Chronic Complications Of Diabetes
Over time, the surge and crash of dissolved glucose and insulin that occurs in diabetes can end up causing irreparable damage to many body organs and systems. Doctors refer to this as "end-organ damage" because it can effect nearly every organ system in the body: Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) and Heart Disease. Hypertension is almost uniformly found in people with Type 2 Diabetes. As the blood glucose level increases our bodies attempt to use various means to lower the concentration of glucose back to "normal" levels. One way the body attempts to do this is by holding more fluid in the blood vessels. This extra fluid causes the pressure in the vessels to increase. Heightened blood pressure, in turn leads to a generalized weakening of the circulatory system. This can eventually lead to blood vessels bursting in some extreme cases (e.g., vascular stroke) or lead to the development of chronic blood flow problems in the limbs and other peripheral parts of the body. Chronically high insulin levels are also associated with early development of atherosclerotic plaques inside blood vessel walls, which lead to further risk of aneurysm, hypertension, stroke, and heart attack. Eye Disease. Untreated diabetes can lead to a variety of eye problems including blindness and reduced vision. Diabetes is the #1 cause of acquired blindness in people under the age of 65 and is one of the leading causes in older adults. People with diabetes experience damage to blood vessels and nerves in the back of the eye, an area called the retina. This leads to a condition called "Diabetic Retinopathy." Diabetes can also cause abnormal new growth of capillaries inside the retina that degrade blood flow and weaken vision. Once it occurs, damage to vision is permanent. However, when identified early Continue reading >>
Know the difference between acute and chronic complications. Acute complications can arise quickly. Chronic complications tend to arise over years or decades. Know the differences and you will be able to take effective precautions against both. Acute Complications Serious, life-threatening complications can arise quickly. Fortunately, such complications can go away just as quickly if you – and those closest to you — know what to do and how to do it. Acute complications arise from uncontrolled high blood sugars (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugars (hypoglycemia) caused by a mismatching of available insulin and need. In short, you either have taken too much diabetes medication or too little. Some acute complications require immediate medical attention. These emergencies include: Chronic Complications Chronic complications tend to arise over years or decades. Often, there is damage before there are symptoms so routine screening is recommended to catch and treat problems before they occur or get worse. Learn more about chronic complications. Problems include: VIGILANCE AND A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE PUT YOU IN CONTROL Self-assessment Quiz Self assessment quizzes are available for topics covered in this website. To find out how much you have learned about Diabetes Complications, take our self assessment quiz when you have completed this section. The quiz is multiple choice. Please choose the single best answer to each question. At the end of the quiz, your score will display. If your score is over 70% correct, you are doing very well. If your score is less than 70%, you can return to this section and review the information. Continue reading >>
Long-term Complications Of Diabetes
en espaolComplicaciones a largo plazo de la diabetes Many of the complications of diabetes don't show up until after many years even decades of having the disease. They usually develop silently and gradually over time, so even if people with diabetes aren't having any signs of complications, they may still eventually develop them. Talking or thinking about long-term complications can be scary. And it can be hard for anyone to make changes in how they live today to decrease the risk of health problems that may not show up for decades. But it's important to start now. Managing your diabetes by eating right, getting regular exercise, and taking your medicine as directed by your diabetes health care team is the best way to reduce the risk of developing complications. You may have wondered why doctors talk so much about keeping blood sugar levels in a healthy range. Here's why: Long-term diabetes problems or complications are often linked to higher blood sugar levels over a long period of time. These complications can affect several different parts of the body. But blood sugar control isn't the only thing that determines a person's risk for diabetes complications. Other factors, like genes, can also play a role. Parts of the body that can be most affected by diabetes complications are the: People with diabetes have a greater risk of developing eye problems, including: Cataracts: A cataract is a thickening and clouding of the lens of the eye. The lens is the part of the eye that helps you focus on what you see. Cataracts can make a person's vision blurry or make it hard to see at night. Doctors think that people with diabetes are more likely to develop cataracts if they have high blood sugar levels over a long period of time. If cataracts get in the way of seeing properly, a Continue reading >>
Avoiding Complications Of Diabetes
It can take work to get your diabetes under control, but the results are worth it. If you don't make the effort to get a handle on it, you could set yourself up for a host of complications. Diabetes can take a toll on nearly every organ in your body, including the: Heart and blood vessels Eyes Kidneys Nerves Gastrointestinal tract Gums and teeth Heart and Blood Vessels Heart disease and blood vessel disease are common problems for many people who don’t have their diabetes under control. You're at least twice as likely to have heart problems and strokes as people who don’t have the condition. Blood vessel damage or nerve damage may also cause foot problems that, in rare cases, can lead to amputations. People with diabetes are ten times likelier to have their toes and feet removed than those without the disease. Symptoms: You might not notice warning signs until you have a heart attack or stroke. Problems with large blood vessels in your legs can cause leg cramps, changes in skin color, and less sensation. The good news: Many studies show that controlling your diabetes can help you avoid these problems, or stop them from getting worse if you have them. Diabetes is the leading cause of new vision loss among adults ages 20 to 74 in the U.S. It can lead to eye problems, some of which can cause blindness if not treated: Glaucoma Cataracts Diabetic retinopathy, which involves the small blood vessels in your eyes Symptoms: Vision problems or sudden vision loss. The good news: Studies show that regular eye exams and timely treatment of these kinds of problems could prevent up to 90% of diabetes-related blindness. *CGM-based treatment requires fingersticks for calibration, if patient is taking acetaminophen, or if symptoms/expectations do not match CGM readings, and if not pe Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes Complications
eye disease, such as diabetic retinopathy nerve damage, such as diabetic neuropathy kidney disease, such as diabetic nephropathy heart disease and stroke, such as cardiovascular disease Eye Disease The early stage of diabetic retinopathy, known as "background" diabetic retinopathy, unfolds as the walls of the retina weaken from high blood sugar and high blood pressure, developing small, dot-like bulges, or "micro-aneurysms," which can leak fluid or blood into the surrounding tissue. In the second, more destructive stage, called proliferative diabetic retinopathy, new blood vessels form on the retina in response to the damage. When called to the spot where damage occurred, the cells generate new blood vessels as part of the repair. Nerve Damage Diabetic neuropathy is the medical name given to progressive damage to the nervous system caused by type 1 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy can lead to a loss of feeling in the hands and feet. Reduced circulation resulting from high blood glucose impairs normal wound healing in the extremities, so minor damage can linger and develop into permanent injury. At the same time, neuropathy can cause severe pain in limbs that otherwise have reduced normal sensation. Kidney Disease Diabetic kidney disease or diabetic nephropathy is a slow deterioration of the kidneys and kidney function which, in more severe cases, can eventually result in kidney failure, also known as end-stage renal disease, or ESRD. Heart Disease and Stroke Cardiovascular disease is a range of blood vessel system diseases that includes both stroke and heart attack. The two most common types of cardiovascular disease are coronary heart disease, caused by fatty deposits in the arteries that feed the heart, and hypertension, or high blood pressure. Contribute to JDRF researc Continue reading >>
Complications of diabetes Diabetes complications are divided into microvascular (due to damage to small blood vessels) and macrovascular (due to damage to larger blood vessels). Microvascular complications include damage to eyes (retinopathy) leading to blindness, to kidneys (nephropathy) leading to renal failure and to nerves (neuropathy) leading to impotence and diabetic foot disorders (which include severe infections leading to amputation). Macrovascular complications include cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks, strokes and insufficiency in blood flow to legs. There is evidence from large randomized-controlled trials that good metabolic control in both type 1 and 2 diabetes can delay the onset and progression of these complications. Diabetic retinopathy (eye disease) Etiology Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness and visual disability. It is caused by small blood vessel damage to the back layer of the eye, the retina, leading to progressive loss of vision, even blindness. Symptoms Usually the patient complains of blurred vision, although other visual symptoms may also be present. Diagnosis Diagnosis of early changes in the blood vessels of the retina can be made through regular eye examinations. Treatment Good metabolic control can delay the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. As well, early detection and treatment of vision-threatening retinopathy can prevent or delay blindness. This involves regular eye examinations and timely intervention Nephropathy (kidney disease) Etiology Diabetic kidney disease is also caused by damage to small blood vessels in the kidneys. This can cause kidney failure, and eventually lead to death. In developed countries, this is a leading cause of dialysis and kidney transplant. Symptoms Patients usually Continue reading >>
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Type 2 Diabetes Complications
With type 2 diabetes (also called type 2 diabetes mellitus), if you don’t work hard to keep your blood glucose level under control, there are short- and long-term complications to contend with. However, by watching the amount and types of food you eat (your meal plan), exercising, and taking any necessary medications, you may be able to prevent these complications. And even if you have some of the long-term, more serious complications discussed below when you’re first diagnosed, getting tight control of your blood glucose will help prevent the complications from becoming worse. (It is possible with type 2 diabetes to already have some of these complications when you’re first diagnosed. That’s because type 2 develops gradually, and you may not realize that you have high blood glucose for quite some time. Over time, high blood glucose can cause serious damage. You can learn more about that in this article on the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.) Short-term Diabetes Complications Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose (blood sugar). It is possible for your blood glucose to drop, especially if you’re taking insulin or a sulfonylurea drug (those make your body produce insulin throughout the day). With these medications, if you eat less than usual or were more active, your blood glucose may dip too much. Other possible causes of hypoglycemia include certain medications (aspirin, for example, lowers the blood glucose level if you take a dose of more than 81mg) and too much alcohol (alcohol keeps the liver from releasing glucose). Rapid heartbeat Sweating Whiteness of skin Anxiety Numbness in fingers, toes, and lips Sleepiness Confusion Headache Slurred speech Mild cases of hypoglycemia can be treated by drinking orange juice or eating a glucose tablet—those will quickly rai Continue reading >>
Acute And Chronic Complications Of Diabetes
Acute untreated hyperglycaemia will ultimately result in death, either through hyperosmolar coma or through diabetic keto-acidosis. Thus, when insulin became available in 1921, two things about the life of those with diabetes drastically altered. The good news was that their life-expectancy dramatically increased. The bad news was that living with diabetes and chronic hyperglycaemia for a long time exposes a person to a burden of many complications. Thus, diabetes is now one of the leading causes of acquired blindness and renal failure. In addition, diabetes patients, particularly those with type 2 diabetes, are at an increased risk for myocardial infarction and stroke. Painful neuropathy, diabetic foot ulceration and lower extremity amputations are some of the other common complications, but diabetes complications come in many forms and guises. To aggravate all of this, many of the therapies used to treat diabetes come with side effects. The most common of these is hypoglycaemia, which can vary from mild (but annoying) to serious, with epileptic insults, coma or even death. Reducing the risk of all these complications and side effects has turned out to be the challenge of diabetes treatment in the last century. Pathogenesis of diabetes complications Despite an enormous amount of research, the exact pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the complications of diabetes are still far from clear. Initially, research was mainly focused on the harmful effects of glucose. In his pivotal 2005 Banting Lecture, Michael Brownlee suggested a unifying theory where the root cause of hyperglycaemic complications is the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, most notably superoxide, in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This was supposed to be the initiating step that led t Continue reading >>
What's The Most Common Long-term Complication Of Diabetes?
Problems with the heart and blood vessels, according to the February issue of Mayo Clinic Women's HealthSource. Cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke, account for 65 percent of all diabetes-related deaths. People with diabetes are two to four times more likely to have a heart attack than is someone without the disease. For a middle-aged person with type 2 diabetes, the risk of a future heart attack is the same as that of someone who's already had a heart attack. Also attention getting: when people with diabetes have heart attacks, they are more serious and more likely to result in death than in adults without diabetes. People with diabetes are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease because too much blood sugar (glucose) can lead to damage inside blood vessel walls. This damage makes it easier for fatty deposits (plaques) to form in arteries and cause narrowing or blockages that can lead to heart attacks or strokes. Having diabetes doesn't mean heart disease is inevitable. Optimal control over the ABCs of diabetes, as suggested by the American Diabetes Association, can reduce heart disease risk. The ABCs are: A1C: The best way to measure blood glucose levels over time is the glycoslyated hemoglobin A1C test. This blood test, given by a physician, reflects average blood sugar control over three months. The ADA recommends maintaining the A1C level at less than 7 percent. New research has indicated that intensive measures required to get below 7 percent might not offer cardiovascular benefits. A physician can determine the best goal for the A1C level. The test is recommended at least twice a year. Blood pressure: High blood pressure is a common partner to diabetes. For people with diabetes, an ideal reading is below 130/80 millimeters of mercury (mm H Continue reading >>
Diabetes: Preventing Complications
Diabetes complications can be divided into two types: acute (sudden) and chronic (long-term). This article discusses these complications and strategies to prevent the complications from occurring in the first place. Acute complications Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome (HHNS) Acute complications of diabetes can occur at any time in the course of the disease. Chronic complications Cardiovascular: Heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke Eye: Diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma Nerve damage: Neuropathy Kidney damage: Nephropathy Chronic complications are responsible for most illness and death associated with diabetes. Chronic complications usually appear after several years of elevated blood sugars (hyperglycemia). Since patients with Type 2 diabetes may have elevated blood sugars for several years before being diagnosed, these patients may have signs of complications at the time of diagnosis. Basic principles of prevention of diabetes complications: Take your medications (pills and/or insulin) as prescribed by your doctor. Monitor your blood sugars closely. Follow a sensible diet. Do not skip meals. Exercise regularly. See your doctor regularly to monitor for complications. Results from untreated hyperglycemia. Blood sugars typically range from 300 to 600. Occurs mostly in patients with Type 1 diabetes (uncommon in Type 2). Occurs due to a lack of insulin. Body breaks down its own fat for energy, and ketones appear in the urine and blood. Develops over several hours. Can cause coma and even death. Typically requires hospitalization. Nausea, vomiting Abdominal pain Drowsiness, lethargy (fatigue) Deep, rapid breathing Increased thirst Fruity-smelling breath Dehydration Inadequate insulin administration (not getting Continue reading >>
Diabetes - Long-term Effects
On this page: Diabetes is a condition in which there is too much glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Over time, high blood glucose levels can damage the body's organs. Possible complications include damage to large (macrovascular) and small (microvascular) blood vessels, which can lead to heart attack, stroke, and problems with the kidneys, eyes, gums, feet and nerves. Reducing risk of diabetes complications The good news is that the risk of most diabetes-related complications can be reduced by keeping blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels within recommended range. Also, being a healthy weight, eating healthily, reducing alcohol intake, and not smoking will help reduce your risk. Regular check-ups and screening are important to pick up any problems early Diabetes and healthy eating If you have diabetes it’s important to include a wide variety of nutritious and healthy foods in your diet, and to avoid snacking on sugary foods. Eating healthy foods can help control your blood glucose and cholesterol levels, and your blood pressure. Enjoy a variety of foods from each food group – be sure to include foods high in fibre and low in fat, and reduce your salt intake. It’s helpful to consult with a dietitian to review your current eating plan and provide a guide about food choices and food quantities. Alcohol intake and diabetes Limit alcohol intake. If you drink alcohol, have no more than two standard drinks per day. If you are pregnant or considering pregnancy or are breastfeeding, then zero alcohol intake is recommended. Diabetes and healthy weight If you are overweight, even losing a small amount of weight, especially round the abdomen, helps lower your blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels. It can be daunting trying to lose weight, so Continue reading >>
Complications Of Diabetes: Acute And Chronic.
Abstract The acute and chronic complications of diabetes account for the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma, and hypoglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia is central to the pathophysiology of chronic complications such as cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Pathophysiology and assessment of, and interventions for these complications are discussed. Continue reading >>
Print Overview Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel. If you have diabetes, no matter what type, it means you have too much glucose in your blood, although the causes may differ. Too much glucose can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes — when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes — and gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered. Diabetes symptoms vary depending on how much your blood sugar is elevated. Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not experience symptoms initially. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe. Some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are: Increased thirst Frequent urination Extreme hunger Unexplained weight loss Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there's not enough available insulin) Fatigue Irritability Blurred vision Slow-healing sores Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections Although type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, it typically appears during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, can develop at any age, though it's more common in people older than 40. When to see a doctor If you suspect you or your child may have diabetes. If you notice any poss Continue reading >>
Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus
The complications of diabetes mellitus are far less common and less severe in people who have well-controlled blood sugar levels. Acute complications include hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, diabetic coma and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Chronic complications occur due to a mix of microangiopathy, macrovascular disease and immune dysfunction in the form of autoimmune disease or poor immune response, most of which are difficult to manage. Microangiopathy can affect all vital organs, kidneys, heart and brain, as well as eyes, nerves, lungs and locally gums and feet. Macrovascular problems can lead to cardiovascular disease including erectile dysfunction. Female infertility may be due to endocrine dysfunction with impaired signalling on a molecular level. Other health problems compound the chronic complications of diabetes such as smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, and lack of regular exercise which are accessible to management as they are modifiable. Non-modifiable risk factors of diabetic complications are type of diabetes, age of onset, and genetic factors, both protective and predisposing have been found. Overview Complications of diabetes mellitus are acute and chronic. Risk factors for them can be modifiable or not modifiable. Overall, complications are far less common and less severe in people with well-controlled blood sugar levels. However, (non-modifiable) risk factors such as age at diabetes onset, type of diabetes, gender and genetics play a role. Some genes appear to provide protection against diabetic complications, as seen in a subset of long-term diabetes type 1 survivors without complications . Statistics As of 2010, there were about 675,000 diabetes-related emergency department (ED) visits in the Continue reading >>
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What Are The Complications Of Diabetes?
This section is meant to familiarize you with some of the most common diabetes-related complications and other problems. Keeping blood glucose levels as near normal as possible, along with getting regular check-ups and blood tests may help delay or prevent complications of diabetes. Eye disease* Many people with diabetes develop some form of eye disease (retinopathy), caused by damage to the network of blood vessels that supply the retina. This can damage vision or cause blindness. Retinopathy can be quite advanced before it affects vision, so it is important that people with diabetes have regular eye screenings. If caught early, treatment can prevent blindness. Oral health* There is an increased risk of inflammation of the tissue surrounding the teeth (periodontitis) in people with poor glucose control. Periodontitis is a major cause of tooth loss and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Management of periodontitis is very important in people with diabetes because good oral hygiene can prevent tooth loss and improve glucose control. Cardiovascular disease* Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and disability among people with diabetes. The types that accompany diabetes include: angina (chest pain or discomfort); myocardial infarction (heart attack); stroke; peripheral artery disease (reduced blood flow to limbs); and congestive heart failure (heart weakness that leads to a build-up of fluid in the lungs and surrounding body tissues). High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and high blood glucose (all common in diabetes) are some of the factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Kidney disease* Kidney disease (nephropathy) is more common in people with diabetes. Diabetes is one of the leading causes of chronic Continue reading >>