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What Is Type 4 Diabetes

How Many Types Of Diabetes Are There?

How Many Types Of Diabetes Are There?

This is a question that we get asked regularly. If we asked this question to the general population twenty years ago, a majority probably wouldn’t have any idea. But today, unfortunately, so many people have diabetes that everyone seems to at least have heard of type 1 and type 2. And—due to the rising rate of obesity in pregnant women—the public is becoming much more familiar with gestational diabetes. However, when you get to the details of this complex disease, things get less and less clear cut—not only how many types of diabetes there are, but also how they’re characterized. For example, type 1 is an autoimmune disease, and people require insulin at diagnosis. Usually the diagnosis is in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood, but not always (people can be diagnosed with type 1 at any age). Type 2 isn’t autoimmune, and it may take years before a person requires insulin, if at all—and patients are usually older and often overweight, but again this is a generality, particularly as the number of people who are obese grows and gets younger. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy, and blood glucose returns to normal after delivery, but often it doesn’t. In addition, researchers have discovered another category of diabetes called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Think of LADA as a slowly progressing version of type 1 with some of the characteristics of type 2. In fact, some people call it type 1.5. People with LADA have antibodies to the disease like those with type 1 but they don’t need insulin right away. Their blood glucose can be controlled on lifestyle or oral agents for months or sometimes years. There’s more. Type 1, 2, gestational diabetes and LADA are polygenic—this means that it takes the involvement of many genes to c Continue reading >>

Type Iv Renal Tubular Acidosis In Type 2 Diabetes: Case Report Of 4 Patients

Type Iv Renal Tubular Acidosis In Type 2 Diabetes: Case Report Of 4 Patients

Introduction: Type IV Renal Tubular Acidosis (Type 4 RTA) is an underdiagnosed condition known to be more frequent in Diabetes Mellitus patients with moderate renal impairment. It is thought to be very common, with an incidence of 3.8% of hospital admissions in some series, being an increasing problem among the elderly and aggravated by polypharmacy. Methods/design: The authors describe 4 cases of Type 4 RTA associated with type 2 Diabetes diagnosed and followed in the Endocrinology department of Hospital de Egas Moniz. Results: The population studied had an average age of 67 years, mean Diabetes duration of 8 years and all had arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. All patients were on insulin therapy and had some degree of chronic renal disease. None suffered from coronary artery disease and only one had cerebrovascular disease. 75% had the full microvascular burden (nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy). Mean time from hyperkalemia onset and type 4 RTA diagnosis was 17.2 months. Mean glycated hemoglobin during follow up was 8.7%. Mean glomerular filtration (CKD-EPI) rate at type 4 RTA diagnosis was 40.3 ml/min/1.73m2. The average number of hospital admissions was 5. Only one patient required therapy with fludrocortisone. Conclusion: Type 4 RTA is often a late diagnosis in type 2 Diabetes. In our small series we documented a high microvascular complication burden. The associated hyperkalemia poses a significant threat to the affected patients, which often have a limited cardiovascular reserve. Timely diagnosis and adequate treatment are essential for optimizing patient care. Introduction: Adequate glycaemic, along with other cardiovascular risk factor control in type 2 Diabetes (T2D), and its beneficial impact on subclinical inflammation is associated with Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus (DM), is a metabolic disorder in which the body cannot properly store and use sugar. It affects the body's ability to use glucose, a type of sugar found in the blood, as fuel. This happens because the body does not produce enough insulin, or the cells do not correctly respond to insulin to use glucose as energy. Insulin is a type of hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate how blood sugar becomes energy. An imbalance of insulin or resistance to insulin causes diabetes. Diabetes is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, vision loss, neurological conditions, and damage to blood vessels and organs. There is type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. They have different causes and risk factors, and different lines of treatment. This article will compare the similarities and differences of types 1 and 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy and typically resolves after childbirth. However, having gestational diabetes also increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy, so patients are often screened for type 2 diabetes at a later date. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people in the United States (U.S.) have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1. For every person with type 1 diabetes, 20 will have type 2. Type 2 can be hereditary, but excess weight, a lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet increase At least a third of people in the U.S. will develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. Both types can lead to heart attack, stroke, nerve damage, kidney damage, and possible amputation of limbs. Causes In type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. These cells are destro Continue reading >>

Diabetes Update: Discovery Of Type-4 Diabetes & A New Vaccine For Type-1

Diabetes Update: Discovery Of Type-4 Diabetes & A New Vaccine For Type-1

In two separate news items over the last week, two major updates have been released that can revolutionize the world of diabetes. Firstly, researchers at AIIMS, New Delhi have discovered a new type of diabetes and named it the type-4 diabetes. Secondly, at its 75th Scientific Sessions, the American Diabetes Association announced that it would be testing the ‘Bacillus Calmette-Geurin’ (a vaccination used to treat tuberculosis) to treat type-1 diabetes as it has shown promise in reversing diabetes. Let’s discuss these updates one by one. While a majority of us are struggling to understand type-1 and type-2 diabetes, the study by scientists from AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Sciences) talks about type-4 diabetes, which affects the brain and eye tissues. According to the doctors who conducted this study, this diabetes is quite different from the others that occur due to high levels of glucose in the blood. The type-4 diabetes affects the brain and eye tissues and this discovery can open new avenues of therapy for glaucoma and neurodegenerative diseases. Dr Muneeb Faiq, a clinical researcher studying glaucoma and neurodegeneration and Dr Tanuj Dada, a professor of ophthalmology at AIIMS, New Delhi conducted this study together. While type-1 and type-2 diabetes occur due to increased levels of glucose in the blood and type-3 diabetes occurs due to certain insulin resistance that causes symptoms similar to Alzheimer’s disease, type-4 diabetes can be linked to glaucoma and neurodegenerative diseases. Glaucoma, a dangerous eye disorder that can cause permanent blindness, currently affects 65 million people worldwide. Often nicknamed the ‘sneak thief of sight’, this disorder can damage the optic nerve which transmits images to our brain and often goes unnotice Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. Type 2 diabetes If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chan Continue reading >>

New Type Of Diabetes Caused By Old Age May Be Treatable

New Type Of Diabetes Caused By Old Age May Be Treatable

I’m going to tell you a secret: I love sugar. I love it so much that as a little kid my mom used to tell me scary stories about how my teeth would fall out and that I might get diabetes one day if I ate too many sweets. Thankfully, none of these things happened. I have a full set of teeth (and they’re real), my blood sugar level is normal, and I’ve become one with the term “everything in moderation”. I am not out of the woods, however: a newly discovered type of diabetes could strike in a few decades. A research team has found the cause of a type of diabetes that occurs because of old age, and a potential cure, at least in mice. Diabetes comes in different flavors People who suffer from diabetes (which is almost 30 million Americans) lack the ability to regulate the amount of sugar in their blood. The pancreas is the organ that regulates blood sugar by producing a hormone called insulin. If blood has a high sugar level, the pancreas releases insulin, which helps muscle, liver, and fat cells to absorb the excess sugar until the levels in the blood are back to normal. There are two main forms of diabetes, type 1 and 2, both of which cause hyperglycemia or high blood sugar. Type 1 is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system attacks and kills the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. As a result, these type 1 diabetics aren’t able to produce insulin and endure a lifetime of daily insulin shots to manage their condition. Type 2 diabetes is the more common form of the disease and occurs when the body’s cells become unresponsive, or resistant, to insulin and stop absorbing sugar from the bloodstream. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known although genetic factors are sure to be involved. Type 2 diabetes can be caused by a combination of factors includ Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Overview Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body's cells don't react to insulin These pages are about type 1 diabetes. Other types of diabetes are covered separately (read about type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, which affects some women during pregnancy). Symptoms of diabetes Typical symptoms of type 1 diabetes are: feeling very thirsty passing urine more often than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk The symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop very quickly in young people (over a few days or weeks). In adults, the symptoms often take longer to develop (a few months). Read more about the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. These symptoms occur because the lack of insulin means that glucose stays in the blood and isn’t used as fuel for energy. Your body tries to reduce blood glucose levels by getting rid of the excess glucose in your urine. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible, because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. Find your local GP service Read about how type 1 diabetes is diagnosed. Causes of type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, which means your immune system attacks healthy body tissue by mistake. In this case, it attacks the cells in your pancreas. Your damaged pancreas is then unable to produce insulin. So, glucose cannot be moved out of your bloodstream and into your cells. Type 1 diabetes is o Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes – where the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin type 2 diabetes – where the body doesn't produce enough insulin, or the body's cells don't react to insulin Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. In the UK, around 90% of all adults with diabetes have type 2. During pregnancy, some women have such high levels of blood glucose that their body is unable to produce enough insulin to absorb it all. This is known as gestational diabetes. Pre-diabetes Many more people have blood sugar levels above the normal range, but not high enough to be diagnosed as having diabetes. This is sometimes known as pre-diabetes. If your blood sugar level is above the normal range, your risk of developing full-blown diabetes is increased. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as early as possible because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. When to see a doctor Visit your GP as soon as possible if you experience the main symptoms of diabetes, which include: urinating more frequently than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk cuts or wounds that heal slowly blurred vision Type 1 diabetes can develop quickly over weeks or even days. Many people have type 2 diabetes for years without realising because the early symptoms tend to be general. Causes of diabetes The amount of sugar in the blood is controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is produced by the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach). When food is digested and enters your bloodstream, insulin moves glucose out of the blood and into cells, where it's broken down to produce ene Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that typically develops in children and in young adults. In type 1 diabetes the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar (glucose) level goes very high. Treatment to control the blood glucose level is with insulin injections and a healthy diet. Other treatments aim to reduce the risk of complications. They include reducing blood pressure if it is high and advice to lead a healthy lifestyle. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 1 diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. These are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually first develops in children or young adults. In the UK about 1 in 300 people develop type 1 diabetes at some stage. With type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

Cell Sugar And Type 4 Diabetes

Cell Sugar And Type 4 Diabetes

CELL SUGAR and TYPE 4 DIABETES Two hypotheses: Low cell glucose can be a cause of many symptoms. (Call it hypoglycellia.) Cell glucose can be low when blood glucose is normal. What if a person is sick and tired and medical help doesn’t help? That may happen without diabetes, fibromyalgia, or anemia, or even with various chronic diseases. Insulin and blood sugar affect many systems and conditions. (Alzheimer’s, neuropathy, hypoglycemia.) Alzheimer’s, in fact has been called type 3 diabetes by researchers at Brown Medical School who have found Alzheimer’s-like pathology in animals with induced insulin resistance in the brain, and that treating insulin resistance is helpful in human Alzheimer’s patients. What happens in insulin resistance? Blood sugar and insulin go up. All kinds of problems follow. Is high blood sugar toxic? Is insulin toxic? We believe so. What else happens? Obviously (but neglected and seldom mentioned) cells are deprived of glucose. Could that account for all or most of the consequences of insulin resistance? Could more glucose help? Insulin, like any body chemical or nutrient, has multiple effects. Low insulin is best known as the cause of type 1 diabetes, in which insulin production is so low that a coma may result from cell glucose deprivation, and requiring injected insulin. Body chemicals and nutrients naturally have both good and bad effects. Insulin, necessary as it is, is a likely factor in the aging process of the body. For cardiologist Al Sears, the first and most important factor he wants to test is the insulin level in the blood. Insulin resistance is known as the cause of type 2 diabetes. This usually occurs after years of eating too much sugar and starch. Probable factors in insulin resistance include low magnesium, high fructos Continue reading >>

Is There A Fourth Type Of Diabetes?

Is There A Fourth Type Of Diabetes?

by Shannon Dubois We all know about diabetes: the infamous enemy of our bodies’ blood glucose homeostasis; the delicate balancing act between insulin and glucagon to keep our blood sugar stable. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most well-known and talked about, type 3 was brought to the table a few years ago, and type 4 has just been “discovered.” So, what is this newest type of diabetes, and should we be worried? As a reminder, type 1 diabetes is the insulin-dependent form of diabetes mellitus where pancreatic beta cells (typically destroyed by an autoimmune response) do not supply insulin to the body to signal cellular glucose uptake, resulting in high blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is primarily caused by insulin resistance (cells becoming desensitized to insulin’s action due to overuse), and decreased insulin production over time as the pancreas gets “worn out” from overproduction. This type of diabetes is often associated with obesity, inactivity, and aging. The less talked about, newly termed (by some) type 3 diabetes is discussed in a 2008 literature review and is proposed to be linked to insulin deficiency and insulin resistance in the brain as contributors to Alzheimer’s Disease neurodegeneration, thus a sort of combination of type 1 and 2 that can lead to cognitive decline. Now to the latest discovery: a fourth type of diabetes to keep on our radar. An article published around mid-November in Nature detailed the results of a study led by Salk Institute researchers who were investigating age-associated insulin resistance. They discuss how obesity-associated insulin resistance (driven by inflammation due to macrophages), which is deemed to be a large contributor to type 2 diabetes, is different from age-associated insulin resistance, which Continue reading >>

Is There A Type 4 Diabetes?

Is There A Type 4 Diabetes?

A new type of diabetes in older people of normal weight has been proposed, and the authors suggest calling it type 4 diabetes. Well, OK, this hasn't been found in people yet, but only in mice, and mouse results often don't translated into human results, but the idea is intriguing. The two main types of diabetes currently accepted are type 1, which is autoimmune, and type 2, which is caused by insulin resistance. Some type 1 patients have some insulin resistance and some type 2 patients have some autoantibodies, but in general types 1 and 2 have different causes. Type 3 diabetes is what some people call Alzheimer's disease, meaning insulin resistance in the brain. Others use type 3 to mean family members of someone who has diabetes, some use it to refer to gestational diabetes, and some use type 3 to mean people whose diabetes is related to exposure to electromagnetic radiation. Definitions of type 1.5 diabetes also differ. Some use it to mean LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes of adults), which is like type 1 in older people but tends to progress more slowly. Others use it to mean people with both types 1 and 2, or "double diabetes." Another type of diabetes is MODY, or maturity onset diabetes of the young, which is monogenic. There are several types of MODY. So now we may have another type of diabetes, which seems to be found in lean elderly mice in which insulin resistance is caused not by obesity but simply by aging. The interesting thing is that this type of diabetes doesn't respond to weight loss but can be treated, at least in mice, by using antibodies to deplete the fat cells of immune cells called regulatory T cells, or Tregs. The Tregs in fat are called fTregs. What is interesting about the Tregs is that they have been considered "good" immune cells. The Tregs co Continue reading >>

Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus, Type 4, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Or Mody: Which Disease Is It, Anyway?

Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus, Type 4, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Or Mody: Which Disease Is It, Anyway?

Abstract A 30year-old Hispanic male who presented with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus at 4 months has been intensively studied with 12 islet-cell secretagogues from 4 months to 24 years. He was both ICA- and GAD-65-negative, but at 28 years was diagnosed with hypothyroidism due to positive thyroperoxidase antibodies. The course of his disease(s) and the various presentations of hyperglycemia are documented and illustrated by the responses in islet cell hormone secretion, namely, insulin, glucagon, and C-peptide. Insulin secretion gradually fell over 24 years, glucagon secretion persisted from infancy to 24 years but was only minimal during i.v. glucose at 24 years, and C-peptide secretion remained normal, although modest, throughout the 24 years. These data suggest that, despite changing presentations of diabetes mellitus over time, the islets continued to process proinsulin, although the patient required insulin therapy. Continue reading >>

Maturity Onset Diabetes Of The Young (mody)

Maturity Onset Diabetes Of The Young (mody)

What Is It? Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is an inherited form of diabetes mellitus. It is caused by a change in one of eleven genes. Up to 5% of all diabetes cases may be due to MODY. Just like other people with diabetes, people with MODY have trouble regulating their blood sugar levels. This disorder is more like type 1 diabetes than type 2, although it can be confused with either type. In type 1, the pancreas cannot make and release enough insulin. People with type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, usually make enough insulin, but their bodies cannot respond to it effectively (known as insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is usually associated with being overweight, but that is not true of type 1 diabetes or MODY. However, obesity does matter. An obese person with a MODY gene mutation may develop symptoms of diabetes sooner than someone of normal weight. Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus is defined as the body's inability to properly convert sugar from food into energy. Signs and symptoms include: Elevated sugar in the blood Elevated sugar in the urine Frequent urination Excessive thirst Excessive hunger Extreme weight loss Weakness and fatigue Irritability Nausea and vomiting Many of these symptoms listed are so mild, they go unnoticed. Almost half of all Americans who have diabetes may not know it. Diabetes should not be taken lightly since complications may develop with the legs and feet, kidneys, heart, eyes, nerves, and blood flow. Kidney failure, gangrene and amputation, blindness or stroke may ultimately occur if left untreated. There are 4 different types of Diabetes: Type I Sometimes referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" or "IDDM" for short. This form of diabetes is the most serious. Onset of this disease usually develops during childhood, but young adults are susceptible as well. At this level of disease, the body stops making insulin or only produces very small amounts. Insulin is what the body needs in order to use food for energy. Since the body needs insulin in order to survive and control blood levels of sugar, those afflicted must inject insulin. Type II Called "non-insulin dependent mellitus" or NIDDM. This form of diabetes usually afflicts adults past 40 years of age but can occur at any age. With Type II diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin or cannot utilize the insulin it produces. Due to this, high blood levels of sugar can cause problems. Type II diabetes can be inherited, but usually to bring on the disease, another factor such as obesity must be present. This form of the disease usually affects overweight adults and conditions may be improved by weight loss and proper evaluated meal Continue reading >>

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