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What Is The Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity: Twin Epidemics

Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity: Twin Epidemics

Overview Type 2 diabetes accounts for 95% of the 25.8 million diabetes cases in the U.S1 Obesity is a major independent risk factor for developing the disease, and more than 90% of type 2 diabetics are overweight or obese2 Modest weight loss, as little as 5% of total body weight, can help to improve type 2 diabetes in patients who are overweight or obese3 Metabolic and bariatric surgery may result in resolution or improvement of type 2 diabetes independent of weight loss4 Prevalence Diabetes affects 8.3% of the total U.S. population (25.8 million people)5 18.8 million people have been diagnosed 7 million people are unaware they suffer from the disease About 95% of the diabetes population has type 2 diabetes6 Increases in type 2 diabetes cases across the country associated with higher obesity rates and rising age of population7 More than one-third (35.7%) of adults are obese; rate nearly tripled between 1960-20109 While children and adolescents are increasingly being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the CDC notes is it difficult to estimate the disease’s prevalence in this population because it can go undiagnosed for long periods of time10, 11 The rise in diabetes diagnoses is attributed to increasing childhood obesity rates, which have tripled since the 1980s, with approximately 17% (or 12.5 million) of children aged 2-19 suffering from obesity12 African-Americans and the elderly are disproportionately affected by diabetes13 18.7% of all African-Americans over twenty years old have diabetes, compared to 10.2% of whites 26.9% of Americans age 65 and older have diabetes, compared to 11.3% of adults over 20 Pre-Diabetes About 79 million Americans, or 35% of people 20 or older have pre-diabetes,14 while half of adults over 65 are affected by the disease15 Up to 70% of pati Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Obesity

Diabetes And Obesity

Tweet The UK currently ranks as the country with the highest level of obesity in Europe, with more than 1 in 4 (28.1%) adults obese and nearly two out of three (63.4%) overweight. Over the next 20 years, the number of obese adults in the country is forecast to soar to 26 million people. According to health experts, such a rise would result in more than a million extra cases of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer.[10] Obesity is also no longer a condition that just affects older people, although the likelihood does increase with age, and increasing numbers of young people have been diagnosed with obesity. Data from Public Health England suggests that nearly a third (31.2%) of children aged 2 to 15 years old are obese. Links between obesity and type 2 diabetes While the exact causes of diabetes are still not fully understood, it is known that factors up the risk of developing different types of diabetes mellitus. For type 2 diabetes, this includes being overweight or obese (having a body mass index - BMI - of 30 or greater). In fact, obesity is believed to account for 80-85% of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while recent research suggests that obese people are up to 80 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those with a BMI of less than 22. How does obesity cause type 2 diabetes? It is a well-known fact that if you are overweight or obese, you are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes, particularly if you have excess weight around your tummy (abdomen). Inflammatory response Studies suggest that abdominal fat causes fat cells to release ‘pro-inflammatory’ chemicals, which can make the body less sensitive to the insulin it produces by disrupting the function of insulin responsive cells and their ability to respond to insulin. This is kn Continue reading >>

New Hormone Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

New Hormone Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Study in mice suggests new possible pathway of lowering sugar levels, University of Michigan research shows A new link between obesity and type 2 diabetes found in mice could open the door to exploring new potential drug treatments for diabetes, University of Michigan Health System research has found. Drugs for type 2 diabetes commonly target insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels. But the U-M study suggests that glucagon - a pancreas-produced hormone that has the opposite effect of insulin by raising blood glucose levels - may also provide a powerful pathway to preventing and treating the increasingly prevalent disease. Findings of the study were published this week ahead of print in Nature Medicine. "Reducing sugar levels is the biggest goal for people with type 2 diabetes," says senior author Liangyou Rui, Ph.D., associate professor in the Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology at the U-M Medical School. "We've mostly focused on controlling insulin production and action to treat diabetes but there has been very little study on the opposite hormone glucagon. "Our study shows for the first time that obesity also affects glucagon action and that this hormone also contributes to high glucose levels found in type 2 diabetes." Authors identified the NIK/NF-B2 pathway, which promotes glucagon responses in obesity. NIK was abnormally activated in mice with dietary or genetic obesity and the inhibition of liver NIK was found to cure diabetes in obese mice. Insulin resistance - which reduces the body's ability to decrease blood glucose - has been the main hallmark of type 2 diabetes, which is the most common form of diabetes in the United States afflicting millions of Americans. "There is a common theory that inflammation in liver and fat tissue associated w Continue reading >>

The Link Between Diabetes And Obesity

The Link Between Diabetes And Obesity

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), the diabetes that is a combination of insulin not working as well as it should in the body, plus a decreasing production of insulin by the body, is common and is now at its highest levels in U.S. history. If you have diabetes, you already have been told that not controlling it can lead to serious complications affecting your vision, kidney function and nerve function, as well as increasing the risk for a heart attack, stroke and decreased blood flow to the legs, increasing the risk for amputation. Those with DM2 are twice as likely to die from a heart attack or stroke than if they do not have diabetes. They are 17 times more likely to require an amputation due to decreased blood flow to the legs. And due to the delay in making a diagnosis of DM2 (as symptoms might not be present for years), kidney damage can be already seen in eight percent of patients at the time their diabetes is diagnosed and can be present in up to 40 percent of those who have had diabetes for 20 years or more. At diagnosis, 25 percent of patients with DM2 have already developed retinopathy [ret-i-nop'ă-thē], damage to the blood vessels of the retina and about two percent of the diabetic population is blind. These statistics have pushed research aimed at preventing diabetes, rather than waiting to treat the disease or its complications And if these statistics aren’t frightening enough, diabetes challenges you every day to manage your blood sugar, your blood pressure and your cholesterol. Often, the drugs and tools required for this management can add up quite quickly, straining your budget. Obesity is particularly associated with an increased risk of developing DM2 and is a driving factor because it triggers insulin resistance, a condition in which the body produc Continue reading >>

Molecular Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Reveals Potential Therapy

Molecular Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Reveals Potential Therapy

Inflammatory molecule LTB4 promotes insulin resistance in obese mice and blocking the LTB4 receptor prevents and reverses type 2 diabetes in this model Obesity causes inflammation, which can in turn lead to type 2 diabetes. What isn’t well established is how inflammation causes diabetes — or what we can do to stop it. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that the inflammatory molecule LTB4 promotes insulin resistance, a first step in developing type 2 diabetes. What’s more, the team found that genetically removing the cell receptor that responds to LTB4, or blocking it with a drug, improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice. The study is published Feb. 23 by Nature Medicine. “This study is important because it reveals a root cause of type 2 diabetes,” said Jerrold M. Olefsky, MD, professor of medicine, associate dean for scientific affairs and senior author of the study. “And now that we understand that LTB4 is the inflammatory factor causing insulin resistance, we can inhibit it to break the link between obesity and diabetes.” Here’s what’s happening in obesity, according to Olefsky’s study. Extra fat, particularly in the liver, activates resident macrophages, the immune cells living there. These macrophages then do what they’re supposed to do when activated — release LTB4 and other immune signaling molecules to call up an influx of new macrophages. Then, in a positive feedback loop, the newly arriving macrophages also get activated and release even more LTB4 in the liver. This inflammatory response would be a good thing if the body was fighting off an infection. But when inflammation is chronic, as is the case in obesity, all of this extra LTB4 starts activating other cells, too. Like macrophages Continue reading >>

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Complex Association

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Complex Association

1 Department of Public Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs at Al-Ahssa Region, Ministry of Health, United Kingdom 2 Sir James Spence Institute of Child Health Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, United Kingdom 3 Population Health Research Centre, St. George's University of London, United Kingdom 4 Division of Public Health Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None Obesity is a growing epidemic affecting all ages in both industrialized and developing countries. The most common suggested cause of this epidemic is the increasing levels of urbanization and lifestyle changes toward sedentary life and adopting "western" dietary patterns. The association between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reproducibly observed in cross-sectional and prospective studies across various populations, even when using different fatness measures and diagnostic criteria for T2DM. However, there are some modifying factors that make such an association complex and multifactorial. These modifying factors include the duration of obesity, body fat distribution, physical activity, diet, and genetics/ethnicity. This review aims to summarize the evidence of this association and its potential modifying factors. Keywords: Association, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus How to cite this article: Al-Quwaidhi AJ, Pearce MS, Critchley JA, O'Flaherty M. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A complex association. Saudi J Obesity 2013;1:49-56 Obesity is the "accumulation of adipose tissue to excess and to extent that impairs physical and psychosocial health and well-being". According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the world-wide obesity has more than doubled sin Continue reading >>

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Saboor Aftab SA, Reddy N, Smith E and Barber TM* Division of Metabolic and Vascular Health, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Clinical Sciences Research Laboratories and Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry, CV2 2DX, UK *Corresponding Author : Thomas M Barber Division of Metabolic and Vascular Health Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick Clinical Sciences Research Laboratories University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry, CV2 2DX, UK Tel: +44-2476-968591 E-mail: [email protected] Received July 22, 2013; Accepted December 27, 2013; Published January 05, 2014 Citation: Saboor Aftab SA, Reddy N, Smith E, Barber TM (2014) Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Intern Med S6:002. doi:10.4172/2165-8048.S6-002 Copyright: © 2014 Saboor Aftab SA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Internal Medicine: Open Access Abstract The global obesity epidemic is showing no signs of abating, and is fuelling an explosion in numbers of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) worldwide. Despite clear epidemiological and pathophysiological links between obesity and T2D, the actual mechanisms are complex given that some people with obesity appear to be protected in some way from developing T2D, and T2D can develop in a minority of lean people. Obesity and T2D form part of the metabolic syndrome, which combined with hypertension and dyslipidaemia result in premature mortality from c Continue reading >>

Exploring The Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Exploring The Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

If you’re looking for effective ways to lose weight and live near Mt. Kisco or the surrounding Westchester County, your doctor might have informed you that you have diabetes or prediabetes. Losing weight is often a cornerstone of a diabetes treatment plan, but weight loss can also help you prevent diabetes from developing. You can learn more about the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes when you watch this featured animation. It explains that insulin, a hormone, is essential for allowing glucose molecules into the cells, where they can be used for fuel. If the cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream. Insulin resistance can lead to diabetes, which can have life-threatening consequences. Obesity and a physically sedentary lifestyle are major risk factors of type 2 diabetes. Fortunately, losing weight, eating well, and exercising regularly can help prevent this widespread problem. Permalink Continue reading >>

Further Links Uncovered Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Further Links Uncovered Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Researchers have discovered a new mechanism by which obesity leads to type 2 diabetes, raising the possibility of new and more effective treatments. Type 2 diabetes arises when the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin, an essential hormone which facilitates the absorption of glucose into the body. Prolonged exposure to high glucose levels can lead to complications including heart disease, kidney disease and cancer. The causes of type 2 diabetes are not as yet well understood, but lifestyle factors such as obesity are commonly thought to lead to the condition, which affects one in 12 people worldwide. In research published today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, scientists were able to establish a previously unknown link between high BMI and reduced insulin production. The researchers uncovered the connection by exposing donor samples to doses of peptides known as incretins, which in their natural state help to raise the body’s insulin levels after meals. The researchers found that in samples donated by patients with a normal BMI, this exposure led to an unexpected boost in insulin production dubbed the “incretin effect”. This effect was then found to break down altogether in samples taken from patients with higher BMI. Dr David Hodson of the Section of Cell Biology in Imperial’s Department of Medicine, one of the lead authors on the paper, said: “The disruption of the incretin effect in patients with higher BMI may help explain the connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes. The hope is that with further research new treatments can be developed that specifically target this new mechanism to restore insulin levels within the body.” The production of insulin within the body is governed by beta cells in parts of the pancreas known as the isl Continue reading >>

Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract The relationship between obesity and diabetes is of such interdependence that the term 'diabesity' has been coined. The passage from obesity to diabetes is made by a progressive defect in insulin secretion coupled with a progressive rise in insulin resistance. Both insulin resistance and defective insulin secretion appear very prematurely in obese patients, and both worsen similarly towards diabetes. Thus, the classic 'hyperbolic relationship' between insulin resistance and insulin secretion and the 'glucose allostasis concept' remain prevailing concepts in this particular field of knowledge. An increase in overall fatness, preferentially of visceral as well as ectopic fat depots, is specifically associated with insulin resistance. The accumulation of intramyocellular lipids may be due to reduced lipid oxidation capacity. The ability to lose weight is related to the capacity to oxidize fat. Thus, a relative defect in fat oxidation capacity is responsible for energy economy and hampered weight loss. Continue reading >>

Key Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Discovered

Key Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Discovered

New research published in the journal Cell Metabolism has identified a key mechanism in the immune system involved in the development of obesity-linked type 2 diabetes. The findings open up new possibilities for treatment and prevention of this condition, which is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. The study is by Dr Jane Howard and Professor Graham Lord, King’s College London, and colleagues, and is funded by the UK Medical Research Council. There are an estimated 371 million people with diabetes in the world and around 90 per cent of these cases are type 2 diabetes. By 2030, there will be some 550 million with the condition based on current trends. Cases of diabetes have more than doubled since 1980, with 70 per cent of the trend due to ageing populations worldwide and the other 30 per cent estimated to be due to increasing prevalence of risk factors including obesity. The association between obesity and diabetes has long been recognised but the molecules responsible for this association are unclear. Dr Jane Howard, lead author in this research and colleagues from King’s, studied mice genetically engineered to lack T-bet, a protein which regulates the differentiation and function of immune cells. They found that the mice had improved insulin sensitivity despite being obese. ‘When T-bet was absent this altered the relationship between fat and insulin resistance; the mice had more intra-abdominal fat but were actually more sensitive to the glucose lowering effects of insulin,’ said Dr Howard. ‘As fat accumulation in the abdomen is typically associated with worsening insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome, the findings seen were both unusual and unexpected.’ It turned out that the intra-abdominal fat of these mice contained fe Continue reading >>

12 Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

12 Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

The relationship between obesity and diabetes is of such interdependence that the term ‘diabesity’ has been coined. The passage from obesity to diabetes is made by a progressive defect in insulin secretion coupled with a progressive rise in insulin resistance. Both insulin resistance and defective insulin secretion appear very prematurely in obese patients, and both worsen similarly towards diabetes. Thus, the classic ‘hyperbolic relationship’ between insulin resistance and insulin secretion and the ‘glucose allostasis concept’ remain prevailing concepts in this particular field of knowledge. An increase in overall fatness, preferentially of visceral as well as ectopic fat depots, is specifically associated with insulin resistance. The accumulation of intramyocellular lipids may be due to reduced lipid oxidation capacity. The ability to lose weight is related to the capacity to oxidize fat. Thus, a relative defect in fat oxidation capacity is responsible for energy economy and hampered weight loss. Continue reading >>

Link Between Obesity, Visceral Fat, And Type-2 Diabetes

Link Between Obesity, Visceral Fat, And Type-2 Diabetes

Being overweight or obese increases your risk for a group of medical conditions that are collectively referred to as obesity-related health issues. This includes major health risks such as heart disease, stroke, and even certain types of cancer. One of the most common forms of obesity related disease is type-2 diabetes. The frequency with which this health concern, most frequently associated with being overweight or obese, is diagnosed has increased dramatically in recent years. Understanding Type-2 Diabetes Type-2 diabetes is a complex disease that is associated with the body’s inability to regulate insulin. People who have diabetes are not able to use the insulin in their body correctly, and this causes blood sugar levels to rise higher than normal. The rise in blood sugar may be associated with either the body cells becoming desensitized to the action of insulin, or the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin or a combination of both causes. Regardless of the case, the high blood glucose common in diabetics is responsible for serious tissue and organ damage that may be fatal. Weight loss is found to be one of the most effective methods of treatment for regulating type-2 diabetes as people who are highly overweight or obese are more likely to experience difficulty with this insulin production and blood sugar regulation. Researchers have long been looking for a more exact understanding as to what it is about weight loss that positively influences insulin levels and recently a team of researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have made a potential breakthrough, linking visceral fat explicitly to the body’s ability to control insulin levels. Visceral Fat and Type-2 Diabetes Visceral fat is the type of fat that develops around the core of the bo Continue reading >>

Silent Killer: The Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Silent Killer: The Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Play Video Play Mute Current Time 0:00 / Duration Time 0:00 Loaded: 0% 0:00 Progress: 0% 0:00 Progress: 0% Stream TypeLIVE Remaining Time -0:00 Playback Rate 1 Chapters Chapters descriptions off, selected Descriptions subtitles off, selected Subtitles captions settings, opens captions settings dialog captions off, selected Captions Audio Track Fullscreen This is a modal window. Caption Settings Dialog Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaque Font Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400% Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadow Font FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall Caps DefaultsDone Media Player Error Reloading media in seconds Unable to reload media Please contact technical support CBN.com - Obesity is one of the biggest generators of silent inflammation. Since nearly two-thirds of Americans are now overweight, this means that the epidemic of silent inflammation is also out of control. By the same token, our diabetes epidemic has grown by 33 percent in the last decade. It should come as no surprise that all three epidemics have worsened in recent years. All three are intricately connected with a condition known as insulin resistance. Insulin resistance occurs when your cells become less responsive to the actions of insulin, forcing your pancreas to continuously produce more insulin to drive glucose into cells. This excess insulin (produced as that response to insulin resistance) also increases th Continue reading >>

Obesity? Diabetes? We’ve Been Set Up

Obesity? Diabetes? We’ve Been Set Up

When it comes to the nation’s growing obesity and diabetes epidemics, the more we know, the more the evidence points to one conclusion: We’ve been set up. Important findings about humanity’s past, about how we live and eat today, and even about how we typically treat type 2 diabetes — with medications that themselves induce weight gain — are providing clues that explain how the past two decades could see an explosion in overweight and obese Americans and skyrocketing cases of type 2 diabetes, which is usually closely tied to the problem. Harvard’s extensive research on the subject weaves a story of ancient humans who were both extraordinarily active and able to easily gain weight in times of plenty. It illuminates how a modern diet rich in refined carbohydrates and heavy in red meat has preyed on Paleolithic instincts, creating an obese nation, a health crisis, and what one researcher describes as a hard-to-escape cycle of weight gain, insulin resistance, and weight-retaining diabetic medication, leading to more pounds. “It’s not just a trap, it’s a trap and a downward spiral,” said Assistant Professor of Medicine Osama Hamdy, a physician at Harvard-affiliated Joslin Diabetes Center and director of a groundbreaking weight loss program being replicated at Joslin affiliates around the world. Hamdy and hundreds of other Harvard investigators in recent decades have produced a dizzying array of findings on obesity and diabetes. Even a casual look at the years of research on the subject shows a slew of results on how lifestyle affects weight and how weight affects health. It shows new genes discovered, laser surgery to save diabetics’ eyesight, new diabetes drug candidates, and advances in using stem cells to replace the insulin-producing beta cells that Continue reading >>

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