individuals are likely to be obese, lead a sedentary lifestyle, have a strong family history of T2DM, be of black and minority ethnic (BME) origin and come from a less affluent socioeconomic group. They have a heightened risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular complications, often at an earlier stage and with greater frequency than seen in type 1 diabetes. As such, early and aggressive risk factor management is warranted. Early onset T2DM is complex and impacts on service delivery with a need for multidisciplinary care of complications and comorbidities, in addition to adequate educational and psychological support. This review on the impact of early onset T2DM provides the latest insights into this emerging epidemic. Keywords: management, risk factors, type 2 diabetes In the past three decades there has been a progressive increase in the prevalence of early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [ Gonzlez et al. 2009 ; Mokdad et al. 2000 ]. T2DM was once considered a disease of older adults but the age of diagnosis is falling and it is now increasingly diagnosed in adolescents and young adults to the extent that T2DM will soon become the predominant form of diabetes in some ethnic groups [ Alberti et al. 2004 ; Braun et al. 1996 ; Dabelea et al. 2009 ; Drake et al. 2002 ; Kitagawa et al. 1998 ; Koopman et al. 2005 ; Sharp et al. 2008 ]. An inverse relationship exists between Continue reading >>

Jardiance (empagliflozin Tablets): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Jardiance (empagliflozin Tablets): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

JARDIANCE tablets contain empagliflozin, an orally-active inhibitor of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2). The chemical name of empagliflozin is D-Glucitol,1,5-anhydro-1-C-[4-chloro-3-[[4-[[(3S)-tetrahydro-3furanyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]phenyl]-, (1S). Its molecular formula is C23H27ClO7 and the molecular weight is 450.91. The structural formula is: Empagliflozin is a white to yellowish, non-hygroscopic powder. It is very slightly soluble in water, sparingly soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in ethanol and acetonitrile; soluble in 50% acetonitrile/water; and practically insoluble in toluene. Each film-coated tablet of JARDIANCE contains 10 mg or 25 mg of empagliflozin (free base) and the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, colloidal silicon dioxide and magnesium stearate. In addition, the film coating contains the following inactive ingredients: hypromellose, titanium dioxide, talc, polyethylene glycol, and yellow ferric oxide. as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease . JARDIANCE is not recommended for patients with type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis . The recommended dose of JARDIANCE is 10 mg once daily in the morning, taken with or without food. In patients tolerating JARDIANCE, the dose may be increased to 25 mg [see Clinical Studies ]. In patients with volume depletion, correcting this condition prior to initiation of JARDIANCE is recommended[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS , Use In Specific Populations and PATIENT INFORMATION ]. Assessment of renal f Continue reading >>

Statistics And Probability Archive: Questions From December 08, 2013

Statistics And Probability Archive: Questions From December 08, 2013

11.8. A study was conducted on the relationship between thespeed of different cars and their gasoline mileage. The correlationcoefficient was found to be 0.35. Later, it was discovered thatthere wa 11.9. Assume that data for a goodness of fit test has beenstructured into effective cells for a chisquare calculation. Whichof the following distributions would have the fewest degrees offreedom?a 11.12. A designed experiment has been conducted at three levels(A, B, and C) yielding the following "coded" data:A B C6 5 33 9 45 1 22As a major step in the ana 11.12. A designed experiment has been conducted at three levels(A, B, and C) yielding the following "coded" data:A B C6 5 33 9 45 1 22As a major step in the ana 11.14. The results of a designed experiment are to be analyzedusing a chi-square test. There are five treatments? Under considers"on and each treatment fells under two categories (success orfailure Suppose you want to estimate the proportion of cars that aresport utility vehicles (SUVs) being driven in Kansas City,Missouri, at rush hour by standing on the corner of I-70 and I-470and counting 11.15. If the 95% confidence limits for mean ? turn out to be6.5 and 8.5:a. The probability is 0.95 that X-bar fall between 6.5 and8.5b. The probability is 0.95 that X fall between 6.5 and 8.5c. 11.15. If the 95% confidence limits for mean ? turn out to be6.5 and 8.5:a. The probability is 0.95 that X-bar fallbetween 6.5 and 8.5b. The probability is 0.95 that X fallbetween 6.5 and 8 11.18. A 2-level 5-factor experiment is being conducted tooptimize the reliability of an electronic control module. A halfreplicate of the standard full-factorial experiment is proposed.The number 11.20. A hyper-Greco-Latin (4 x 4) design is constructed asfollows: Carburetor TypeCar I II III IV1 A?M? Continue reading >>

Diabetic Kidney Disease: World Wide Difference Of Prevalence And Risk Factors

Diabetic Kidney Disease: World Wide Difference Of Prevalence And Risk Factors

Diabetic kidney disease: world wide difference of prevalence and risk factors 1Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt 2Department of Nephrology, Hamed Al-Essa Organ Transplant Center, Kuwait 3Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt 2Department of Nephrology, Hamed Al-Essa Organ Transplant Center, Kuwait 1Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt 2Department of Nephrology, Hamed Al-Essa Organ Transplant Center, Kuwait 3Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Received 2015 Sep 11; Accepted 2015 Oct 4. Published by Society of Diabetic Nephropathy Prevention. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Diabetic kidney disease which is defined by elevated urine albumin excretion or reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or both is a serious complication that occurs in 20% to 40% of all diabetics. In this review we try to highlight the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy which is not uncommon complication of diabetes all over the world. The prevalence of diabetes worldwide has extended epidemic magnitudes and is expected to affect more than 350 million people by the year 2035. There is marked racial/ethnic besides international difference in the epidemiology of diabetic kidney disease which could be explained by the differences in economic viability and governmental infrastructures. Approximately one-third of diabetic patients showed microalbuminuria after 15 years of disease duration and less than half develop real nephropathy. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is more fr Continue reading >>

Incidence, Prevalence And Coronary Heart Disease Risk Level In Known Type 2 Diabetes: A Sentinel Practice Network Study In The Basque Country, Spain

Incidence, Prevalence And Coronary Heart Disease Risk Level In Known Type 2 Diabetes: A Sentinel Practice Network Study In The Basque Country, Spain

, Volume 46, Issue7 , pp 899909 | Cite as Incidence, prevalence and coronary heart disease risk level in known Type 2 diabetes: a sentinel practice network study in the Basque Country, Spain The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, prevalence and coronary heart disease risk in patients with known Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in a Basque Country sentinel practice network study. During the year 2000 we did a survey among sentinel practitioners who registered information about previously and newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetic patients older than 24 years of age. We studied 65,651 people attending a primary care service in the Basque Country Health Service-Osakidetza. We collected information about diabetic complications and cardiovascular risk factors and measured the coronary heart disease risk in these patients. In the year 2000, the standardized cumulative incidence and prevalence of known Type 2 diabetes were 5.0 per 1000 (CI 95%: 4.95.1) and 4.6% (CI 95%: 4.54.7) respectively. Macroangiopathy was the most frequent complication both in the newly diagnosed (21.6%) and previously known Type 2 diabetic patients (33%). Total cholesterol 5.17mmol/l and LDL cholesterol 2.58mmol/l were found in 75% and 90% of newly diagnosed and 65% and 85% of previously diagnosed Type 2 diabetic patients respectively. Of the Type 2 diabetic patients 42% were obese and 80% had high blood pressure. More than 55% of the men compared with 44% of the women with Type 2 diabetes had high or very high risk of coronary heart disease (p<0.05). We report new epidemiological data on known Type 2 diabetes in the Basque Country. These patients have a high frequency of cardiovascular risk factors causing a high coronary heart disease risk. Type 2 diabetesincidenceprevalenceco Continue reading >>

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