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What Is Type1 And Type2 Diabetes?

What’s The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What’s The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

The disorder diabetes mellitus, often just referred to as diabetes, is a disorder within the metabolism of the body. Remember that the metabolism of the body is the process in which the body digests the food eaten, and how the body uses this food for energy. The majority of the food consumed by people is broken down into sugar cells called glucose. Glucose is one of the body”s blood sugars, and is the main energy source for the cells of the body. The entry of glucose into blood cells is the primary way the energy from the food we eat moves from our stomach into our cells. However, this process in controlled by the amount of insulin present. Insulin is produced in the Pancreas of the body and instructs the cells of the body on when to take in glucose. Insulin is released automatically from the brain when a person eats, and is the only hormone of the body to instruct the body to store glucose in the cells. Thus, the amount of sugar in the blood is directly controlled by the presence of insulin. If a person suffers from diabetes, they will have an abnormal amount of sugar in the blood ” “ this is called hyperglycemia. There are two kinds of diabetes a person can suffer from, each with a unique cause for having too much sugar in the blood. A person suffers from Type 1 Diabetes when the body produces no insulin at all, and suffers from Type 2 Diabetes when the cells are not responding to the signals of insulin properly. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes occurs as a result of the body having destroyed the beta cells of the pancreas. These beta cells are the cells that produce insulin, and without them the body has no means of providing insulin to itself. This is why diabetes is known as an autoimmune disease, because it has occurred after the body has destroyed a benefici Continue reading >>

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

What Do They Have in Common? Abstract Type 1 and type 2 diabetes frequently co-occur in the same families, suggesting common genetic susceptibility. Such mixed family history is associated with an intermediate phenotype of diabetes: insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications in type 1 diabetic patients and lower BMI and less cardiovascular complications as well as lower C-peptide concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients. GAD antibody positivity is more common in type 2 diabetic patients from mixed families than from common type 2 diabetes families. The mixed family history is associated with more type 1–like genetic (HLA and insulin gene) and phenotypic characteristics in type 2 diabetic patients, especially in the GAD antibody–positive subgroup. Leaving out the extreme ends of diabetes phenotypes, young children progressing rapidly to total insulin deficiency and strongly insulin-resistant subjects mostly with non-Europid ethnic origin, a large proportion of diabetic patients may have both type 1 and type 2 processes contributing to their diabetic phenotype. Diabetes in most cases is caused by a loss of the physical or functional β-cell mass, mostly due to an autoimmune process (type 1 etiological process) and/or increased need for insulin due to insulin resistance (type 2 process) (1). Both of these major diabetes types are believed to include different stages of disease, ranging from non–insulin-requiring to insulin-requiring for control or survival. According to this classification adopted by the World Health Organization, it is quite possible that both processes would operate in a single patient and contribute to the phenotype of the patient. Also, factors other than autoimmunity can lead to a defective insulin response to glucose. Both major diab Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. Type 2 diabetes If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chan Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes affects over 29 million people in the United States, and 1 in 4 of those affected are unaware that they have diabetes.[1] Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in younger people and occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the body cannot use the insulin it produces. This disease, frequently related to obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and genetics, is most often diagnosed in adults, but incidence rates are increasing among teens in America.[2][3] Comparison chart Type 1 Diabetes versus Type 2 Diabetes comparison chart Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Definition Beta cells in pancreas are being attacked by body's own cells and therefore can't produce insulin to take sugar out of the blood stream. Insulin is not produced. Diet related insulin release is so large and frequent that receptor cells have become less sensitive to the insulin. This insulin resistance results in less sugar being removed from the blood. Diagnosis Genetic, environmental and auto-immune factors, idiopathic Genetic, obesity (central adipose), physical inactivity, high/low birth weight, GDM, poor placental growth, metabolic syndrome Warning Signs Increased thirst & urination, constant hunger, weight loss, blurred vision and extreme tiredness, glycouria Feeling tired or ill, frequent urination (especially at night), unusual thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, frequent infections and slow wound healing, asymptomatic Commonly Afflicted Groups Children/teens Adults, elderly, certain ethnic groups Prone ethnic groups All more common in African American, Latino/Hispanic, Native American, Asian or Pacific Islander Bodily Effects Beleived to be triggered autoimmune destruction of the beta cells; autoimmune attack may occur following a viral infection such as mumps, rubell Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2

Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2

National Diabetes Month is coming to a close. Unfortunately, diabetes isn’t going away any time soon. According to the American Diabetes Association, 1.4 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes each year. And 86 million people in the United States with prediabetes are headed towards developing Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes isn’t unique to the United States: It’s a global issue, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Many people describe diabetes as being a pandemic. When people are diagnosed with diabetes, they often have many questions, especially about the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. There are, in fact, multiple different forms of diabetes (too many to get into in this week’s posting!), but the more common forms are Type 1 and Type 2. Let’s take a look at these this week and hopefully clear up any confusion or questions you may have. Type 1 diabetes Name: Type 1 diabetes was formerly known as “juvenile diabetes” and “insulin-dependent diabetes.” These terms are inaccurate and obsolete. We know that it’s not just “juveniles” who get Type 1 diabetes — adults get Type 1, too, and many people who have Type 2 diabetes must take insulin. So, Type 1 diabetes is the correct term. Definition: Type 1 diabetes (also known as Type 1 diabetes mellutis, or T1DM) is an autoimmune condition. This means that the body’s immune system turns on itself; in this case, it attacks the beta cells of the pancreas. These are the cells that produce insulin. As a result, the pancreas produces very little, if any, insulin. Causes: Scientists don’t exactly know what causes Type 1 diabetes. However, it’s likely that genetics and environmental factors, such as certain types of viruses, play a role. Prevalence: Type 1 diabetes accounts Continue reading >>

What Type Of Diabetes Do I Have?

What Type Of Diabetes Do I Have?

When you were diagnosed, you were probably told you had either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Clear-cut and tidy. Since diabetes typically occurs in two types, you have to fit into one of them. Many people fit clearly into one of these categories, but others do not. And those who clearly fit one type when diagnosed may find these clear lines begin to smudge over time. Are there really only two types? Are you really the type you were told you were? Could you have more than one type of diabetes? Is your original diagnosis still correct after all these years? A Short History Of Types Described and treated since ancient times, diabetes has certain characteristics that have long been recognized. Before the discovery of insulin, people found to have sugar in their urine under the age of 20 usually died in their youth, while those diagnosed when over the age of 40 could live for many years with this condition. Beginning in the mid 1920s, those who got diabetes when young (juvenile onset) were put on insulin, and those who got it when older (adult onset) often were not. However, the mechanisms that led to this difference in treatment were unknown. The only marker that differentiated the two types at that time was the presence in the urine of moderate or large levels of ketones when blood sugars were high. When significant ketones were present because the person could no longer make Tenough insulin, injected insulin was needed to control the glucose and they were called insulin-dependent. Differences In The Three Major Types Of Diabetes Type 1 Type 1.5/LADA Type 2 Avg. age at start 12 35 60 Typical age at start 3-40* 20-70* 35-80* % of all diabetes 10% (25%**) 15% 75% Insulin problem absence deficiency resistance Antibodies ICA, IA2, GAD65, IAA mostly GAD65 none Early treatment insu Continue reading >>

5 Ways Type 1 Diabetes Is Different From Type 2

5 Ways Type 1 Diabetes Is Different From Type 2

When people hear that you have diabetes, they start to make assumptions that aren't always accurate. A lot of the confusion stems from the fact that there are two main types, yet many people don't understand how they're different. (Want to pick up some healthier habits? Sign up to get daily healthy living tips delivered straight to your inbox!) As someone with type 1 diabetes—I was diagnosed with it nearly 40 years ago—I'm all too familiar with the disease. I lived with it as a child, teen, and adult, and when I decided to have kids I had to figure out how to manage the condition while being pregnant. (I even wrote a book about it, Balancing Pregnancy With Pre-Existing Diabetes: Healthy Mom, Healthy Baby.) Having type 1 diabetes means I'm in the minority: Of the approximately 29 million Americans who have diabetes, only 1.25 million have type 1. Most have type 2, which is a totally different form. "Comparing type 1 to type 2 is like comparing apples to tractors," says Gary Scheiner, a Pennsylvania-based certified diabetes educator and author of Think Like a Pancreas. "The only thing they really have in common is that both involve an inability to control blood sugar levels." Here are 5 important distinctions. 1. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease; type 2 isn't. Diabetes happens when your body has trouble with insulin, a hormone that helps convert sugar from the food you eat into energy. When there isn’t enough insulin in your body, sugar builds up in the bloodstream and can make you sick. People with type 1 and type 2 both face this problem, but how they arrived there is quite different. If you have type 1, you don't make any insulin at all. That's because type 1 is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-making cells in your Continue reading >>

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases that affect the way your body regulates blood sugar, or glucose. Glucose is the fuel that feeds your body’s cells, but to enter your cells it needs a key. Insulin is that key. People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin. You can think of it as not having a key. People with type 2 diabetes don’t respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often don’t make enough insulin. You can think of this as having a broken key. Both types of diabetes can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels. That increases the risk of diabetes complications. Both types of diabetes, if not controlled, share many similar symptoms, including: frequent urination feeling very thirsty and drinking a lot feeling very hungry feeling very fatigued blurry vision cuts or sores that don’t heal properly People with type 1 diabetes may also experience irritability and mood changes, and unintentionally lose weight. People with type 2 diabetes may also have numbness and tingling in their hands or feet. Although many of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar, they present in very different ways. Many people with type 2 diabetes won’t have symptoms for many years. Then often the symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop slowly over the course of time. Some people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all and don’t discover their condition until complications develop. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop fast, typically over the course of several weeks. Type 1 diabetes, which was once known as juvenile diabetes, usually develops in childhood or adolescence. But it’s possible to get type 1 diabetes later in life. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes may have simi Continue reading >>

About Diabetes

About Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that affects how your body turns food into energy. Most of the food you eat is broken down into sugar (also called glucose) and released into your bloodstream. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin, which acts like a key to let the blood sugar into your body’s cells for use as energy. If you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use the insulin it makes as well as it should. When there isn’t enough insulin or cells stop responding to insulin, too much blood sugar stays in your bloodstream, which over time can cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease. There isn’t a cure yet for diabetes, but healthy lifestyle habits, taking medicine as needed, getting diabetes self-management education, and keeping appointments with your health care team can greatly reduce its impact on your life. 30.3 million US adults have diabetes, and 1 in 4 of them don’t know they have it. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the US. Diabetes is the No. 1 cause of kidney failure, lower-limb amputations, and adult-onset blindness. In the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than tripled as the American population has aged and become more overweight or obese. Types of Diabetes There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (diabetes while pregnant). Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake) that stops your body from making insulin. About 5% of the people who have diabetes have type 1. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often develop quickly. It’s usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults. If you have type 1 diabetes, you’ll need t Continue reading >>

What Is The Best Way To Distinguish Type 1 And 2 Diabetes?

What Is The Best Way To Distinguish Type 1 And 2 Diabetes?

Onset of diabetes in childhood with ketoacidosis and insulin dependency has traditionally been sufficient to diagnose type 1 diabetes, while onset in older, obese patients with primary insulin resistance suggested type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes may be present in the same patient, making differentiation difficult. No diagnostic studies in the literature were identified that definitively demonstrate how to separate type 1 from type 2 diabetes. A patient’s age may suggest, but does not reliably distinguish, diabetes types. A study of 569 new-onset type 1 and type 2 diabetic children and adolescents showed that older age was only weakly associated with type 2 diagnosis (odds ratio [OR]= 1.4 for each 1-year increment in age; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–1.6).2 In fact, newly diagnosed 12-year-old children have an equal incidence of type 1 as type 2 diabetes. Likewise, adults with type 2 phenotype (no initial insulin requirement) can present with positive autoantibodies typically found in younger type 1 patients. Older patients who fit this profile have been classified as type 1.5 diabetes or latent autoimmune disease in adults (LADA).3 A history of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) also does not reliably distinguish between types 1 and 2. A retrospective chart review gathered data on adults over 18 years of age who were admitted for DKA in a urban US hospital. Many patients with DKA were subsequently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Rates of type 2 diabetes in patients with DKA varied by race: 47% of Hispanics, 44% of African Americans, and 17% of Caucasians had type 2 diabetes.4 The overlapping presence of autoantibodies in both types of diabetes limits their use (TABLE). Autoantibodies do predict an earlier need for insulin. One pr Continue reading >>

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the problem of high levels of blood sugar. The inability to control blood sugar causes the symptoms and the complications of both types of diabetes. But type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are two different diseases in many ways. According to the latest (2014) estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people, or 9.3 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes. Type 1 diabetes affects just 5 percent of those adults, with type 2 diabetes affecting up to 95 percent. Here’s what else you need to know to be health-savvy in the age of the diabetes epidemic. What Causes Diabetes? "Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease — the body's immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin," a hormone, says Andjela Drincic, MD, associate professor of internal medicine in the division of diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. The exact cause is not known, but it's probably a combination of the genes a person is born with and something in the environment that triggers the genes to become active. "The cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial," says Dr. Drincic. "People inherit genes that make them susceptible to type 2, but lifestyle factors, like obesity and inactivity, are also important. In type 2 diabetes, at least in the early stages, there is enough insulin, but the body becomes resistant to it." Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include a family history of the disease, a poor diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. African-Americans, Latin Americans, and certain Native American groups have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasian Americans. Juvenile or Adult-Onset: When Does Diabetes Start? Usually, type 1 diabetes in dia Continue reading >>

Mortality And Cardiovascular Disease In Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Mortality And Cardiovascular Disease In Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Long-term trends in excess risk of death and cardiovascular outcomes have not been extensively studied in persons with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. We included patients registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Register from 1998 through 2012 and followed them through 2014. Trends in deaths and cardiovascular events were estimated with Cox regression and standardized incidence rates. For each patient, controls who were matched for age, sex, and county were randomly selected from the general population. Among patients with type 1 diabetes, absolute changes during the study period in the incidence rates of sentinel outcomes per 10,000 person-years were as follows: death from any cause, −31.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], −56.1 to −6.7); death from cardiovascular disease, −26.0 (95% CI, −42.6 to −9.4); death from coronary heart disease, −21.7 (95% CI, −37.1 to −6.4); and hospitalization for cardiovascular disease, −45.7 (95% CI, −71.4 to −20.1). Absolute changes per 10,000 person-years among patients with type 2 diabetes were as follows: death from any cause, −69.6 (95% CI, −95.9 to −43.2); death from cardiovascular disease, −110.0 (95% CI, −128.9 to −91.1); death from coronary heart disease, −91.9 (95% CI, −108.9 to −75.0); and hospitalization for cardiovascular disease, −203.6 (95% CI, −230.9 to −176.3). Patients with type 1 diabetes had roughly 40% greater reduction in cardiovascular outcomes than controls, and patients with type 2 diabetes had roughly 20% greater reduction than controls. Reductions in fatal outcomes were similar in patients with type 1 diabetes and controls, whereas patients with type 2 diabetes had smaller reductions in fatal outcomes than controls. In Sweden from 1998 through 2014, mortality a Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: Type 1 Vs. Type 2

Diabetes In Dogs: Type 1 Vs. Type 2

By Hanie Elfenbein, DVM Diabetes in dogs is not a death sentence. It takes dedication, but your dog can still live a long, happy life. Diabetes means that the body is unable to use glucose (sugar) appropriately. This leads to high levels of sugar in the blood, which can cause many health problems. Just like humans, our pets can get both Type I and Type II diabetes. Type I diabetes is also known as insulin-deficiency. It is due to the body's inability to produce insulin. Insulin is normally produced in the pancreas and is important in helping cells use glucose (sugar), the basic energy source. Our digestive systems are designed to turn food into glucose for cells to use. Without insulin, glucose cannot get into cells. People and animals with Type I diabetes need to be given insulin so that their body can use glucose. Type II diabetes is known as insulin resistant diabetes. It happens when the pancreas makes insulin but the body's cells do not respond to the insulin. Sometimes Type II diabetes can be reversed through weight loss and improvements in diet and exercise. In our companions, dogs are more likely to develop Type I diabetes while cats are more likely to develop Type II diabetes. Some diseases and medications can also cause Type II diabetes in dogs. Fortunately for the animals with Type II diabetes, some will recover through diet and exercise. Unfortunately, once your pet develops Type I diabetes, it is not reversible. Causes of Canine Diabetes In dogs, Type I diabetes is caused by destruction of insulin producing cells in the pancreas. These cells die as a result of inflammation of the pancreas, known as pancreatitis. Some dog breeds are predisposed to chronic pancreatitis and diabetes, including Keeshonds and Samoyeds. Like humans and cats, obese dogs are at ris Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

There are three major types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes cause blood glucose levels to be higher than normal, but they do this in different ways Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but is most commonly diagnosed from infancy to the late 30s. With this type of diabetes, a person’s pancreas produces no insulin. It occurs when the body’s own defence system (the immune system) attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. What causes the immune system to do this is not yet completely understood, but we are funding research to find out. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common type of diabetes – in the UK over 90 per cent of people with diabetes have type 2. Type 2 diabetes usually affects those over 40, or 25 if you’re of South Asian descent. However, it is becoming more common among young people due to lifestyle. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes are not always obvious and, unlike with type 1, they can take a long time to develop. People with type 2 diabetes either don’t make enough insulin or don’t make insulin that the body can use properly. The cells in the body become resistant to insulin, making a greater amount of insulin necessary to keep blood glucose levels within a normal range. Eventually, the pancreas can wear out from producing extra insulin, and it may start making less and less. Type 2 can usually be managed through diet, exercise, and self-monitoring blood glucose, at least in the first few years following diagnosis. However, type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, and most people will need to take tablets and/or inject insulin after living with it for five to 10 years. LADA Up to a third of people who were initially diagnosed as having type Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

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