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What Is The Relationship Between Diabetes And Obesity?

Myhealthywaist.org - Abdominal Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Myhealthywaist.org - Abdominal Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

The fast, simultaneous growth of obesity and type 2 diabetes has led to the coining of the term diabesity to illustrate the close relationship between these two diseases. A preferential accumulation of abdominal adipose tissue has been linked to glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance, which are metabolic complications predictive of increased type 2 diabetes risk. Using simple tools such as waist circumference to measure intra-abdominal adiposity can help assess type 2 diabetes risk independent of relative weight (BMI). These findings underscore the need to go beyond simple measurement of total body weight and BMI when evaluating type 2 diabetes risk in patients. As a health hazard, obesity has been linked to numerous metabolic complications such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( 1 ). The number of overweight or obese individuals is fast increasing worldwide, and this increase has meant a concomitant rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes ( 2 ). With type 2 diabetes reaching epidemic proportions, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has predicted that the number of individuals with diabetes may rise to almost 333 million by 2025 ( 3 ). For this reason, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called obesity and diabetes the 21st century epidemic ( 4 ). The term diabesity has been coined ( 5,6 ) to emphasize the close relationship between these two diseases. Indeed, obesity and type 2 diabetes frequently occur together, and the vast majority of type 2 diabetic individuals are or have been obese ( 7,8 ). Along with genetic susceptibility, obesity is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes ( 9,10 ). The term diabesity singles out excess body weight as the major cause of type 2 diabetes ( 5 ). The Continue reading >>

The Little-known Connection Between Diabetes And Breast Cancer

The Little-known Connection Between Diabetes And Breast Cancer

The Little-Known Connection between Diabetes and Breast Cancer In a hurry? Click here to read the Article Summary... Diabetes, especially lifestyle and diet-related Type 2 Diabetes, has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. And sadly not just for adults, but for children and teens as well. This is not breaking news. Still, the statistics can be scary. Close to 10% of the U.S population have been diagnosed with the disease and an estimated additional8.1 million Americans went undiagnosed in 2014, according to the Centers for Disease Control. This includes close to 4,000 new cases of Childhood Type 2 Diabetes each year (something that was unheard of just 15 years ago). And these statistics do not even include the 40% of Americans who, according to the CDC, may be deemed pre-diabetic. The Connection Between Diabetes and Cancer Is Real A study of close to one million people registered with the national Diabetes Service Scheme (NDSS) in Australia who were diagnosed between the years 1997 to 2008 discovered that there were high correlations was between Type 2 Diabetes and cancer. Specifically, these include pancreatic, liver, endometrium, kidney, thyroid and gallbladder cancer as well as certain kinds of leukemia. A 2014 report by the World Journal of Diabetes found that high correlationalso existed between Type 2 Diabetes and breast cancer as well. Increasing rates of both diabetes and cancer over the last decade has led scientists to try to determine the specific chemical and biological connections between the two diseases. For years, conventional wisdom stated that obesity was the common cause. Now more evidence points to factors related to insulin instead. There are a few connections between insulin levels and cancer. First of all, studies have shown that tu Continue reading >>

Study Finds Direct Link Between Sugar And Diabetes

Study Finds Direct Link Between Sugar And Diabetes

Study finds direct link between sugar and diabetes Does eating too much sugar cause diabetes? For years, scientists have said, Not exactly. Eating too much of any food, including sugar, can cause you to gain weight; its the resulting obesity that predisposes people to diabetes, according to the prevailing theory. But now the results of a large epidemiological study suggest that sugar may also have a direct link to diabetes. Researchers examined data on sugar availability and diabetes rates from 175 countries over the past decade. They found that increased sugar in a populations food supply was linked to higher diabetes rates, independent of obesity rates. It was quite a surprise, said Sanjay Basu , MD, PhD, an assistant professor of medicine at the Stanford Prevention Research Center . Were not diminishing the importance of obesity, but these data suggest that there are additional factors that contribute to diabetes risk besides obesity and total calorie intake, and that sugar appears to play a prominent role. The findings do not prove that sugar causes diabetes, Basu emphasized. But more sugar was correlated with more diabetes, and diabetes rates dropped over time when sugar availability dropped. Continue reading >>

University Of Helsinki - Diabetes And Obesity Research Program

University Of Helsinki - Diabetes And Obesity Research Program

IDentifying Early Factors In Syndrome X (IDEFIX) - Research Our overarching aim is to study critical periods of growth and development associated with health and disease from a life course perspective, taking into account genetic factors, and to identify underlying mechanisms and protective factors. We will provide scientifically and clinically important and novel information on the roles of prenatal and postnatal growth in the development of major public health outcomes like type 2 diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial and lifestyle factors will be taken into account. We hypothesise that these outcomes, in part, share common early life vulnerability factors. In the present proposal we pursue this aim in two longitudinal Finnish birth cohorts. Furthermore, we aim at study underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in several models of programming. 1. To identify critical periods of growth associated with: a) Type 2 diabetes b) Obesity c) Metabolic syndrome d) Cardiovascular disease. - Medical conditions, socio-economic and lifestyle factors elucidate the mechanisms of this link, and many are potentially modifiable. This aspect will be taken into account. 2. To study how the above described relationships are modified by genetic variations between individuals. - This aim will be based upon a genome wide association study (GWAS) that has been performed in the HBCS. In combination with other cohorts HBCS will add to the statistical power to detect novel genetic susceptibility loci. 3. Gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. - We will investigate possible interactions between genotypes, and genotypes and environmental influences throughout the life course. - We will assess the importance of epigenetic regulation by e.g. DNA Continue reading >>

Quantity Of Sugar In Food Supply Linked To Diabetes Rates

Quantity Of Sugar In Food Supply Linked To Diabetes Rates

Does eating too much sugar cause diabetes? For years, scientists have said “not exactly.” Eating too much of any food, including sugar, can cause you to gain weight; it’s the resulting obesity that predisposes people to Type 2 diabetes, according to the prevailing theory. But now the results of a large epidemiological study conducted at UC San Francisco suggest that sugar may also have a direct, independent link to diabetes. Researchers examined data on global sugar availability and diabetes rates from 175 countries over the past decade. After accounting for obesity and a large array of other factors, the researchers found that increased sugar in a population’s food supply was linked to higher Type 2 diabetes rates, independent of obesity rates. Their study was published Feb. 27 in PLOS ONE. The study provides the first large-scale, population-based evidence for the idea that not all calories are equal from a diabetes-risk standpoint. “It was quite a surprise,” said Sanjay Basu, MD, PhD, an assistant professor of medicine at the Stanford Prevention Research Center and the study’s lead author. The research was conducted while Basu was a medical resident at UCSF and working with Robert Lustig, MD, a pediatric endocrinologist at UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital and the paper’s senior author. “We’re not diminishing the importance of obesity at all, but these data suggest that at a population level there are additional factors that contribute to diabetes risk besides obesity and total calorie intake, and that sugar appears to play a prominent role.” Specifically, more sugar was correlated with more diabetes: For every additional 150 calories of sugar available per person per day, the prevalence of diabetes in the population rose 1 percent, even after Continue reading >>

More Evidence Ties Childhood Obesity To Type 2 Diabetes In Kids

More Evidence Ties Childhood Obesity To Type 2 Diabetes In Kids

(Reuters Health) - Rates of type 2 diabetes among children in the UK have been rising, and tracking along with increased obesity and severe obesity, researchers say. Based on data for hundreds of thousands of UK children and teens, the study found that obese kids were four times as likely as normal weight children to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, which has already been linked to obesity in adults. “Obesity is a major global health issue. More than half of adults and one out of three children leaving primary school are now overweight or obese,” said lead study author Ali Abbasi of King’s College London. More than 12 million children and teens in the United States are considered obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About 3,600 cases of type 2 diabetes are diagnosed in children and teens each year in the U.S. “The rapidity of the increase in type 2 diabetes is a real concern, which may have an important impact on the health of future generations,” Abbasi told Reuters Health by email. Abbasi and colleagues looked at records from 375 doctors’ offices across the UK for the years 1994 through 2013. They analyzed data from 369,362 patients between ages 2 and 15, tracking new cases of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and comparing them to children’s body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight relative to height, over time. There were 654 type 2 diabetes cases and 1,318 type 1 diabetes cases diagnosed during the study period. The incidence of type 2 diabetes among the children rose from 6.4 cases per 100,000 people per year in 1994 - 1998 to 33.2 cases per 100,000 per year in 2009 - 2013, the study team reports in Journal of the Endocrine Society. The increase took place primarily among overweight and obese children, and the greates Continue reading >>

The Relationship Between Obesity And Wound Care

The Relationship Between Obesity And Wound Care

Obesity can contribute to the development of wounds and affect the wound healing process. There are many factors that affect wound healing, both internal and external, and obesity is a major one. People who are morbidly overweight are naturally predisposed to a variety of skin challenges, including incontinence dermatitis and fungal infections. The obese are also more likely to develop ulcers caused by pressure to the skin, and they tend to experience delayed wound healing. Such threats to the skin put patients at increased risk to infection and are enhanced by other conditions caused by obesity, such as immobility and diabetes. Greater risks among obese People who suffer from obesity take longer to heal from their wounds, but they are also more likely to experience complications during the wound healing process. According to the National Institutes of Health, this is because the obese are more likely to experience: Infection: Scientists believe that obesity negatively affects the immune system, enhancing one’s susceptibility to infection. Seromas: These collections of serum, often formed by anticoagulation, cause the incision to separate, exposing the wound to bacteria and making it more susceptible to infection. Incision dehiscence: This surgery complication is the partial or complete separation of the incision’s outer layers, which exposes the wound to bacteria. Anastomotic leaks: After gastric bypass surgery, a new connection to the intestines, the anastomosis, is created. In the obese, this has a greater risk of not healing properly and may leak, which can lead to infection. While little scientific research has been done to figure out just why the obese have a harder time with wound care, evidence points to two factors: poor nutrition and diabetes. Poor nutriti Continue reading >>

Relationship Between Obesity, Insulin Resistance, And Coronary Heart Disease Risk

Relationship Between Obesity, Insulin Resistance, And Coronary Heart Disease Risk

Abstract The study goals were to: 1) define the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance in 314 nondiabetic, normotensive, healthy volunteers; and 2) determine the relationship between each of these two variables and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. The importance of obesity as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension is well-recognized, but its role as a CHD risk factor in nondiabetic, normotensive individuals is less well established. Insulin resistance was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the last 30 min of a 180-min infusion of octreotide, glucose, and insulin. In addition, nine CHD risk factors: age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and glucose and insulin responses to a 75-g oral glucose load were measured in the volunteers. The BMI and the SSPG concentration were significantly related (r = 0.465, p < 0.001). The BMI and SSPG were both independently associated with each of the nine risk factors. In multiple regression analysis, SSPG concentration added modest to substantial power to BMI with regard to the prediction of DBP, HDL cholesterol and TG concentrations, and the glucose and insulin responses. Obesity and insulin resistance are both powerful predictors of CHD risk, and insulin resistance at any given degree of obesity accentuates the risk of CHD and type 2 diabetes. Figure 1. Relationship between body mass index and steady-state plasma glucose. Continue reading >>

Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes

Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes

The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent of people age 65 or older with diabetes die from some form of heart disease; and 16% die of stroke. Adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to die from heart disease than adults without diabetes. The American Heart Association considers diabetes to be one of the seven major controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Why are people with diabetes at increased risk for CVD? Diabetes is treatable, but even when glucose levels are under control it greatly increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. That's because people with diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, may have the following conditions that contribute to their risk for developing cardiovascular disease. High blood pressure (hypertension) High blood pressure has long been recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies report a positive association between hypertension and insulin resistance. When patients have both hypertension and diabetes, which is a common combination, their risk for cardiovascular disease doubles. Abnormal cholesterol and high triglycerides Patients with diabetes often have unhealthy cholesterol levels including high LDL ("bad") cholesterol, low HDL ("good") cholesterol, and high triglycerides. This triad of poor lipid counts often occurs in patients with premature coronary heart disease. It is also characteristic of a lipid disorder associated with insulin resistance called atherogenic dyslipidemia, or diabetic dyslipidemia in those patients with diabetes. Learn more about cholesterol abnormalities as they relate to diabetes. Obesity Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease Continue reading >>

Molecular Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Reveals Potential Therapy

Molecular Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Reveals Potential Therapy

Inflammatory molecule LTB4 promotes insulin resistance in obese mice and blocking the LTB4 receptor prevents and reverses type 2 diabetes in this model Obesity causes inflammation, which can in turn lead to type 2 diabetes. What isn’t well established is how inflammation causes diabetes — or what we can do to stop it. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that the inflammatory molecule LTB4 promotes insulin resistance, a first step in developing type 2 diabetes. What’s more, the team found that genetically removing the cell receptor that responds to LTB4, or blocking it with a drug, improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice. The study is published Feb. 23 by Nature Medicine. “This study is important because it reveals a root cause of type 2 diabetes,” said Jerrold M. Olefsky, MD, professor of medicine, associate dean for scientific affairs and senior author of the study. “And now that we understand that LTB4 is the inflammatory factor causing insulin resistance, we can inhibit it to break the link between obesity and diabetes.” Here’s what’s happening in obesity, according to Olefsky’s study. Extra fat, particularly in the liver, activates resident macrophages, the immune cells living there. These macrophages then do what they’re supposed to do when activated — release LTB4 and other immune signaling molecules to call up an influx of new macrophages. Then, in a positive feedback loop, the newly arriving macrophages also get activated and release even more LTB4 in the liver. This inflammatory response would be a good thing if the body was fighting off an infection. But when inflammation is chronic, as is the case in obesity, all of this extra LTB4 starts activating other cells, too. Like macrophages Continue reading >>

Association Between Obesity Indices And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Middle-aged And Elderly People In Jinan, China: A Cross-sectional Study

Association Between Obesity Indices And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Middle-aged And Elderly People In Jinan, China: A Cross-sectional Study

Background The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies with geographical area and race. Objectives To investigate the prevalence of T2DM and the proportion of subjects with undiagnosed T2DM. In addition, to compare the associations between different obesity indices and T2DM for middle-aged and elderly people from six communities in Jinan, China. Setting A cross-sectional study was designed and the study subjects were chosen from blocks which were randomly selected in the 6 communities of Jinan, China in 2011–2012. Participants A total of 3277 residents aged ≥50 years were eligible for this study, but 1563 people were excluded because they did not provide anthropometric data such as height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) or information about their current medication use. Hence, 1714 participants were included in the final data analysis. Results The prevalence of T2DM among people aged ≥50 years was 16.6% (19.3% for men and 15.3% for women) and the proportion of patients with undiagnosed T2DM was 32.7%. Compared with the lowest levels of body mass index (BMI), WC, waist-to-hip ratio or waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), the ORs and 95% CIs of the highest levels for men, after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, hypertension, TG and TC, were 1.607 (0.804 to 3.210), 2.189 (1.118 to 4.285), 1.873 (0.968 to 3.623) and 2.572 (1.301 to 5.083), respectively, and for women, 2.764 (1.622 to 4.712), 2.407 (1.455 to 3.985), 2.500 (1.484 to 4.211) and 2.452 (1.447 to 4.155), respectively. Conclusions Among adults aged ≥50 years in Jinan, China, the best indicator of the relationship be Continue reading >>

Obesity Linked To Type 1 Diabetes

Obesity Linked To Type 1 Diabetes

Though being overweight is the main risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes, it has not previously been thought to be a major factor in type 1 diabetes, once known as "juvenile-onset diabetes." Type 1 diabetes is considered to be a genetically driven autoimmune disorder in which the body destroys the insulin-producing cells that allow it to process glucose. In type 2 diabetes, the body produces insulin but is unable to use it properly, a condition known as insulin resistance. In a hypothesis first made public two years ago, U.K. researcher Terry Wilkin, MD, and colleagues suggested that type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are "one and the same disorder of insulin resistance set against different genetic backgrounds." To prove this, the researchers recently examined the relationship between body weight and age at diagnosis among a group of children with type 1 diabetes. Ninety-four children between the ages of 1 and 16 were included in the study, and a strong correlation was seen between the children's age at the time diabetes was diagnosed and their weight. The findings are published in the October issue of the American Diabetes Association journal Diabetes Care. "Basically, the age (at diagnosis) got younger and younger as the children got heavier and heavier," Wilkin tells WebMD. "This doesn't prove that insulin resistance drives type 1 diabetes, but it is some of the first direct evidence suggesting that it plays a role." Wilkins says the observation could explain why more and more children are developing type 1 diabetes and why they are doing so at earlier ages than ever before. Kids who develop type 1 diabetes are genetically predisposed to get the disease, but being overweight accelerates the process, he argues. Two other studies published in the same issue of Continue reading >>

Relationship Between Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension And Obesity, And Health-related Quality Of Life In Gaziantep, A Central South-eastern City In Turkey

Relationship Between Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension And Obesity, And Health-related Quality Of Life In Gaziantep, A Central South-eastern City In Turkey

Abstract Aims and objectives. The main goal of nursing care should be to increase health-related quality of life as well as improve the medical status of patients with chronic disease. For this reason, this study aims to evaluate and compare the health-related quality of life of patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity in Gaziantep, a south-eastern city in Turkey. Background. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity are the most decisive factors in terms of adversely affecting health-related quality of life. Design. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used. Method. In this study, the research population included a total of 1601 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity patients. To evaluate health-related quality of life of patients, Short Form-36 (SF-36) was used. Student’s t-test, one-way anova and chi-square analyses were used for comparisons between groups. Results. In total, 18·1% of patients had combined obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus; 16·1% had hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Approximately 16·1% had only hypertension; 15·4% had obesity and hypertension; 13·3% had diabetes mellitus; 12·7% had obesity and diabetes mellitus; and 8·4% had obesity. The health-related quality of life physical component mean scores of patients with combined obesity and hypertension were lower than that of the other groups (p < 0·05). Health-related quality of life physical component mean scores were determined as 34·5 (SD 0·4), and mental component mean scores were determined as 43·9 (SD 4·4). Health-related quality of life physical component mean scores of moderately active patients were higher, while older age and lower educational and income levels had a negative effect on health-related quality of life (p < 0·05). Conclusio Continue reading >>

Mechanisms Of Obesity-associated Insulin Resistance: Many Choices On The Menu

Mechanisms Of Obesity-associated Insulin Resistance: Many Choices On The Menu

Abstract Obesity-associated insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In the past decade, a large number of endocrine, inflammatory, neural, and cell-intrinsic pathways have been shown to be dysregulated in obesity. Although it is possible that one of these factors plays a dominant role, many of these factors are interdependent, and it is likely that their dynamic interplay underlies the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. Understanding the biology of these systems will inform the search for interventions that specifically prevent or treat insulin resistance and its associated pathologies. The number of obese individuals worldwide has reached 2.1 billion, leading to an explosion of obesity-related health problems associated with increased morbidity and mortality (Li et al. 2005; Olshansky 2005). Obese individuals develop resistance to the cellular actions of insulin, characterized by an impaired ability of insulin to inhibit glucose output from the liver and to promote glucose uptake in fat and muscle (Saltiel and Kahn 2001; Hribal et al. 2002). Insulin resistance is a key etiological factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which has reached epidemic proportions: In the United States, ∼6% of the current adult population is diagnosed with this disease. An additional 41 million people are prediabetic, with a constellation of insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia that puts them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (Zimmet et al. 2001; American Diabetes Association diabetes statistics at Lifestyle changes, while desirable, have proven difficult to achieve. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance will be required to combat the epidemics Continue reading >>

U.s. Youth With Type 1 Diabetes Overweight, But Obesity Epidemic Also Affecting European Youth

U.s. Youth With Type 1 Diabetes Overweight, But Obesity Epidemic Also Affecting European Youth

U.S. Youth with Type 1 Diabetes Overweight, but Obesity Epidemic Also Affecting European Youth U.S., Germany, and Austria pediatric type 1 diabetes population at increased risk for insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease; the downside of intensive insulin therapy BOSTON, July 8, 2015 – Adolescents with type 1 diabetes have not escaped the global obesity epidemic and those in the U.S. are significantly more overweight than their German and Austrian counterparts, according to a new study done by researchers from T1D Exchange. The findings are especially concerning as excessive weight puts adolescents with type 1 diabetes at higher risk for insulin resistance, severe hypoglycemia, and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death for type 1 diabetes patients. Researchers examined height and weight data of nearly 33,000 pediatric type 1 diabetes patients ages two through 18 via two massive databases: the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry, the most comprehensive type 1 diabetes database in the U.S., comprising more than 27,000 patients from 76 pediatric and adult endocrinology centers; and the Diabetes Prospective Follow-up (DPV) registry, a database with more than 40,000 patients from 209 centers in Germany and Austria. Nearly 40 percent of children in both registries were considered obese or overweight. However, children in the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry were more obese than those in the DPV (15 percent compared with 10 percent). The study, published online in The Journal of Pediatrics, is the first international comparison of body mass index (BMI) in pediatric type 1 diabetes patients. Historically, type 1 diabetes patients were often underweight because of ineffective methods of glucose control. However, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) Continue reading >>

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