Is My Blood Sugar Normal?
“Is my blood sugar normal?” seems like a simple question – but it’s not! The answer can vary dramatically based on your situation. Let’s look at some of the factors to consider. Please remember: you should figure out your personal goals in consultation with your doctor. Normal Blood Sugar in Diabetic vs. Non-Diabetic First, a quick note on how we measure blood sugar. In the USA, blood sugars are measured by weight in milligrams per deciliter, abbreviated as mg/dL. Most everyone else uses millimole per liter, abbreviated mmol. If you are in the USA, look at the big numbers, most everyone else look at the small numbers. In a person without diabetes, blood sugars tend to stay between 70 and 100 mg/dL (3.8 and 5.5 mmol). After a meal, blood sugars can rise up to 120 mg/dL or 6.7 mmol. It will typically fall back into the normal range within two hours. In a person with diabetes, the story is much more complex: Below 70 mg/dL Below 3.8 mmol Low Blood Sugars (Hypoglycemia). When blood sugars drop below this level, you may start feeling hunger, shakiness, or racing of the heart. Your body is starved for sugar (glucose). Read how to detect and treat low blood sugars. 70 mg/dL to 140 mg/dL 3.8 mmol to 7.7 mmol Normal Blood Sugar. In this range, the body is functioning normally. In someone without diabetes, the vast majority of the time is spent in the lower half of this range. 140 mg/dL to 180 mg/dL 7.7 mmol to 10 mmol Elevated Blood Sugars. In this range, the body can function relatively normally. However, extended periods of time in this zone put you at risk for long-term complications. Above 180 mg/dL Abovoe 10 mmol High Blood Sugars. At this range, the kidney is unable to reabsorb all of the glucose in your blood and you begin to spill glucose in your urine. Your bo Continue reading >>
Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High
Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes—when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread, and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and then transports the glucose to the cells via the bloodstream. Body Needs Insulin However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes may have enough insulin, but their body doesn't use it well; they're insulin resistant. Some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce enough insulin. People with diabetes may become hyperglycemic if they don't keep their blood glucose level under control (by using insulin, medications, and appropriate meal planning). For example, if someone with type 1 diabetes doesn't take enough insulin before eating, the glucose their body makes from that food can build up in their blood and lead to hyperglycemia. Your endocrinologist will tell you what your target blood glucose levels are. Your levels may be different from what is usually considered as normal because of age, pregnancy, and/or other factors. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as when you don't eat for at least eight hours. Recommended range without diabet Continue reading >>
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How Blood Sugar Affects Your Body
When you have diabetes, your blood sugar (glucose) levels may be consistently high. Over time, this can damage your body and lead to many other problems. How much sugar in the blood is too much? And why is high glucose so bad for you? Here’s a look at how your levels affect your health. They're less than 100 mg/dL after not eating (fasting) for at least 8 hours. And they're less than 140 mg/dL 2 hours after eating. During the day, levels tend to be at their lowest just before meals. For most people without diabetes, blood sugar levels before meals hover around 70 to 80 mg/dL. For some people, 60 is normal; for others, 90. What's a low sugar level? It varies widely, too. Many people's glucose won't ever fall below 60, even with prolonged fasting. When you diet or fast, the liver keeps your levels normal by turning fat and muscle into sugar. A few people's levels may fall somewhat lower. Doctors use these tests to find out if you have diabetes: Fasting plasma glucose test. The doctor tests your blood sugar levels after fasting for 8 hours and it’s higher than 126 mg/dL. Oral glucose tolerance test. After fasting for 8 hours, you get a special sugary drink. Two hours later your sugar level is higher than 200. Random check. The doctor tests your blood sugar and it’s higher than 200, plus you’re peeing more, always thirsty, and you’ve gained or lost a significant amount of weight. He’ll then do a fasting sugar level test or an oral glucose tolerance test to confirm the diagnosis. Any sugar levels higher than normal are unhealthy. Levels that are higher than normal, but not reaching the point of full-blown diabetes, are called prediabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, 86 million people in the U.S. have this condition, which can lead to diabetes Continue reading >>
Glucose: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection And Panels
Postprandial plasma glucose at 2 hours: Less than 140 mg/dL Random plasma glucose: Less than 140 mg/dL Serum glucose values are 1.15% lower than plasma glucose values. [ 1 ] Values for diabetes mellitus are as follows: Fasting plasma glucose: Greater than 125 mg/dL Random plasma glucose: Greater than 200 mg/dL Postprandial glucose at 2 hours: Greater than 200 mg/dL Impaired fasting glucose: Fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dL Impaired glucose tolerance testing: Postprandial glucose at 2 hours of 140-200 mg/dL The value for hypoglycemia is as follows: Collect 0.5-1 ml of blood in gray-top tube containing sodium fluoride. For serum glucose, a red-top tube can be used. Serum is separated within 45 minutes of collection. For fasting glucose testing, collect the blood sample in the morning after an overnight or 8-hour fast. For postprandial glucose testing, collect the blood sample 2 hours after a regular meal. For oral glucose tolerance testing, after oral intake of 75 g of glucose, collect blood samples at 1 hour and 2 hours. For gestational diabetes testing, parameters are 1 hour after 50 g of glucose and 2 hours after 100 g of glucose. Glucose is a monosaccharide and is a primary metabolite for energy production in the body. Glucose enters via GLUT receptors. Of the 10 GLUT receptors, GLUT-4 receptors are present in muscle and adipose tissues and require insulin for glucose transport. Glucose is initially used by glycolysis and is converted to pyruvate. During this process, 4 adenosine triphosphates (ATPs) and 2 NADHs are generated and 2 ATPs are used, resulting in net production of 2 ATPs. This process does not use oxygen (anaerobic metabolism). In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate undergoes metabolism by the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria. During the Krebs cycle, each mo Continue reading >>
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What Is Normal Blood Sugar?
Blood sugar, or glucose, is an important source of energy and provides nutrients to your body's organs, muscles and nervous system. The body gets glucose from the food you eat, and the absorption, storage and production of glucose is regulated constantly by complex processes involving the small intestine, liver and pancreas. Normal blood sugar varies from person to person, but a normal range for fasting blood sugar (the amount of glucose in your blood six to eight hours after a meal) is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter. For most individuals, the level of glucose in the blood rises after meals. A normal blood-sugar range after eating is between 135 and 140 milligrams per deciliter. These variations in blood-sugar levels, both before and after meals, are normal and reflect the way that glucose is absorbed and stored in the body. After you eat, your body breaks down the carbohydrates in food into smaller parts, including glucose, which can be absorbed by the small intestine. As the small intestine absorbs glucose, the pancreas releases insulin, which stimulates body tissues and causes them to absorb this glucose and metabolize it (a process known as glycogenesis). This stored glucose (glycogen) is used to maintain healthy blood-sugar levels between meals. When glucose levels drop between meals, the body takes some much-needed sugar out of storage. The process is kicked off by the pancreas, which releases a hormone known as glucagon, which promotes the conversion of stored sugar (glycogen) in the liver back to glucose. The glucose is then released into the bloodstream. When there isn't enough glucose stored up to maintain normal blood-sugar levels, the body will even produce its own glucose from noncarbohydrate sources (such as amino acids and glycerol). This pro Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Level
The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals. One of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted. The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals. Glucose is a simple sugar and approximately 4 grams of glucose are present in the blood of humans at all times. The body tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis. Glucose is stored in skeletal muscle and liver cells in the form of glycogen; in fasted individuals, blood glucose is maintained at a constant level at the expense of glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscle. In humans, glucose is the primary source of energy, and is critical for normal function, in a number of tissues, particularly the human brain which consumes approximately 60% of blood glucose in fasted, sedentary individuals. Glucose can be transported from the intestines or liver to other tissues in the body via the bloodstream. Cellular glucose uptake is primarily regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day, and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimoles. Blood sugar levels outside the normal range may be an indicator of a medical condition. A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, and is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation. There are different methods of testing and measuring blood sugar le Continue reading >>
What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?
The aim of diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar (“glucose”) as close to normal as possible. What is a normal blood sugar level? And how can you achieve normal blood sugar? First, what is the difference between “sugar” and “glucose”? Sugar is the general name for sweet carbohydrates that dissolve in water. “Carbohydrate” means a food made only of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. There are various different kinds of sugars. The one our body uses most is called “glucose.” Other sugars we eat, like fructose from fruit or lactose from milk, are converted into glucose in our bodies. Then we can use them for energy. Our bodies also break down starches, which are sugars stuck together, into glucose. When people talk about “blood sugar,” they mean “blood glucose.” The two terms mean the same thing. In the U.S., blood sugar is normally measured in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (mg/dl). A milligram is very little, about 0.00018 of a teaspoon. A deciliter is about 3 1/3 ounces. In Canada and the United Kingdom, blood sugar is reported in millimoles/liter (mmol/L). You can convert Canadian or British glucose levels to American numbers if you multiply them by 18. This is useful to know if you’re reading comments or studies from England or Canada. If someone reports that their fasting blood glucose was 7, you can multiply that by 18 and get their U.S. glucose level of 126 mg/dl. What are normal glucose numbers? They vary throughout the day. (Click here for a blood sugar chart.) For someone without diabetes, a fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meal normal sugars are 70–99 mg/dl. “Postprandial” sugars taken two hours after meals should be less than 140 mg/dl. Those are the normal numbers for someone w Continue reading >>
Fasting Blood Sugar: Normal Levels And Testing
Fasting blood sugar provides vital clues about how the body is managing blood sugar levels. Blood sugar tends to peak about an hour after eating, and declines after that. High fasting blood sugar levels point to insulin resistance or diabetes. Abnormally low fasting blood sugar could be due to diabetes medications. Knowing when to test and what to look for can help keep people with, or at risk of, diabetes healthy. What are fasting blood sugar levels? Following a meal, blood sugar levels rise, usually peaking about an hour after eating. How much blood sugar rises by and the precise timing of the peak depends on diet. Large meals tend to trigger larger blood sugar rises. High-sugar carbohydrates, such as bread and sweetened snacks, also cause more significant blood sugar swings. Normally, as blood sugar rises, the pancreas releases insulin. Insulin lowers blood sugar, breaking it down so that the body can use it for energy or store it for later. However, people who have diabetes have difficulties with insulin in the following ways: People with type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin because the body attacks insulin-producing cells. People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well to insulin and, later, may not make enough insulin. In both cases, the result is the same: elevated blood sugar levels and difficulties using sugar. This means that fasting blood sugar depends on three factors: the contents of the last meal the size of the last meal the body's ability to produce and respond to insulin Blood sugar levels in between meals offer a window into how the body manages sugar. High levels of fasting blood sugar suggest that the body has been unable to lower the levels of sugar in the blood. This points to either insulin resistance or inadequate insulin production, an Continue reading >>
What Are Normal Blood Sugar Levels?
Normal blood sugar levels are less than 100 mg/dL after not eating (fasting) for at least eight hours. And they're less than 140 mg/dL two hours after eating. During the day, levels tend to be at their lowest just before meals. For most people without diabetes, blood sugar levels before meals hover around 70 to 80 mg/dL. For some people, 60 is normal; for others, 90 is the norm. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: "Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2." American Diabetes Association: "Checking Your Blood Glucose;" "Type 2 Diabetes Complications;" and ''National Diabetes Fact Sheet 2011.'' Robertson, R. 2003. Diabetes, Brownlee, M. 1994. Diabetes, Wautier, J. 1994. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Christiansen, J. "What Is Normal Glucose?" presentation at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting, September 13, 2006. Fuller, J. 1980. Lancet, Riddle, M. 1990. Diabetes Care, Rao, S. 2004. American Family Physician, Cryer, P. 1993. American Journal of Physiology, Reviewed by Arefa Cassoobhoy on December 19, 2017 National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: "Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2." American Diabetes Association: "Checking Your Blood Glucose;" "Type 2 Diabetes Complications;" and ''National Diabetes Fact Sheet 2011.'' Robertson, R. 2003. Diabetes, Brownlee, M. 1994. Diabetes, Wautier, J. 1994. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Christiansen, J. "What Is Normal Glucose?" presentation at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting, September 13, 2006. Fuller, J. 1980. Lancet, Riddle, M. 1990. Diabetes Care, Rao, S. 2004. American Family Physician, Continue reading >>
Is There A 'safe' Blood Sugar Level?
What is the "safe" blood sugar level? I have heard several opinions from other diabetics, and I am very confused. I was told that it was 154 about a year ago, and my doctor didn't recommend daily monitoring. At one time on a morning fasting, my level was 74. — Theresa, Alabama Yes, there is a safe blood sugar level. It is the optimum range that safely provides the body with adequate amounts of energy. For the average person, it is 70 to 105 mg/dl in a fasting state. (Diabetes is diagnosed when the fasting blood glucose level is at or above 126 mg/dl.) Glucose values vary depending on the time of day, your activity level, and your diet. Your sugar level of 154 mg/dl, which is high, may not have been determined while you were fasting. If it had been, a physician would have repeated the test. Your doctor did, and your level was determined to be normal at 74 mg/dl. In this case, daily monitoring is probably not necessary. If your levels are elevated in the future, you will be diagnosed with diabetes. Treatment can include lifestyle modification, diet, and exercise. If these strategies are not adequate to control your blood glucose level, your physician may prescribe oral medicines or insulin. Having a laboratory examination during your yearly physical and maintaining a healthy lifestyle are adequate for now. Why is it important to keep your glucose level within a normal range? An excess of glucose in the bloodstream causes various chemical changes that lead to damage to our blood vessels, nerves, and cells. Each cell in the body has a function that requires energy, and this energy comes primarily from glucose. The energy allows you to perform various tasks, including talking and walking. It allows your heart to beat and your brain to produce chemicals and signals that hel Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Test
A blood glucose test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including brain cells. Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into glucose in your body. This raises your blood glucose level. Hormones made in the body help control blood glucose level. Continue reading >>
What Are Normal Blood Glucose Levels?
If you get a physical every year, chances are that your doctor orders a blood test that will tell you, among other things, if your blood sugar level is “normal.” If it’s not, you may have diabetes, or be at risk for it in coming years. But what’s this strange thing called “normal” anyway? There’s two main ways to measure blood glucose, depending on where you’re located. If you’re in Europe: In Europe, blood sugar is measured using millimoles per litre. A “normal” blood glucose level comes in at around 4 – 7 mmol/L or 4 – 8 mmol/L for a child with Type 1 diabetes before meals. Two hours after a meal, a normal blood sugar range should be under 9 mmol/L for people with T1D. For T2D, the upper range is slightly lower at 8.5 mmol/L. You can find additional information on the Diabetes UK website. If you’re in the US: The clinical definition puts “normal” blood glucose at 70-120 mg/dL (milligrams per decilitre) if you’ve fasted eight to twelve hours, or 70-160 mg/dL if you did not fast. That probably makes perfect sense if you have “M.D.” after your name. If you don’t, here’s the translation: 70 to 120 milligrams per deciliter. Clear as … uh…. blood, right? Don’t worry, it’s just the mathematics of measuring density. Here’s an easier way to remember ideal levels, courtesy of doctor Mehmet Oz: Optimal blood glucose is less than 100 after a fast, less than 125 if you weren’t fasting. But even then, remember, glucose levels are like the tide, constantly ebbing and flowing, depending on when – and what – we last ate. What is blood glucose anyway? Blood glucose means the same thing as blood sugar. But ironically enough, the amount of sugars coursing through our blood is not based on our intake of sugar, but how many carbohyd Continue reading >>
Random Blood Glucose Test
RATE★★★★★ A random blood glucose test is used to diagnose diabetes. The test measures the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in your blood. If your blood glucose level is 200 mg/dL or higher and you have the classic symptoms of high blood sugar (excessive thirst, urination at night, blurred vision and, in some cases, weight loss) your doctor may diagnose you with diabetes. If you do not have any symptoms of high blood sugar, your doctor will probably have you take another test for further evidence of diabetes.1 Usually, having high blood glucose can be a sign that your body is not functioning normally and that you may have diabetes. If you have high blood glucose and it is not treated, it can lead to serious health complications. However, finding out that your blood glucose is elevated is powerful information that you can use to keep yourself healthy. If you know that your blood glucose is high, you can take steps to lower it, by losing weight (if you are overweight or obese), getting regular moderate physical activity, and taking a medication that lowers blood glucose.2 Why measuring blood glucose is important in diagnosing type 2 diabetes Our bodies require energy to function properly and we get that energy from the foods we eat. Our diet (everything we eat and drink) includes three main sources of energy (also known as calories): protein, fat, and carbohydrates (sugars, starches, and fibers).When the body digests most sources of carbohydrates, they are transformed through digestion into a very important source of instant energy, a form of sugar called glucose. Our bodies depend on the action of a number of different natural body chemicals called hormones, including insulin, amylin, incretins, and glucagon, working together in conjunction, to control how we Continue reading >>
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What Are The Ideal Levels Of Blood Sugar?
A blood sugar or blood glucose chart identifies ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day, including before and after meals. Doctors use blood sugar charts to set target goals and monitor diabetes treatment plans. Blood sugar charts also help those with diabetes assess and self-monitor blood sugar test results. What is a blood sugar chart? Blood sugar charts act as a reference guide for blood sugar test results. As such, blood sugar charts are important tools for diabetes management. Most diabetes treatment plans involve keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal or target goals as possible. This requires frequent at-home and doctor-ordered testing, along with an understanding of how results compare to target levels. To help interpret and assess blood sugar results, the charts outline normal and abnormal blood sugar levels for those with and without diabetes. In the United States, blood sugar charts typically report sugar levels in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). In the United Kingdom and many other countries, blood sugar is reported in millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A1C blood sugar recommendations are frequently included in blood sugar charts. A1C results are often described as both a percentage and an average blood sugar level in mg/dL. An A1C test measures the average sugar levels over a 3-month period, which gives a wider insight into a person's overall management of their blood sugar levels. Blood sugar chart guidelines Appropriate blood sugar levels vary throughout the day and from person to person. Blood sugars are often lowest before breakfast and in the lead up to meals. Blood sugars are often highest in the hours following meals. People with diabetes will often have higher blood sugar targets or acceptable ranges than those without the condition. These Continue reading >>
What Is The Normal Range For Blood Sugar Levels, And What Blood Sugar Level Constitutes A True Emergency?
Yahoo!-ABC News Network | 2018 ABC News Internet Ventures. All rights reserved. What Is The Normal Range For Blood Sugar Levels, And What Blood Sugar Level Constitutes A True Emergency? CLINICAL RESEARCH AT JOSLIN DIABETES CENTER, Question:What is the normal range for blood sugar levels, and what blood sugar level constitutes a true emergency? Answer:Now, in a normal individual we measure blood sugar under different circumstances. What we call fasting blood sugar or blood glucose levels is usually done six to eight hours after the last meal. So it's most commonly done before breakfast in the morning; and the normal range there is 70 to 100 milligrams per deciliter. Now when you eat a meal, blood sugar generally rises and in a normal individual it usually does not get above a 135 to 140 milligrams per deciliter. So there is a fairly narrow range of blood sugar throughout the entire day. Now in our diabetic patients we see both low blood sugar levels that we call hypoglycemia, or elevated blood sugars, hyperglycemia. Now, if the blood sugar drops below about 60 or 65 milligrams per deciliter, people will generally get symptoms, which are some shakiness, feeling of hunger, maybe a little racing of the heart and they will usually be trenchant or if they eat something, it goes away right away. But if blood sugar drops below 50 and can get down as low as 40 or 30 or even 20, then there is a progressive loss of mental function and eventually unconsciousness and seizures. And of course that is very dangerous and a medical emergency. On the other side, if blood sugar gets up above 180 to 200, then it exceeds the capacity of the kidneys to reabsorb the glucose and we begin to spill glucose into the urine. And if it gets way up high, up in the 400s or even 500s, it can be associa Continue reading >>