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What Is The Leading Cause Of Type 2 Diabetes? A. Genetics B. Drug Abuse C. Alcohol Abuse D. Obesity

Long-term Effects Of Alcohol Consumption

Long-term Effects Of Alcohol Consumption

The long-term effects of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) consumption range from cardioprotective health benefits for low to moderate alcohol consumption in industrialized societies with higher rates of cardiovascular disease[1][2] to severe detrimental effects in cases of chronic alcohol abuse.[3] Health effects associated with alcohol intake in large amounts include an increased risk of alcoholism, malnutrition, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease and cancer. In addition, damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from chronic alcohol abuse.[4][5] The long-term use of alcohol is capable of damaging nearly every organ and system in the body.[6] The developing adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of alcohol.[7] In addition, the developing fetal brain is also vulnerable, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) may result if pregnant mothers consume alcohol. The inverse relation in Western cultures between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease has been known for over 100 years.[8] Many physicians do not promote alcohol consumption, however, given the many health concerns associated with it, some suggest that alcohol should be regarded as a recreational drug, and promote exercise and good nutrition to combat cardiovascular disease.[9][10] Others have argued that the benefits of moderate alcohol consumption may be outweighed by other increased risks, including those of injuries, violence, fetal damage, liver disease, and certain forms of cancer.[11] Alcohol liver disease (ALD) accounted for four fifths of all chronic diseases in Ireland in 2013.[12] Withdrawal effects and dependence are also almost identical.[13] Alcohol at moderate levels has some positive and negative effects on Continue reading >>

Is It True Alcoholism Leads To Diabetes?

Is It True Alcoholism Leads To Diabetes?

A frequent question when it comes to alcohol is the link of alcoholism with diabetes and whether or not alcoholism leads to diabetes. There are millions of people in the U.S. impacted by diabetes and also by alcoholism, and there are links between the two chronic diseases. Diabetes is a chronic condition where the pancreas doesn’t produce an adequate amount of insulin, or the insulin doesn’t function as it should. Insulin is a hormone that transfers glucose from the blood to the cells where it can then be turned into energy. With diabetes, glucose builds up in your blood and doesn’t go to your cells. There are two kinds of diabetes which are Type 1 and Type 2. The development of Type 1 diabetes is usually the result of genetics, or the body having an autoimmune response. Most people with Type 1 diabetes are diagnosed when they’re younger, and there’s no way to prevent it. Type 2 happens when the body makes insulin but it’s not enough, or a person’s body eventually becomes insulin-resistant. It can be somewhat attributed to genetic factors, but it’s also more common in people who are overweight and not physically active. Usually, this diagnosis comes when a person is older than 40, but as obesity has become such a big problem in developed countries, cases of Type 2 diabetes in younger people are on the rise. Type 2 diabetes progresses over the years, while Type 1 diabetes usually becomes obvious very quickly and symptoms dissipate quickly once a person receives treatment. So what about whether or not alcoholism leads to diabetes? There are ways alcoholism can contribute to the development not of Type 1 diabetes, but of Type 2. First, when you drink large amounts of alcohol, it can make your body less sensitive to insulin, which is a trigger for Type 2 dia Continue reading >>

Obesity And Its Relationship To Addictions: Is Overeating A Form Of Addictive Behavior?

Obesity And Its Relationship To Addictions: Is Overeating A Form Of Addictive Behavior?

Obesity and Its Relationship to Addictions: Is Overeating a Form of Addictive Behavior? Danielle Barry , Ph.D., Megan Clarke , Ed.M., and Nancy M. Petry , Ph.D. University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut Address correspondence to Dr. Barry, Calhoun Cardiovascular Center-Behavioral Health (MC 3944), University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-3944, Phone: 860-679-6664, Fax: 860-679-1312, [email protected] The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Am J Addict See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention and treatment of obesity. Keywords: Obesity, overeating, addictions, substance use disorders In recent years, the prevalence of obesity and concern about its impact on public health have grown dramatically. In the United States, 33% of men and 35% of women were classified as obese, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater, in 2005-2006. 1 In most cases, obesity results from a caloric imbalance-- the number of calories consumed exceeds the number of calories expended. 2 , 3 Sedentary lifestyles and the wide availability of low cost, calorie dense foods contribute to this engergy imbalance, 4 but what makes individuals consume more food than they need to survive? Despite Continue reading >>

Unit 7: Noncommunicable Diseases

Unit 7: Noncommunicable Diseases

Angioplasty is the most typical treatment for arteriosclerosis. Hypertension is called "the silent killer" because __________. A myocardial infarction is a heart attack. Hypertension is NOT a type of cardiovascular disease. What distinguishes atherosclerosis from arteriosclerosis? Arteriosclerosis can lead to blood clots. Atherosclerosis is characterized by plaque buildup. Arteriosclerosis results in inefficient blood flow. Atherosclerosis is a general term for artery hardening. Which of the following is NOT a treatment for high blood pressure? Type 2 diabetes usually appears after age 40. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about diabetes? Research shows that there are more cases of type 1 diabetes than of type 2. Research shows that a person can live with diabetes for a long time without knowing it. Research shows that diabetes can interfere with the function of organs other than the pancreas. Research shows that type 2 diabetes can be avoided or delayed. Women of childbearing age are more likely to develop autoimmune diseases than men of a similar age. How many deaths worldwide result from noncommunicable diseases? Continue reading >>

Genome-wide Association Study Of Alcohol Consumption And Genetic Overlap With Other Health-related Traits In Uk Biobank (n=112117)

Genome-wide Association Study Of Alcohol Consumption And Genetic Overlap With Other Health-related Traits In Uk Biobank (n=112117)

Immediate Communication | Open Genome-wide association study of alcohol consumption and genetic overlap with other health-related traits in UK Biobank (N=112 117) Molecular Psychiatry volume 22, pages 13761384 (2017) Alcohol consumption has been linked to over 200 diseases and is responsible for over 5% of the global disease burden. Well-known genetic variants in alcohol metabolizing genes, for example, ALDH2 and ADH1B, are strongly associated with alcohol consumption but have limited impact in European populations where they are found at low frequency. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of self-reported alcohol consumption in 112 117 individuals in the UK Biobank (UKB) sample of white British individuals. We report significant genome-wide associations at 14 loci. These include single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol metabolizing genes (ADH1B/ADH1C/ADH5) and two loci in KLB, a gene recently associated with alcohol consumption. We also identify SNPs at novel loci including GCKR, CADM2 and FAM69C. Gene-based analyses found significant associations with genes implicated in the neurobiology of substance use (DRD2, PDE4B). GCTA analyses found a significant SNP-based heritability of self-reported alcohol consumption of 13% (se=0.01). Sex-specific analyses found largely overlapping GWAS loci and the genetic correlation (rG) between male and female alcohol consumption was 0.90 (s.e.=0.09, P-value=7.16 1023). Using LD score regression, genetic overlap was found between alcohol consumption and years of schooling (rG=0.18, s.e.=0.03), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (rG=0.28, s.e.=0.05), smoking (rG=0.40, s.e.=0.06) and various anthropometric traits (for example, overweight, rG=0.19, s.e.=0.05). This study replicates the association between alcohol Continue reading >>

Drugfacts: Genetics And Epigenetics Of Addiction | National Institute On Drug Abuse (nida)

Drugfacts: Genetics And Epigenetics Of Addiction | National Institute On Drug Abuse (nida)

Home Publications DrugFacts Genetics and Epigenetics of Addiction Why do some people become addicted while others don't? Family studies that include identical twins, fraternal twins, adoptees, and siblings suggest that as much as half of a persons risk of becoming addicted to nicotine, alcohol, or other drugs depends on his or her genetic makeup. Pinning down the biological basis for this risk is an important avenue of research for scientists trying to solve the problem of drug addiction. Photo by Mike Mitchell, NCI Visuals Online Purified DNA fluorescing orange under UV light Genesfunctional units of DNA that make up the human genomeprovide the information that directs a bodys basic cellular activities. Research on the human genome has shown that, on average, the DNA sequences of any two people are 99.9 percent the same. However, that 0.1 percent variation is profoundly importantits still 3 million differences in the nearly 3 billion base pairs of DNA sequence! These differences contribute to visible variations, like height and hair color, and invisible traits, such as increased risk for or protection from certain diseases such as heart attack, stroke, diabetes, and addiction. Some diseases, such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis, are caused by an error, known as a mutation, in a single gene. Some mutations, like the BRCA 1 and 2 mutations that are linked to a much higher risk of breast and ovarian cancer, have become critical medical tools in evaluating a patients risk for serious diseases. Medical researchers have had striking success at unraveling the genetics of these single-gene disorders, though finding treatments or cures has not been as simple. Most diseases, including addiction, are complex, and variations in many different genes contribute to a person Continue reading >>

Alcoholism: Get Facts On Treatment, Symptoms And Statistics

Alcoholism: Get Facts On Treatment, Symptoms And Statistics

Alcohol abuse and dependence, now both included under the diagnosis of alcohol use disorder, is a disease that is characterized by the sufferer having a pattern of drinking excessively despite the negative effects of alcohol on the individual's work, medical, legal, educational, and/or social life. It may involve a destructive pattern of alcohol use that includes a number of symptoms, including tolerance to or withdrawal from the substance, using more alcohol and/or for a longer time than planned, and trouble reducing its use. Alcohol abuse, on the less severe end of the alcohol use disorder spectrum, affects about 10% of women and 20% of men in the United States, most beginning by their mid teens . Signs of alcohol intoxication include the smell of alcohol on the breath or skin, glazed or bloodshot eyes, the person being unusually passive or argumentative, and/or a deterioration in the person's appearance or hygiene. Almost 2,000 people under 21 years of age die each year in car crashes in which underage drinking is involved. Alcohol is involved in nearly half of all violent deaths involving teens. Alcohol, especially when consumed in excess, can affect teens, women, men, and the elderly quite differently. Risk factors for developing a drinking problem include low self-esteem, depression , anxiety or another mood problem, as well as having parents with alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder has no one single cause and is not directly passed from one generation to another genetically. Rather, it is the result of a complex group of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors. There is no one test that definitively indicates that someone has an alcohol-use disorder. Therefore, health-care professionals diagnose these disorders by gathering comprehensive medical, family, Continue reading >>

The Emerging Link Between Alcoholism Risk And Obesity In The United States

The Emerging Link Between Alcoholism Risk And Obesity In The United States

The Emerging Link Between Alcoholism Risk and Obesity in the United States We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. The Emerging Link Between Alcoholism Risk and Obesity in the United States Richard A. Grucza, Ph. D, Robert F. Krueger, Ph. D, [...], and Laura J. Bierut, MD The prevalence of obesity has risen sharply in the United States in the past few decades. Etiologic links between obesity and substance use disorders have been hypothesized. To determine whether familial risk for alcohol dependence predicts obesity, and whether any such association became stronger between the early 1990s and early 2000s. Repeated cross-sectional surveys; analyses of the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (199192) and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (200102) were conducted. The non-institutionalized, adult population of the U.S. in 199192 and 200102. Individuals drawn from population-based, multi-stage, random samples (N=39,312 and 39,625). Obesity, defined as a body mass index >= 30 based on self-reported height and weight, and predicted from family history of alcoholism and/or problem drinking. In 200102, women with a family-history of alcoholism, operationalized as having biological parent or sibling with a history of alcoholism or alcohol problems, had 49% higher odds for obesity than those without a family history (OR=1.48, 95 % CI: 1.36, 1.61; p<0.0001), a highly significant incre Continue reading >>

Liver Cancer Risk Factors

Liver Cancer Risk Factors

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease, such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a person's age or family history, can't be changed. But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean that you will get the disease. And some people who get the disease may have few or no known risk factors. Scientists have found several risk factors that make a person more likely to develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatocellular carcinoma is much more common in males than in females. Much of this is probably because of behaviors affecting some of the risk factors described below. The fibrolamellar subtype of HCC is more common in women. In the United States, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have the highest rates of liver cancer, followed by American Indians/Alaska Natives and Hispanics/Latinos, African Americans, and whites. Worldwide, the most common risk factor for liver cancer is chronic (long-term) infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). These infections lead to cirrhosis of the liver (see above) and are responsible for making liver cancer the most common cancer in many parts of the world. In the United States, infection with hepatitis C is the more common cause of HCC, while in Asia and developing countries, hepatitis B is more common. People infected with both viruses have a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The risk is even higher if they are heavy drinkers (at least 6 standard drinks a day). HBV and HCV can spread from person to person through sharing contaminated needles (such as in drug use), unprotected sex, or childbirth. They Continue reading >>

Obesity And Cancer

Obesity And Cancer

What is obesity? Obesity is a condition in which a person has an unhealthy amount and/or distribution of body fat. To measure obesity, researchers commonly use a scale known as the body mass index (BMI). BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by their height (in meters) squared (commonly expressed as kg/m2). BMI provides a more accurate measure of obesity than weight alone, and for most people it is a fairly good (although indirect) indicator of body fatness. Other measurements that reflect the distribution of body fat—that is, whether more fat is carried around the hips or the abdomen—are increasingly being used along with BMI as indicators of obesity and disease risks. These measurements include waist circumference and the waist-to-hip ratio (the waist circumference divided by the hip circumference). The standard weight categories based on BMI for adults age 20 years or older are BMI in kg/m2 Weight Category Below 18.5 Underweight 18.5 to 24.9 Normal 25.0 to 29.9 Overweight 30.0 to 39.9 Obese 40.0 or higher Severely obese The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute has a BMI calculator at For children and adolescents (younger than 20 years of age), overweight and obesity are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) BMI-for-age growth charts, which are available at BMI Weight Category BMI-for-age at or above sex-specific 85th percentile, but less than 95th percentile Overweight BMI-for-age at or above sex-specific 95th percentile Obese The CDC has a BMI percentile calculator for children and teens at Compared with people of normal weight, those who are overweight or obese are at greater risk for many diseases, including diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and many cancers. Extreme or Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults.[1] Although this type of chronic insulin resistance is harmful, during acute illness it is actually a well-evolved protective mechanism. Recent investigations have revealed that insulin resistance helps to conserve the brain's glucose supply by preventing muscles from taking up excessive glucose.[2] In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. People who develop type 2 diabetes usually pass through earlier stages of insulin resistance and prediabetes, although those often go undiagnosed. Insulin resistance is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) resulting from reduced insulin activity; it is also part of a larger constellation of symptoms called the metabolic syndrome. Insuli Continue reading >>

Addiction Risk Factors

Addiction Risk Factors

A risk factor is something which increases the likelihood of developing a condition or disease. For example, obesity significantly raises the risk of developing diabetes type 2. Therefore, obesity is a risk factor for diabetes type 2. Although anybody, regardless of age, sex or social status can potentially become addicted to some substances, there are certain factors which may increase the risk: Genetics (family history) - anybody who has a close relative with an addiction problem has a higher risk of eventually having one themselves. It may be argued that environmental and circumstantial factors that close family members share are the prominent causes. Alcoholics are six times more likely than non-alcoholics to have blood relatives who are alcohol dependent. Researchers from the Universidad de Granada, Spain, in a study revealed that "the lack of endorphin is hereditary, and thus that there is a genetic predisposition to become addicted to alcohol". Geneticists believe that the reason some people try cigarettes and do not become smokers, while others do so very quickly is probably linked to the type of genes we inherit from our parents. Some people can smoke once in a while, throughout their lives, and never seem to become addicted, while others are unable to stop smoking without experiencing the unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. It is most likely that the way the receptors on the surface of our brain nerve cells respond to nicotine is influenced by our genes. Gender - a significantly higher percentage of people addicted to a substance are male. According to the Mayo Clinic, USA, males are twice as likely as females to have problems with drugs. Having a mental illness/condition - people with depression, ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and several other Continue reading >>

Anti-obesity Medication

Anti-obesity Medication

Hang Wun Raymond Li1, ... Pak Chung Ho1, in Obesity , 2013 Anti-obesity drugs can be classified into three main categories according to their mode of action [46] and are as follows: Drugs inhibiting intestinal fat absorption Orlistat is the only approved anti-obesity medication which belongs to this category. This includes medications which modulate the production of neurotransmitters or act on their receptors in the central nervous system so as to suppress appetite. Examples include the following: Noradrenergic drugs: phenylpropanolamine, amphetamine, phentermine and diethylpropion. Serotoninergic and adrenergic drug: sibutramine. Selective cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonist: rimonabant. Drugs increasing energy consumption and thermogenesis Ephedrine, caffeine and thyroxine are medications which have such effect. However, their use as anti-obesity agents is not recommended due to their limited evidence in weight reduction and cardiovascular side effects. Neil J. Stone, in Clinical Lipidology , 2009 Diet, drugs, diseases, and disorders of metabolism frequently cause abnormal levels of lipids and lipoproteins. Acquired causes can increase LDL cholesterol levels, necessitating drug therapy that can be avoided or minimized if the acquired causes are dealt with appropriately. When acquired lipid abnormalities are mild, it may be possible to have the patient improve diet, increase physical activity, and lose excess weight to minimize this adverse change. In cases with an underlying genetic TG abnormality, the abnormal lipids and/or lipoproteins that are produced can increase the risk for CHD, pancreatitis, or both. If the potential for severe lipid changes is present such as with pregnancy, the clinician can use this knowledge for appropriate prenatal counseling t Continue reading >>

Addictive Genes And The Relationship To Obesity And Inflammation

Addictive Genes And The Relationship To Obesity And Inflammation

Addictive Genes and the Relationship to Obesity and Inflammation There is increasing evidence that the same brain reward circuits involved in perpetuating drug abuse are involved in the hedonic urges and food cravings observed clinically in overweight and obese subjects. A polymorphism of the D2 dopamine receptor which renders it less sensitive to dopamine stimulation has been proposed to promote self-stimulatory behavior such as consuming alcohol, abusing drugs, or binging on foods. It is important to determine how this polymorphism may interact with other well-known candidate genes for obesity including polymorphisms of the leptin receptor gene and the opiomelanocortin gene. Leptin is a proinflammatory cytokine as well as a long-term signal maintaining body fat. Upper-body obesity stimulates systemic inflammation through the action of multiple cytokines including leptin throughout many organs including the brain. The association of numerous diseases including diabetes mellitus, heart disease, as well as depression with chronic low-grade inflammation due to abdominal obesity has raised the possibility that obesity-associated inflammation affecting the brain may promote addictive behaviors leading to a self-perpetuating cycle that may affect not only foods but addictions to drugs, alcohol, and gambling. This new area of interdisciplinary research holds the promise of developing new approaches to treating drug abuse and obesity. Addiction is an acquired, chronic relapsing disorder that begins with some experimentation and pleasurable responses and, for subgroups of individuals, is followed by preoccupation, escalation, tolerance, denial, and a series of medical, psychological, and social consequences that relate directly to the continued addictive behaviors. Discoveries Continue reading >>

Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Insights From Genetic Studies

Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Insights From Genetic Studies

Preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus: Insights from genetic studies Diabetes mellitus in the U.S. causes morbidity and mortality and costs in excess of approximately $170 billion a year. Therefore, identifying ways to prevent diabetes is important. Adrian Vella, M.D. , Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, says: "The states of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with a high rate of progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the risk is heterogeneous. For example, in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 40 percent of people with a fasting glucose 110 mg/dL progress to overt diabetes within a 10-year period, as opposed to 5 percent of those with a fasting glucose <95 mg/dL. "While environmental factors and obesity play a role in progression from prediabetes to diabetes, genetic factors are indubitably important. To date there are approximately 65 common genetic variants reproducibly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the greatest risk is associated with variation in the gene TCF7L2. "The effect size is significant; for example, in the Diabetes Prevention Program, the TT genotype of TCF7L2 at rs7903146 conferred a 2.41-fold increase in risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with the CC genotype. Given the frequency of the diabetes-associated allele T of between 30 and 35 percent in most populations and its effect size, this variant makes a substantial contribution to type 2 diabetes mellitus predisposition in a population." Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and action, with impaired postprandial suppression of glucagon. Dr. Vella highlights: "It has been reported that diabetes-associated variation in TCF7L2 impairs post-challenge Continue reading >>

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