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What Is Type 4 Diabetes

Type 4 (gestational Diabetes):

Type 4 (gestational Diabetes):

Gestational Diabetes is a high blood sugar condition similar to Type 2 Diabetes that some women get during pregnancy; these women have higher than normal levels of glucose in their blood and their body cannot produce enough Insulin to get it all into the cells; this is due to certain pregnancy hormones stopping, or slowing the production of Insulin; and at this stage it is not just the mother that requires energy, the unborn child needs it too, but without the right amount of Insulin there will not be enough energy for both mother and child. If Gestational Diabetes is not detected and controlled, it can increase the risk of birth complications, such as Shoulder Dystocia, when the baby’s shoulder gets stuck during the birth; it can also lead to babies being large for their gestational age. How Common Is Gestational Diabetes? Around 14% of women giving birth in England and Wales are affected by gestational Diabetes and others have Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes; the good news is that Gestational Diabetes can often be controlled with diet and exercise; though some will require medication, even Insulin, to control their blood glucose levels; in most cases, Gestational Diabetes develops in the second or third trimester, from week 14 of the pregnancy to the birth, and disappears after the baby is born; however, women who develop gestational Diabetes are more likely to develop Type 2 Diabetes later in life. Diabetes Related Information Leaflets Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Overview Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body's cells don't react to insulin These pages are about type 1 diabetes. Other types of diabetes are covered separately (read about type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, which affects some women during pregnancy). Symptoms of diabetes Typical symptoms of type 1 diabetes are: feeling very thirsty passing urine more often than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk The symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop very quickly in young people (over a few days or weeks). In adults, the symptoms often take longer to develop (a few months). Read more about the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. These symptoms occur because the lack of insulin means that glucose stays in the blood and isn’t used as fuel for energy. Your body tries to reduce blood glucose levels by getting rid of the excess glucose in your urine. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible, because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. Find your local GP service Read about how type 1 diabetes is diagnosed. Causes of type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, which means your immune system attacks healthy body tissue by mistake. In this case, it attacks the cells in your pancreas. Your damaged pancreas is then unable to produce insulin. So, glucose cannot be moved out of your bloodstream and into your cells. Type 1 diabetes is o Continue reading >>

New Type 4 Diabetes Not Linked To Obesity

New Type 4 Diabetes Not Linked To Obesity

Original article written by Bradley J. Fikes for The San Diego Union Tribune on November 18, 2015. Click here to read the original article. A new type of diabetes that’s not associated with insulin deficiency or obesity has been discovered — in mice. In a study published Wednesday, researchers led by Salk Institute scientists found that in a mouse model of the disease regarded as predictive of human diabetes, some develop an unusual type that affects old, lean mice. This disease is caused by overactivity of a certain kind of immune system cell. The researchers call this new form Type 4 diabetes. The study was published in the journal Nature. Go to j.mp/type4diabetes for the study. If the study is confirmed in people — a big if — the public health implications would be profound. Diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney and heart disease, and poor blood circulation that can lead to amputation. Diabetes is usually associated with obesity, and a form that is not may escape detection because doctors aren’t looking for it. The study was led by the Salk’s Ronald Evans and Ye Zheng. Evans said it’s possible that millions of Americans have this type of diabetes. “Oftentimes people think that if they’re lean, they’re protected from diabetes, and most physicians would think that,” Evans said. The researchers envision a potential treatment by developing an antibody drug to reduce levels of these overactive immune cells. That will take at least a few years, Evans said. Evans estimates that about 20 percent of diabetics over 65 have this newly identified version, and may not be getting the proper care. More than 9.4 million diabetic Americans are over 65 as of 2012, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation. And that number doesn’t count those who haven’t been Continue reading >>

New Type 3 Diabetes Discovered

New Type 3 Diabetes Discovered

Discovery that insulin is produced in the brain and it’s decrease raises possibility of Type 3 diabetes linked to Alzheimer’s Disease and changes the way we view the disease. Researchers at Rhode Island Hospital and Brown Medical School have discovered that insulin and its related proteins are produced in the brain, and that reduced levels of both are linked to Alzheimer’s disease. “What we found is that insulin is not just produced in the pancreas, but also in the brain. And we discovered that insulin and its growth factors, which are necessary for the survival of brain cells, contribute to the progression of Alzheimer’s,” says senior author Suzanne M. de la Monte, a neuropathologist at Rhode Island Hospital and a professor of pathology at Brown Medical School. “This raises the possibility of a Type 3 diabetes.” It has previously been known that insulin resistance, a characteristic of diabetes, is tied to neurodegeneration. While scientists have suspected a link between diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease, this is the first study to provide evidence of that connection. By studying a gene abnormality in rats that blocks insulin signaling in the brain, researchers found that insulin and IGF I and II are all expressed in neurons in several regions in the brain. Additionally, researchers determined that a drop in insulin production in the brain contributes to the degeneration of brain cells, an early symptom of Alzheimer’s. “These abnormalities do not correspond to Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, but reflect a different and more complex disease process that originates in the CNS (central nervous system),” the paper states. By looking at postmortem brain tissue from people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, researchers discovered that growth factors are n Continue reading >>

Is There A Type 4 Diabetes?

Is There A Type 4 Diabetes?

A new type of diabetes in older people of normal weight has been proposed, and the authors suggest calling it type 4 diabetes. Well, OK, this hasn't been found in people yet, but only in mice, and mouse results often don't translated into human results, but the idea is intriguing. The two main types of diabetes currently accepted are type 1, which is autoimmune, and type 2, which is caused by insulin resistance. Some type 1 patients have some insulin resistance and some type 2 patients have some autoantibodies, but in general types 1 and 2 have different causes. Type 3 diabetes is what some people call Alzheimer's disease, meaning insulin resistance in the brain. Others use type 3 to mean family members of someone who has diabetes, some use it to refer to gestational diabetes, and some use type 3 to mean people whose diabetes is related to exposure to electromagnetic radiation. Definitions of type 1.5 diabetes also differ. Some use it to mean LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes of adults), which is like type 1 in older people but tends to progress more slowly. Others use it to mean people with both types 1 and 2, or "double diabetes." Another type of diabetes is MODY, or maturity onset diabetes of the young, which is monogenic. There are several types of MODY. So now we may have another type of diabetes, which seems to be found in lean elderly mice in which insulin resistance is caused not by obesity but simply by aging. The interesting thing is that this type of diabetes doesn't respond to weight loss but can be treated, at least in mice, by using antibodies to deplete the fat cells of immune cells called regulatory T cells, or Tregs. The Tregs in fat are called fTregs. What is interesting about the Tregs is that they have been considered "good" immune cells. The Tregs co Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes is caused by a problem in the way your body makes or uses insulin[1]. Insulin moves blood sugar (glucose) into cells where it is stored and later used for energy. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2 [1]. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), whereas Type 2 diabetes is also called adult onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)[1]. Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how the body metabolizes glucose[1]. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin, known as insulin resistance[1]. As a result, blood sugar does not get transported into these cells to be stored for energy and builds up in the bloodstream; this is known as hyperglycemia[1]. In a healthy person, blood glucose levels are normalized by insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin [1]. With Type 2 diabetes, the mechanisms become faulty; the pancreatic beta-cell, which releases insulin, becomes impaired and tissues develop insulin resistance[1][2]. This pathology has a genetic link, although it is somewhat unclear[1]. Risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes include: background of African-Caribbean, Black African, Chinese, or South-Asian, and over 25 years old, or other ethnic background over 40 years old[3] According to the International Diabetes Federation (2014), 8.3% of the population or 387 million people are living with diabetes worldwide.[4] Diabetes prevalence increases with age across all regions worldwide and income groups.[5] This number is expected to increase by 205 million by the year 2035.[6] Diabetes is most prevalent in people aged 60-79 years, with 18.6%, though those aged 40-59 have the highest number (184 million) of people living Continue reading >>

Maturity Onset Diabetes Of The Young Type 4

Maturity Onset Diabetes Of The Young Type 4

maturity onset diabetes of the young type 4 An autosomal dominant endocrinopathy (OMIM:606392) of childhood to early adult onset, which is characterised by a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease. Molecular pathology Defects in PDX1, which encodes a transcription activator that regulates tissue-specific expression of multiple genes, cause maturity onset diabetes of the young type 4. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content. Link to this page: maturity onset diabetes of the young type 4 Continue reading >>

Maturity Onset Diabetes Of The Young (mody)

Maturity Onset Diabetes Of The Young (mody)

What Is It? Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is an inherited form of diabetes mellitus. It is caused by a change in one of eleven genes. Up to 5% of all diabetes cases may be due to MODY. Just like other people with diabetes, people with MODY have trouble regulating their blood sugar levels. This disorder is more like type 1 diabetes than type 2, although it can be confused with either type. In type 1, the pancreas cannot make and release enough insulin. People with type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, usually make enough insulin, but their bodies cannot respond to it effectively (known as insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is usually associated with being overweight, but that is not true of type 1 diabetes or MODY. However, obesity does matter. An obese person with a MODY gene mutation may develop symptoms of diabetes sooner than someone of normal weight. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Which One Is Worse?

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Which One Is Worse?

What are the differences between the causes of type 1 and type 2? The underlying causes of type 1 and type 2 are different. Type 1 diabetes causes Type 1 diabetes is believed to be due to an autoimmune process, in which the body's immune system mistakenly targets its own tissues (islet cells in the pancreas). In people with type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas that are responsible for insulin production are attacked by the misdirected immune system. This tendency for the immune system to destroy the beta cells of the pancreas is likely to be, at least in part, genetically inherited, although the exact reasons that this process happens are not fully understood. Exposure to certain viral infections (mumps and Coxsackie viruses) or other environmental toxins have been suggested as possible reasons why the abnormal antibody responses develop that cause damage to the pancreas cells. The primary problem in type 2 diabetes is the inability of the body's cells to use insulin properly and efficiently, leading to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and diabetes. This problem affects mostly the cells of muscle and fat tissues, and results in a condition known as insulin resistance. In type 2 diabetes, there also is a steady decline of beta cells that worsens the process of elevated blood sugars. At the beginning, if someone is resistant to insulin, the body can at least partially increase production of insulin enough to overcome the level of resistance. Over time, if production decreases and enough insulin cannot be released, blood sugar levels rise. In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger than normal quantities of insulin, but the body is not able to use it effectively. A major feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the ce Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. Type 2 diabetes If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chan Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Types And Treatment

Diabetes: Types And Treatment

Diabetes is a health condition in which normal fasting blood sugar levels are too high because the food a person eats is not being broken down and used in a normal manner in the body. As you may know, the foods you eat are broken down into a simple sugar called glucose in your body. Normally, this glucose is used for energy in your cells. In response to a meal and a rise in blood glucose, your pancreas secretes a hormone called insulin. Insulin acts to move the glucose from your blood stream into the cells where it can be utilized as an energy source. A diabetic diagnosis happens when your doctor measures your fasting blood sugar in a blood test, and finds that your blood sugar is high. This high blood sugar happens for one of two reasons: Either insulin is not being secreted, or Your body can't utilize it properly, a condition called insulin resistance. The bottom line is that the action of insulin is key to the diabetic condition. Mainstream medicine identifies the well known Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic conditions, but recent scientific research has also identified two other types of diabetic conditions: Type 3 and Type 4. All are intimately tied to insulin and its effects (or lack of) within the individual body systems. The four types of diabetic conditions are discussed below: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the cells that secrete insulin in the pancreas have been damaged or destroyed. The result is that the body is unable to make insulin, and without insulin, the body cannot move glucose from the bloodstream into the cells. As a result, the sugar levels in the blood become very high, and this high blood sugar damages the body systems. If not treated by insulin injections, type 1 diabetics can develop serious health problems such as blindness, kidne Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And The Risk Of Parkinson's Disease

Type 2 Diabetes And The Risk Of Parkinson's Disease

Abstract OBJECTIVE—To evaluate whether type 2 diabetes at baseline is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We prospectively followed 51,552 Finnish men and women 25–74 years of age without a history of Parkinson's disease at baseline. History of diabetes and other study parameters were determined at baseline using standardized measurements. Ascertainment of the Parkinson's disease status was based on the nationwide Social Insurance Institution's drug register data. Hazard ratios of incident Parkinson's disease associated with the history of type 2 diabetes were estimated. RESULTS—During a mean follow-up period of 18.0 years, 324 men and 309 women developed incident Parkinson's disease. Age- and study year–adjusted hazard ratios of incident Parkinson's disease among subjects with type 2 diabetes, compared with those without it, were 1.80 (95% CI 1.03–3.15) in men, 1.93 (1.05–3.53) in women, and 1.85 (1.23–2.80) in men and women combined (adjusted also for sex). Further adjustment for BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, alcohol drinking, and coffee and tea consumption affected the results only slightly. The multivariate adjusted association between type 2 diabetes and the risk of Parkinson's disease was also confirmed in stratified subgroup analysis. CONCLUSIONS—These data suggest that type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. Surveillance bias might account for higher rates in diabetes. The mechanism behind this association between diabetes and Parkinson's disease is not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Six independent cross-sectional population surveys were carried out in five geographic areas of Finland in 1972, 1977, Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Kidney Disease (stages 1-4)

Diabetes And Kidney Disease (stages 1-4)

What is diabetes? Diabetes happens when your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone. It controls how much sugar is in your blood. A high level of sugar in your blood can cause problems in many parts of your body, including your heart, kidneys, eyes, and brain. Over time, this can lead to kidney disease and kidney failure. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes generally begins when people are young. In this case, the body does not make enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is usually found in adults over 40, but is becoming more common in younger people. It is usually associated with being overweight and tends to run in families. In type 2 diabetes, the body makes insulin, but cannot use it well. What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Your kidneys are important because they keep the rest of your body in balance. They: Remove waste products from the body Balance the body’s fluids Help keep blood pressure under control Keep bones healthy Help make red blood cells. When you have kidney disease, it means that the kidneys have been damaged. Kidneys can get damaged from a disease like diabetes. Once your kidneys are damaged, they cannot filter your blood nor do other jobs as well as they should. When diabetes is not well controlled, the sugar level in your blood goes up. This is called hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) can cause damage to many parts of your body, especially the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, eyes, feet, nerves. Diabetes can harm the kidneys by causing damage to: Blood vessels inside your kidneys. The filtering units of the kidney are filled with tiny blood vessels. Over time, high sugar levels in the blood can cause these vessels to become narrow and clogged. Without enough blood, the kid Continue reading >>

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