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What Is The Who Definition For Diabetes?

Definition, Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications. Part 1: Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus Provisional Report Of A Who Consultation.

Definition, Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications. Part 1: Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus Provisional Report Of A Who Consultation.

Abstract The classification of diabetes mellitus and the tests used for its diagnosis were brought into order by the National Diabetes Data Group of the USA and the second World Health Organization Expert Committee on Diabetes Mellitus in 1979 and 1980. Apart from minor modifications by WHO in 1985, little has been changed since that time. There is however considerable new knowledge regarding the aetiology of different forms of diabetes as well as more information on the predictive value of different blood glucose values for the complications of diabetes. A WHO Consultation has therefore taken place in parallel with a report by an American Diabetes Association Expert Committee to re-examine diagnostic criteria and classification. The present document includes the conclusions of the former and is intended for wide distribution and discussion before final proposals are submitted to WHO for approval. The main changes proposed are as follows. The diagnostic fasting plasma (blood) glucose value has been lowered to > or =7.0 mmol l(-1) (6.1 mmol l(-1)). Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is changed to allow for the new fasting level. A new category of Impaired Fasting Glycaemia (IFG) is proposed to encompass values which are above normal but below the diagnostic cut-off for diabetes (plasma > or =6.1 to <7.0 mmol l(-1); whole blood > or =5.6 to <6.1 mmol l(-1)). Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) now includes gestational impaired glucose tolerance as well as the previous GDM. The classification defines both process and stage of the disease. The processes include Type 1, autoimmune and non-autoimmune, with beta-cell destruction; Type 2 with varying degrees of insulin resistance and insulin hyposecretion; Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; and Other Types where the cause is known (e Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintain proper levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder. They are instead related to the diseases that develop as a result of chronic diabetes mellitus. These include diseases of large blood vessels (macrovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease) and small blood vessels (microvascular disease, including retinal and renal vascular disease), as well as diseases of the nerves. Causes and types Insulin is a hormone secreted by beta cells, which are located within clusters of cells in the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Insulin’s role in the body is to trigger cells to take up glucose so that the cells can use this energy-yielding sugar. Patients with diabetes may have dysfunctional beta cells, resulting in decreased insulin secretion, or their muscle and adipose cells may be resistant to the effects of insulin, resulting in a decreased ability of these cells to take up and metabolize glucose. In both cases, the levels of glucose in the blood increase, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). As glucose accumulates in the blood, excess levels of this sugar are excreted in the urine. Because of greater amounts of glucose in the urine, more water is excreted with it, causing an increase in urinary volume and frequency of urination as well as thirst. (The name diabetes mellitus refers to these symptoms: diabetes, from the Greek diabainein, meaning “to pass through,” describes the copious urination, and mellitus, from the Latin meaning “sweetened wi Continue reading >>

Nci Dictionary Of Cancer Terms

Nci Dictionary Of Cancer Terms

The NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms features 8,214 terms related to cancer and medicine. We offer a widget that you can add to your website to let users look up cancer-related terms. Get NCI’s Dictionary of Cancer Terms Widget. Continue reading >>

Definition Of Uncontrolled Diabetes

Definition Of Uncontrolled Diabetes

Diabetes is a condition where the body either doesn’t produce enough insulin or the cells have become resistant to insulin. Either way, the body isn’t able to make use of glucose in the bloodstream, so cells begin to die and tissue damage occurs. Definition Uncontrolled diabetes is defined as having a consistent blood sugar level of over 100 mg/dL. To avoid high glucose levels, you will need to properly take the medication you are prescribed, maintain a strict diet, exercise, and monitor your blood sugar regularly. Statistics Currently, uncontrolled diabetes is the sixth largest cause of death in the United States, with 18.2 million people currently being treated and another 5.2 million people who are currently undiagnosed. Symptoms Symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes include frequent urination, unusual thirst, weight loss, hunger, changes in vision, lethargy, sores that do not heal, and tingling in the hands and feet. Complications Health issues that occur due to uncontrolled diabetes include heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, cataracts, kidney disease, and nerve damage leading to amputation. Control Measures While there is no cure for diabetes, it can be managed. Losing weight, becoming more active, and taking your medications properly will ensure that your diabetes remains under control and that you will have the best chance at a long and healthy life. Continue reading >>

Medical Definition Of Diabetes

Medical Definition Of Diabetes

Amputations. INVOKANA® may increase your risk of lower-limb amputations. Amputations mainly involve removal of the toe or part of the foot; however, amputations involving the leg, below and above the knee, have also occurred. Some people had more than one amputation, some on both sides of the body. Youmay be at a higher risk of lower-limb amputation if you: have a history of amputation, have heart disease or are at risk for heart disease, have had blocked or narrowed blood vessels (usually in leg), have damage to the nerves (neuropathy)in the leg, or have had diabetic foot ulcers or sores. Call your doctor right away if you have new pain or tenderness, any sores, ulcers, or infections in your leg or foot. Your doctor may decide to stop your INVOKANA®. Talk to your doctor about proper foot care Dehydration. INVOKANA® can cause some people to become dehydrated (the loss of too much body water), which may cause you to feel dizzy, faint, lightheaded, or weak, especially when you stand up (orthostatic hypotension). Youmay be at higher risk of dehydration if you have low blood pressure, take medicines to lower your blood pressure (including diuretics [water pills]), are on a low sodium (salt) diet, have kidney problems, or are 65 years of age orolder Yeast infection of the penis (balanitis or balanoposthitis).Men who take INVOKANA® may get a yeast infection of the skin around the penis. Symptoms include: redness, itching, or swelling of the penis; rash of the penis; foul-smelling discharge from the penis;or pain in the skin around penis Before you take INVOKANA®, tell your doctor if you have a history of amputation; heart disease or are at risk for heart disease; blocked or narrowed blood vessels (usually in leg); damage to the nerves (neuropathy) of your leg; diabetic f Continue reading >>

Medical Definition Of Unstable Diabetes

Medical Definition Of Unstable Diabetes

Amputations. INVOKANA® may increase your risk of lower-limb amputations. Amputations mainly involve removal of the toe or part of the foot; however, amputations involving the leg, below and above the knee, have also occurred. Some people had more than one amputation, some on both sides of the body. You may be at a higher risk of lower-limb amputation if you: have a history of amputation, have heart disease or are at risk for heart disease, have had blocked or narrowed blood vessels (usually in leg), have damage to the nerves (neuropathy) in the leg, or have had diabetic foot ulcers or sores. Call your doctor right away if you have new pain or tenderness, any sores, ulcers, or infections in your leg or foot. Your doctor may decide to stop your INVOKANA®. Talk to your doctor about proper foot care Dehydration. INVOKANA® can cause some people to become dehydrated (the loss of too much body water), which may cause you to feel dizzy, faint, lightheaded, or weak, especially when you stand up (orthostatic hypotension). You may be at higher risk of dehydration if you have low blood pressure, take medicines to lower your blood pressure (including diuretics [water pills]), are on a low sodium (salt) diet, have kidney problems, or are 65 years of age or older Talk to your doctor about what to do if you get symptoms of a yeast infection of the vagina or penis. Before you take INVOKANA®, tell your doctor if you have a history of amputation; heart disease or are at risk for heart disease; blocked or narrowed blood vessels (usually in leg); damage to the nerves (neuropathy) of your leg; diabetic foot ulcers or sores; kidney problems; liver problems; history of urinary tract infections or problems with urination; are on a low sodium (salt) diet; are going to have surgery; are eatin Continue reading >>

Systematic Review Of Validated Case Definitions For Diabetes In Icd-9-coded And Icd-10-coded Data In Adult Populations

Systematic Review Of Validated Case Definitions For Diabetes In Icd-9-coded And Icd-10-coded Data In Adult Populations

Objectives With steady increases in ‘big data’ and data analytics over the past two decades, administrative health databases have become more accessible and are now used regularly for diabetes surveillance. The objective of this study is to systematically review validated International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based case definitions for diabetes in the adult population. Setting, participants and outcome measures Electronic databases, MEDLINE and Embase, were searched for validation studies where an administrative case definition (using ICD codes) for diabetes in adults was validated against a reference and statistical measures of the performance reported. Results The search yielded 2895 abstracts, and of the 193 potentially relevant studies, 16 met criteria. Diabetes definition for adults varied by data source, including physician claims (sensitivity ranged from 26.9% to 97%, specificity ranged from 94.3% to 99.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 71.4% to 96.2%, negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 95% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.8 to 0.9), hospital discharge data (sensitivity ranged from 59.1% to 92.6%, specificity ranged from 95.5% to 99%, PPV ranged from 62.5% to 96%, NPV ranged from 90.8% to 99% and κ ranged from 0.6 to 0.9) and a combination of both (sensitivity ranged from 57% to 95.6%, specificity ranged from 88% to 98.5%, PPV ranged from 54% to 80%, NPV ranged from 98% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.7 to 0.8). Conclusions Overall, administrative health databases are useful for undertaking diabetes surveillance, but an awareness of the variation in performance being affected by case definition is essential. The performance characteristics of these case definitions depend on the variations in the definition of primary diagnosis in Continue reading >>

Major Causes Of Diabetes

Major Causes Of Diabetes

noun Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is defined as a metabolic disorder that causes your body to be unable to properly produce insulin and regulate its blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes - comes from some type of immunological event that destroys the inability of the pancreas to secrete insulin. Type 2 diabetes - happens when either the pancreas is not making enough insulin or the body has grown resistant to it and the cells can’t use the glucose. Gestational diabetes - occurs when a woman is pregnant and is caused from certain hormones that are present during pregnancy. Heredity - a person can be genetically predisposed to diabetes. Age – 80% of diabetes cases occur after the age of 50. Malnutrition or poor diet – Lack of nutrition, low intake of fiber and protein, plus the high intake of processed and refined food products are major reasons for diabetes. Obesity – Too much fat in your body can make the cells resistant to the insulin. Inactive Lifestyle – Those who have sedentary lifestyles are more likely to have diabetes. Stress – Emotional or physical disturbances can change the glucose levels and affect your metabolism. Drugs – There are several drugs that are known to potentially induce diabetes including Quetiapine (Seroquel), clozapine (Clozaril), ziprasidone (Geodon), risperidone (Risperdal), and olanzapine (Zyprexa) Infection – Straphylococci is supposedly responsible for causing infection in the pancreas thus affecting insulin production. Gender – Diabetes is more common in elderly men or women with multiple pregnancies or those suffering from Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Hypertension – Studies have shown that high blood pressure is directly related to diabetes. Lipoproteins and Serum lipids – High cholesterol and triglyceride levels in th Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Go to: DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of differentorgans, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the β-cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action. Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycemia. Symptoms of marked hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, sometimes with polyphagia, and blurred vision. Impairment of growth and susceptibility to certain infections may also accompany chronic hyperglycemia. Acute, life-threatening consequences of uncontrolled diabetes are hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis or the nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome. Long-term complications of diabetes include retinopathy with potential loss of vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; peripheral neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputations, and Charcot joints; and autonomic neuropathy causing gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cardiovascul Continue reading >>

Diabetes Basics

Diabetes Basics

Diabetes is a number of diseases that involve problems with the hormone insulin. Normally, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help your body store and use the sugar and fat from the food you eat. Diabetes occurs when one of the following occurs: When the pancreas does not produce any insulin When the pancreas produces very little insulin When the body does not respond appropriately to insulin, a condition called "insulin resistance" Diabetes is a lifelong disease. Approximately 18.2 million Americans have the disease and almost one third (or approximately 5.2 million) are unaware that they have it. An additional 41 million people have pre-diabetes. As yet, there is no cure. People with diabetes need to manage their disease to stay healthy. To understand why insulin is important in diabetes, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy. Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, these cells need food in a very simple form. When you eat or drink, much of your food is broken down into a simple sugar called "glucose." Then, glucose is transported through the bloodstream to the cells of your body where it can be used to provide some of the energy your body needs for daily activities. The amount of glucose in your bloodstream is tightly regulated by the hormone insulin. Insulin is always being released in small amounts by the pancreas. When the amount of glucose in your blood rises to a certain level, the pancreas will release more insulin to push more glucose into the cells. This causes the glucose levels in your blood (blood glucose levels) to drop. To keep your blood glucose levels from getting too low (hypoglycemia or low blood sugar), your body signals you to eat and releases some glucose from storage kept in t Continue reading >>

Definition Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Definition Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy can be defined as progressive dysfunction of the retinal vasculature secondary to chronic hyperglycaemia. Since the retina is easy to view or image and careful monitoring can ensure that sight threatening lesions can be detected in time for effective therapy, it is important that the stages of diabetic retinopathy are defined and classified in a clear and unambiguous manner. This entry explains the Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale, and describes the characteristic features associated with each stage of progression of retinopathy. Grading of Diabetic Retinopathy Although most grading scales for DR are broadly similar, achieving consensus on a diabetic severity scale has been problematic. One of the earliest and best recognised grading scales is the clinical classification system is based on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (WESDR) publications [1][2]. In 2003, the Global Diabetic Retinopathy Group published the “Proposed International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema Scales” in order to promote understanding, communication and co-ordination of care amongst those caring for patients with diabetic retinopathy [3]. The Diabetic Disease Severity Scale is described below. Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale No apparent retinopathy Mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy Moderate non proliferative diabetic retinopathy Severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy Proliferative diabetic retinopathy Macular oedema apparently absent Macular oedema apparently present* *If macular oedema is present it can be sub-classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Clinical Signs of Diabetic Retinopathy Microaneurysms Microaneurysms are the Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Definition of type 2 diabetes : a common form of diabetes mellitus that develops especially in adults and most often in obese individuals and that is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin utilization coupled with the body's inability to compensate with increased insulin production — called also non-insulin-dependent diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Tweet Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. When you have diabetes, your body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't use its own insulin as well as it should. This causes sugars to build up in the blood. Diabetes can cause serious health complications including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower-extremity amputations. Diabetes is predicted by a clear set of symptoms, but it still often goes undiagnosed. The main 3 diabetes signs are: Increased thirst Increased need to urinate Increased hunger Diabetes is becoming increasingly more common throughout the world, due to increased obesity - which can lead to metabolic syndrome or pre-diabetes leading to higher incidences of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is the name used to describe a metabolic condition of having higher than normal blood sugar levels. There are different reasons why people get high blood glucose levels and so a number of different types of diabetes exist. How many diabetics are there? According to the IDF, the number of diabetics in the world stands at 365 million people, representing around 8.5% of the global population. There are approximately 2.9 million diabetic people in the UK according to Diabetes UK, and there's thought to be around 500,000 people who may be diabetic but currently undiagnosed. [1] Diabetes overview Diabetes is a common hormonal problem that if untreated can lead to diabetes complications such as diabetic neuropathy, kidney problems, heart problems, retinopathy and other disorders. At advanced stages, diabetes can cause kidney failure, amputation, blindness and stroke. However, compli Continue reading >>

Medical Definition Of Diabetes Mellitus

Medical Definition Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus: More commonly referred to as "diabetes" -- a chronic disease associated with abnormally high levels of the sugar glucose in the blood. Diabetes is due to one of two mechanisms: Inadequate production of insulin (which is made by the pancreas and lowers blood glucose), or Inadequate sensitivity of cells to the action of insulin. The two main types of diabetes correspond to these two mechanisms and are called insulin dependent (type 1) and non-insulin dependent (type 2) diabetes. In type 1 diabetes there is no insulin or not enough of it. In type 2 diabetes, there is generally enough insulin but the cells upon which it should act are not normally sensitive to its action. The signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes include increased urine output and decreased appetite as well as fatigue. Diabetes is diagnosed by blood glucose testing, the glucose tolerance test, and testing of the level of glycosylated hemoglobin (glycohemoglobin or hemoglobin A1C). The mode of treatment depends on the type of the diabetes. The major complications of diabetes include dangerously elevated blood sugar, abnormally low blood sugar due to diabetes medications, and disease of the blood vessels which can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart. Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication Last Editorial Review: 1/26/2017 Continue reading >>

Diabetes Part 1. Definition, Diagnosis And Prevention

Diabetes Part 1. Definition, Diagnosis And Prevention

Author(s): Victor Lawrence BSc, MB BS, MRCP, Consultant Physician, The Arun Baksi Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, St Mary's Hospital, Isle of Wight PO30 5TG, UK Introduction Western countries are experiencing an explosion in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) linked to increasing obesity and a steady year on year rise in the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in children. However, for reasons that are not currently understood, the situation in Sub-Saharan Africa is less clear. Many factors contribute to this. Problems reported in other African countries include: failure of patients to present to health care facilities (either because of rapid death in T1DM or lack of clear symptoms in T2DM sometimes linked to malnutrition); targeting of acute infection rather than less cost effective long term conditions in healthcare prioritisation and problems with the reliable supply, affordability and storage of insulin, other medications and the means to monitor treatment (e.g. finger prick blood testing). Some population studies in Africa have suggested that type 1 diabetes is a rare condition. Sadly, this is more likely to be due to the fact that those affected die undiagnosed within a few weeks and so are rarely counted. Some studies have suggested under-diagnosis even amongst patients presenting to hospital with ketoacidosis. In spite of this, we know that diabetes is a common condition affecting perhaps 2-6% of most populations and its under-diagnosis and under-treatment leads to rapid death in T1DM and to unnecessary suffering and premature death in T2DM. This article aims to: increase awareness of the condition; discuss symptoms and diagnostic criteria; consider screening and prevention of diabetes; point the reader in the direction of more detailed open access Continue reading >>

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