diabetestalk.net

What Is The Type Of Diabetes You Are Born With?

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a condition where the pancreas does not produce insulin because the cells which make insulin have been destroyed by the immune system. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 10 to 15 per cent of all people with diabetes. It usually occurs in people under 30, but can occur at any age. How do you get type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is classified as an autoimmune condition. An autoimmune condition is where your body’s defence system (the immune system) is triggered to attack healthy tissue. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system is triggered by a gene or genes. People are born either with or without the genes (13 genes have been identified). People without the genes will not develop type 1 diabetes and people born with the gene may or may not develop type 1 diabetes. This gene is thought to have been stimulated by an environmental event. Once the gene has been stimulated it triggers the immune system to attack the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin and slowly destroys them. The destruction of these cells reaches a critical point where there are not enough cells to produce enough insulin to control blood glucose levels, and the person then starts to develop the signs and symptoms of diabetes. Signs and symptoms Signs may include the following: thirst frequent urination lethargy or being very tired blurred vision sudden unexplained/unplanned weight loss infections or wounds that don't improve constant hunger mood swings. Finding a cure At this time, there is no cure for type 1 diabetes. It is hoped that the multiple research studies currently being conducted world-wide will lead to better knowledge about type 1 diabetes and, eventually, a cure. Managing type 1 diabetes Insulin replacement therapy is critical for the person with type 1 diabetes to live. It Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Facts

Type 1 Diabetes Facts

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when a person’s pancreas stops producing insulin, the hormone that controls blood-sugar levels. T1D develops when the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells are mistakenly destroyed by the body’s immune system. The cause of this attack is still being researched, however scientists believe the cause may have genetic and environmental components. There is nothing anyone can do to prevent T1D. Presently, there is no known cure. Who T1D affects Type 1 diabetes (sometimes known as juvenile diabetes) affects children and adults, though people can be diagnosed at any age. With a typically quick onset, T1D must be managed with the use of insulin—either via injection or insulin pump. Soon, people who are insulin dependent may also be able to use artificial pancreas systems to automatically administer their insulin. How T1D is managed Type 1 diabetes is a 24/7 disease that requires constant management. People with T1D continuously and carefully balance insulin intake with eating, exercise and other activities. They also measure blood-sugar levels through finger pricks, ideally at least six times a day, or by wearing a continuous glucose monitor. Even with a strict regimen, people with T1D may still experience dangerously high or low blood-glucose levels that can, in extreme cases, be life threatening. Every person with T1D becomes actively involved in managing his or her disease. Insulin is not a cure While insulin therapy keeps people with T1D alive and can help keep blood-glucose levels within recommended range, it is not a cure, nor does it prevent the possibility of T1D’s serious effects. The outlook for treatments and a cure Although T1D is a serious and challenging disease, long-term management options cont Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus (DM), is a metabolic disorder in which the body cannot properly store and use sugar. It affects the body's ability to use glucose, a type of sugar found in the blood, as fuel. This happens because the body does not produce enough insulin, or the cells do not correctly respond to insulin to use glucose as energy. Insulin is a type of hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate how blood sugar becomes energy. An imbalance of insulin or resistance to insulin causes diabetes. Diabetes is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, vision loss, neurological conditions, and damage to blood vessels and organs. There is type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. They have different causes and risk factors, and different lines of treatment. This article will compare the similarities and differences of types 1 and 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy and typically resolves after childbirth. However, having gestational diabetes also increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy, so patients are often screened for type 2 diabetes at a later date. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people in the United States (U.S.) have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1. For every person with type 1 diabetes, 20 will have type 2. Type 2 can be hereditary, but excess weight, a lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet increase At least a third of people in the U.S. will develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. Both types can lead to heart attack, stroke, nerve damage, kidney damage, and possible amputation of limbs. Causes In type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. These cells are destro Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of hea Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

It isn’t entirely clear what triggers the development of type 1 diabetes. Researchers do know that genes play a role; there is an inherited susceptibility. However, something must set off the immune system, causing it to turn against itself and leading to the development of type 1 diabetes. Genes Play a Role in Type 1 Diabetes Some people cannot develop type 1 diabetes; that’s because they don’t have the genetic coding that researchers have linked to type 1 diabetes. Scientists have figured out that type 1 diabetes can develop in people who have a particular HLA complex. HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen, and antigens function is to trigger an immune response in the body. There are several HLA complexes that are associated with type 1 diabetes, and all of them are on chromosome 6. Different HLA complexes can lead to the development of other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Like those conditions, type 1 diabetes has to be triggered by something—usually a viral infection. What Can Trigger Type 1 Diabetes Here’s the whole process of what happens with a viral infection: When a virus invades the body, the immune system starts to produce antibodies that fight the infection. T cells are in charge of making the antibodies, and then they also help in fighting the virus. However, if the virus has some of the same antigens as the beta cells—the cells that make insulin in the pancreas—then the T cells can actually turn against the beta cells. The T cell products (antibodies) can destroy the beta cells, and once all the beta cells in your body have been destroyed, you can’t produce enough insulin. It takes a long time (usually several years) for the T cells to destroy the majority of th Continue reading >>

Are You Born With Diabetes Or Do You Get In Later In Life?

Are You Born With Diabetes Or Do You Get In Later In Life?

I thought you were born with diabetes but my friend said that you can get it later in life. She says because I am a somewhat overweight that I could get it. Is this true? I have tried to slim down but cant. What we normally think of as one disease, diabetes, is usually divided into two separate types. Recently, the two types of diabetes have come under new names: type one and type two, but for a very long time they were more frequently referred to as juvenile diabetes and adult-onset diabetes. Generally speaking diabetes signifies a body’s inability to adequate regulate blood sugar or glucose levels. The main organ charged with regulating blood sugar levels is the pancreas and it does this by a number of mechanisms, but the most important one is through secreting insulin. In truth, very few people are “born with” diabetes, but those that do have what is called type one or juvenile diabetes actually develop it in childhood. This type of diabetes results from the pancreas’s inability to effectively secrete insulin. And without insulin sugar levels rise very high causing damage to various organs and also keeping the body from appropriately using the sugar for energy. Type 2 or adult-onset diabetes is more related to a body’s inability to appropriately use the insulin that is secreted; someone with diabetes actually becomes “insulin-resistant.” Unlike, type one diabetes, type two diabetes is, in fact, related to obesity. As people become more and more overweight they generally become more and more resistant to insulin and consequently blood sugar levels rise. Eventually, they can become so resistant to insulin that their sugars stay high enough and they develop diabetes. If this continues for many years the pancreas can stop making insulin altogether very simi Continue reading >>

The Key Features Of Neonatal Diabetes Are:

The Key Features Of Neonatal Diabetes Are:

Neonatal diabetes is a form of diabetes that is diagnosed under the age of nine months. It’s a different type of diabetes than the more common Type 1 diabetes as it’s not an autoimmune condition (where the body has destroyed its insulin producing cells). Neonatal diabetes is caused by a change in a gene which affects insulin production. This means that levels of blood glucose (sugar) in the body rise very high. The main feature of neonatal diabetes is being diagnosed with diabetes under the age of 6 months, and this is where it’s different from Type 1, as Type 1 doesn’t affect anyone under 6 months. As well as this, about 20 per cent of people with neonatal diabetes also have some developmental delay (eg muscle weakness, learning difficulties) and epilepsy. Neonatal diabetes is very rare, currently there are less than 100 people diagnosed with it in the UK. There are two types of neonatal diabetes – transient and permanent. As the name suggests, transient neonatal diabetes doesn’t last forever and usually resolves before the age of 12 months. But it usually recurs later on in life, generally during the teenage years. It accounts for 50–60 per cent of all cases. Permanent neonatal diabetes as you might expect, lasts forever and accounts for 40–50 per cent of all cases. Around 50 per cent of people with neonatal diabetes don’t need insulin and can be treated with a tablet called Glibenclamide instead. These people have a change in the KCNJ11 or ABCC8 gene and need higher doses of Glibenclamide than would be used to treat type 2 diabetes. As well as controlling blood glucose levels, Glibenclamide can also improve the symptoms of developmental delay. It’s important to know if you have/your child has neonatal diabetes to make sure you’re/they’re getti Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Babies

Diabetes In Babies

What is diabetes in a baby? Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects the body’s ability to process blood sugar. There are two subtypes of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1, sometimes called juvenile diabetes, is the kind that affects babies and toddlers. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not known, but it is believed that the body destroys the cells that normally make insulin, a hormone that keeps blood sugar levels in check. Because the body can’t make insulin (or adequate amounts of insulin), blood sugar levels can skyrocket, causing damage to the organs of the body — but only if left unchecked. If blood sugar levels are well-controlled, though, your child’s risk of organ damage is low. Today, type 1 diabetes is considered a manageable, chronic condition. “Having diabetes does not mean that your child can’t play sports or join any clubs or activities when she’s older. It doesn’t mean that she won’t be able to have babies,” says Natasha Burgert, MD, FAAP, pediatrician at Pediatric Associates in Kansas City, Missouri. “They can fully participate in all of the usual major life milestones.” What are the symptoms of diabetes in babies? Weight loss is often the first symptom of diabetes in young children. “Weight is a vital sign in infants, and kids who have type 1 diabetes will be eating regularly, perhaps even more than average, but will be unable to gain weight,” Burgert says. Unexplained vomiting may also be a symptom of diabetes. When a child’s blood sugar rises (because there’s not enough insulin in the body to keep it under control), she may throw up increasing amounts over a three- or four-day period for no apparent reason. If your child has been vomiting, but has no other symptoms of stomach illness, such as a fever or diarrh Continue reading >>

What Are The Different Types Of Diabetes?

What Are The Different Types Of Diabetes?

What are the different types of diabetes? Diabetes is a group of diseases in which the body either doesn’t produce enough or any insulin, does not properly use the insulin that is produced, or a combination of both. When any of these things happens, the body is unable to get sugar from the blood into the cells. That leads to high blood sugar levels. Glucose, the form of sugar found in your blood, is one of your chief energy sources. Lack of insulin or resistance to insulin causes sugar to build up in your blood. This can lead to many health problems. The three main types of diabetes are: type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes gestational diabetes Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is believed to be an autoimmune condition. It happens when your immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the beta cells in your pancreas that produce insulin. The damage is permanent. What prompts the attack isn’t clear. There may be both genetic and environmental components. Lifestyle factors aren’t thought to play a role. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes starts as insulin resistance. This means your body can’t use insulin efficiently. That stimulates your pancreas to produce more insulin until it can no longer keep up with demand. Insulin production decreases, which leads to high blood sugar. The exact cause is unknown. Contributing factors may include genetics, lack of exercise, and being overweight. There may also be other health factors and environmental reasons. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes is due to insulin blocking hormones produced during pregnancy. This type of diabetes only occurs during pregnancy. Learn more: What you should know about pregestational diabetes » General symptoms of diabetes include: excessive thirst and hunger frequent urination drowsiness or fatigue Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. Type 2 diabetes If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chan Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Overview Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body's cells don't react to insulin These pages are about type 1 diabetes. Other types of diabetes are covered separately (read about type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, which affects some women during pregnancy). Symptoms of diabetes Typical symptoms of type 1 diabetes are: feeling very thirsty passing urine more often than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk The symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop very quickly in young people (over a few days or weeks). In adults, the symptoms often take longer to develop (a few months). Read more about the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. These symptoms occur because the lack of insulin means that glucose stays in the blood and isn’t used as fuel for energy. Your body tries to reduce blood glucose levels by getting rid of the excess glucose in your urine. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible, because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. Find your local GP service Read about how type 1 diabetes is diagnosed. Causes of type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, which means your immune system attacks healthy body tissue by mistake. In this case, it attacks the cells in your pancreas. Your damaged pancreas is then unable to produce insulin. So, glucose cannot be moved out of your bloodstream and into your cells. Type 1 diabetes is o Continue reading >>

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. You have Type 2 diabetes if your tissues are resistant to insulin, and if you lack enough insulin to overcome this resistance. You have Type 2 diabetes if your tissues are resistant to insulin, and if you lack enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes of diabetes worldwide and accounts for 90-95% of cases. Risk Factors Your risk of type 2 diabetes typically increases when you are: Other risk factors are: Family history of diabetes in close relatives Being of African, Asian, Native American, Latino, or Pacific Islander ancestry High blood pressure High blood levels of fats, known as triglycerides, coupled with low levels of high-density lipoprotein, known as HDL, in the blood stream Prior diagnosis of pre-diabetes such as glucose intolerance or elevated blood sugar In women, a history of giving birth to large babies (over 9 lbs) and/or diabetes during pregnancy Type 2 diabetes is strongly inherited These are some of the statistics: 80-90% of people with Type 2 diabetes have other family members with diabetes. 10-15% of children of a diabetic parent will develop diabetes. If one identical twin has type 2 diabetes, there is up to a 75% chance that the other will also be diabetic. There are many genetic or molecular causes of type 2 diabetes, all of which result in a high blood sugar. As yet, there is no single genetic test to determine who is at risk for type 2 diabetes. To develop type 2 diabetes, you must be born with the genetic traits for diabetes. Because there is a wide range of genetic causes, there is also a wide range in how you will respond to treatment. You may be easily treated with just a change in diet or you may need multiple types of medication. The ha Continue reading >>

Ask The Diabetes Team

Ask The Diabetes Team

Question: From Thomasville, North Carolina, USA: I do not have diabetes but my boyfriend does. Other people in my family and in his have diabetes. He has type 1 diabetes, diagnosed when he was 12. He is 18 and will turn 19 in October 2011. My question is, because he's type 1 diabetic and I am not, when we have children, will our children have diabetes when they are born? Are there tests that doctors can do to test unborn babies for diabetes? Also, are there medications that doctors can administer during pregnancy to prevent the baby from getting diabetes? When my boyfriend's mother was pregnant, her doctors were treating her with some kind of medication to keep the baby from getting diabetes and she lost the baby. We don't feel comfortable asking her about the drugs they were giving her or why she thought she lost the baby. Answer: It is extremely rare for a baby to have diabetes "when they are born." While this can occur, it is not at all common. Might a child the two of you have develop diabetes mellitus later in life? Yes, they might. Type 2 diabetes is the more common type of diabetes that is more often associated with lifestyles of poor eating habits, inactivity, and obesity. Type 2 diabetes more often occurs in adults but, unfortunately, because of the epidemic of childhood obesity, we are seeing this more in children and teens and young adults, too. Type 2 diabetes can run in families but is, by-and-large, avoidable with good attention to staying trim, active, eating a balanced diet, etc. Type 2 diabetes may not necessarily require insulin injections. Type 1 diabetes, the type your boyfriend is said to have, can also be inherited. But, type 1 diabetes requires insulin injections in order to stay alive! Type 1 diabetes is associated with some specific configuratio Continue reading >>

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

In the normal digestive process, your body breaks down much of the food you eat into glucose, a simple sugar that's stored in your body and used for energy. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates the amount of glucose in your blood by helping liver, muscle, and fat cells absorb the sugar. Diabetes is a disease that develops when your pancreas doesn't make enough insulin, or your body doesn't use insulin properly — resulting in high blood glucose levels, which can cause a range of health issues. There are several types of diabetes: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most common. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body produces little to no insulin. It’s considered an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system erroneously attacks and destroys the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin. Type 1 — previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile-onset diabetes (because it often develops at a young age) — accounts for about 5 percent of all diabetes diagnoses, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Type 2 diabetes develops when liver, muscle, and fat cells don't respond properly to insulin and become "insulin resistant." Glucose doesn't enter the cells as efficiently as before, and instead builds up in the bloodstream. In type 2, the pancreas responds to these increased blood glucose levels by producing more insulin. Eventually, however, it can no longer make enough insulin to handle spikes in glucose levels — such as what happens after meals. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes, according to the CDC. Type 1 Diabetes Prevalence In 2012, an estimated 29.1 million people in the United States — 9.3 percent of the population — had diabetes, according to Continue reading >>

After The Birth With Type 1 Or 2 Diabetes

After The Birth With Type 1 Or 2 Diabetes

Your insulin dose should be reduced to about a quarter less than the dose you were taking before you became pregnant to make sure you don’t become hypoglycaemic. If you treat you diabetes with insulin and are breastfeeding, you are at higher risk of having a hypo so you should keep a snack available before or during feeds. Your diabetes team should discuss all this with you before you have your baby. Most women are able to have skin-to-skin contact with the baby just after they are born, and you should be able to keep your baby with you unless there is a medical reason they need to be admitted into intensive or special care. You and/or your baby may receive some extra care and monitoring just after the birth if needed, and you will definitely need to stay in hospital for at least 24 hours, until the team are happy that your baby has healthy blood glucose levels and is feeding well. Once the team is happy that you and the baby are healthy, the regular appointments at the diabetes clinic will stop, but you still need to keep on top of your care. After you are discharged from antenatal services, you will be referred back to your standard diabetes service. Managing your glucose levels with a new baby If you were taking insulin before you became pregnant, you or your healthcare team will need to monitor your glucose levels regularly to check what dose you should be on now. Many women find it very difficult to maintain the levels of control they had before they became pregnant once they have a baby to care for and nights of broken sleep. Talk to your team about the level you can aim for. Breastfeeding with type 1/2 diabetes You can return to your previous medications as soon as your baby is born. But if you are breastfeeding, you need to make sure that any medication you ar Continue reading >>

More in diabetes