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What Is The Difference Between Type One Diabetes And Type Two Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. Type 2 diabetes If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chan Continue reading >>

The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

What Is Diabetes? Our bodies convert the food we eat into sugar, called glucose. In response, the pancreas produces a hormone, called insulin, that delivers the glucose to our cells to give us energy. When you have diabetes, this process gets disrupted. Type 1 Diabetes What Is It? Type 1 diabetes is when your body is no longer able to produce insulin. When Does It Develop? It’s usually diagnosed during childhood, but it can develop at any age. What Causes It? An autoimmune response. Your immune system malfunctions and attacks the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas. Once the cells are destroyed, your body cannot produce insulin. What Are the Risk Factors? There seems to be a genetic component to the disease. A family history of type 1 diabetes increases your risk of developing it. What Are the Symptoms? Type 1 diabetes symptoms can come on suddenly and may include: Bedwetting Blurry vision Frequent urination Increased appetite and/or thirst Mood changes, irritability Tiredness and weakness Unexplained weight loss How Can I Prevent It? There is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes. How Is It Treated? People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin injections every day to survive. Type 2 Diabetes What Is It? Type 2 diabetes is when your body still produces insulin, but it doesn’t make enough of it or it doesn’t use it efficiently. It’s the most common form of diabetes. When Does It Develop? Type 2 diabetes can develop at any age but is most common in adults over 45. What Causes it? Doctors are not sure what exactly causes type 2 diabetes. However, age, weight and inactivity play a major role. What Are the Risk Factors? You may have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you: Are 45 or older Are overweight and/or inactive (especially if you carry extra Continue reading >>

Difference Between Type One And Type Two

Difference Between Type One And Type Two

There are different kinds of diabetes; there is type one, type two, and gestational diabetes. In general, people with diabetes either have a total lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or they have too little insulin or cannot use insulin effectively (type 2 diabetes). Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes), accounts for 5 to 10 out of 100 people who have diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system destroys the cells that release insulin, eventually eliminating insulin production from the body. Without insulin, cells cannot absorb sugar (glucose), which they need to produce energy. In type 1 diabetes, Symptoms usually start in childhood or young adulthood. People often seek medical help, because they are seriously ill from sudden symptoms of high blood sugar. Episodes of low blood sugar level (hypoglycemia) are common. It also cannot be prevented. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset or non–insulin-dependent diabetes) can develop at any age. It most commonly becomes apparent during adulthood. But type 2 diabetes in children is rising. Type 2 diabetes accounts for the vast majority of people who have diabetes—90 to 95 out of 100 people. In type 2 diabetes, the body isn't able to use insulin the right way. This is called insulin resistance. As type 2 diabetes gets worse, the pancreas may make less and less insulin. This is called insulin deficiency. The person may not have symptoms before diagnosis. Usually the disease is discovered in adulthood, but an increasing number of children are being diagnosed with the disease. There are no episodes of low blood sugar level, unless the person is taking insulin or certain diabetes medicines. It can be prevented or delayed with a healthy lifestyle, including maintaining a h Continue reading >>

Case Study: New-onset Diabetes: How To Tell The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Case Study: New-onset Diabetes: How To Tell The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

L.C., a 25-year-old white woman, presented to the Emergency Department reporting that she was in good health until ~ 3 weeks ago, when she began experiencing polyuria and polydipsia. She had had an unintentional weight loss of ~ 10 lb in the past 2 months. She denied visual disturbances, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dysuria, history of the same symptoms, and recent illness. She also denied alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use. Her medications included only oral birth control pills, and she was a competitive volleyball player. Family history was negative for diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and autoimmune diseases. Physical exam revealed a blood pressure of 129/82 mmHg, pulse of 88 bpm, and respiration rate of 20 breaths per minute. L.C.'s weight was 62 kg, and her BMI was 21 kg/m2. She seemed healthy and aware. Her eyes, throat, and thyroid were normal, and her neck was negative for lymphadenopathy. She had a regular heart rate and rhythm, negative for murmurs, rubs, or gallops, with normal first and second heart sounds. Lungs were clear with normal respirations. Abdominal exam revealed normal breath sounds and no tenderness, guarding, or rebound. Extremities were normal, and neurological motor and sensory functioning was intact. Her fingerstick glucose on admission was 571 mg/dl, and subsequently measured serum glucose was 617 mg/dl. Testing revealed a sodium level of 133 mEq/l (normal 135–145), potassium of 4.0 mEq/l (normal 3.5–5.0), chloride of 99 mEq/l (normal 96–108), carbon dioxide of 25 mEq/l (normal 21–30), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of 18 mg/dl (normal 7.0–20.0), and creatinine of 0.8 mg/dl (normal 0.4–10). Serum acetone was positive at 1:2. Urinalysis revealed a specific gravity of 1.010 (normal 1.005–1.300), glucose of 3+, Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

If one looks at the current rates of reported cases of diabetes, citing it as a growing epidemic would not be an exaggeration. According to the latest estimations, there are about twenty-nine million people that have some type of diabetes which is nearly 10 percent of the population An even more worrying thing than that is the fact that an average American now has a one in three chances of developing the symptoms of the degenerative disease at some point in their life. All of the statistics on the problem of the rising of diabetes is a big worry in the United States and in the world currently. It even gets worse as one gets into more details. Statistically, around eighty-six million people have signs of pre-diabetes. 30 percent of these people develop type 2 diabetes within a time period of five years. Perhaps this is because of the last and most worrying concern – un-diagnosis. Around one-third of the adult population with the symptoms of pre-diabetes or even the fully developed disease is unaware of having the health condition. That makes approximately eight million undiagnosed. This is why it is important to look out for the symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It will not only help in better management of the disease but will reduce the chances of diabetes-related problems. Why Is It Important To Look Out For The Type? Another thing that a lot of people ignore is looking at what type of diabetes do they have. While many may not know it but there are a number of differences between the type 1 and the type 2 of diabetes where it is possible to reverse the latter. Technically, both of the types of diabetes cannot be cured but type 2 can be reversed in earlier stages. Checking the symptoms of the specific type of diabetes can help in the better treatment of a Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: Similar Name but Completely Different Diseases. As a healthcare professional, I see widespread confusion between Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1 DM) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2 DM) among patients, healthcare providers, and the lay public. Because of this, I have decided to use my platform to help explain the difference between these two very different conditions. Much of the confusion between the two conditions comes from the similar name and the similar manifestation of elevated blood glucose levels. The goal of treatment in both conditions is to keep blood glucose levels within normal range. However, because they do not result from the same root cause, treatment, management, and education should be approached differently between the two. What is Type 1 Diabetes? First and foremost, T1 DM is an autoimmune disease. Although there are a few hypotheses about the potential causes of autoimmunity, T1 DM is not preventable. It is usually diagnosed in childhood, but can occur in adulthood as well. Onset is usually rapid and acute. Classic symptoms of T1 DM are polydipsia (excessive thirst), polyphagia (excessive hunger), polyuria (excessive urination), weight loss, dry mouth, and fatigue. If untreated, T1 DM can lead to Diabetic Ketoacidosis (not nutritional ketosis), which can be fatal. Signs and symptoms of DKA (in addition to those listed above) are dry mouth, lethargy, abdominal pain, vomiting, and coma. These symptoms warrant a trip to the ER. T1 DM is ultimately confirmed by an autoimmune antibody test. The most important difference between T1 DM and T2 DM (I think), is that T1 diabetics and insulin DEFICIENT whereas T2 diabetics produce TOO MUCH insulin leading to insulin resistance. What does this mean? Insulin often gets a bad r Continue reading >>

The Difference Between Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes

The Difference Between Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes

We’ve all heard about diabetes. We’ve seen characters on TV and in the movies injecting themselves with insulin, we’ve seen them at risk of losing their lives when they can’t get hold of this vital drug. Maybe someone we know has the condition and has to follow a special diet, a particular lifestyle routine, take certain medications. But how does diabetes really work and what causes it? And what is the difference between the often-heard terms “type 1 diabetes” and “type 2 diabetes”? Diabetes: an Outline To understand diabetes we need to understand how our bodies utilise the energy provided by the food we eat. Briefly, the process is this: we eat food, our digestive system converts the food into glucose (a type of sugar), glucose is transported around the body by the blood and our cells use it for energy and growth. But here’s the important thing, glucose cannot enter the cells without insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas and if enough of it isn’t released when glucose is entering the bloodstream, or if the insulin that is released cannot do its job properly, then the blood sugar has nowhere to go and simply builds up in the blood until it is eventually excreted via the urine. One of the unfortunate consequences of this is that the cells don’t receive the vital fuel they need in order to function. Types of Diabetes So, it can be seen that problems arise in relation to blood sugar and cellular function if the body does not produce enough insulin to allow the glucose to pass into the cells. Problems will also arise even if the body is producing plenty of insulin if the cells, for whatever reason, stop responding properly to insulin. And this is where the differentiation of diabetes into type 1 and type 2 comes in. Type 1 Diabetes Typ Continue reading >>

The Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

The Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

The differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes confuse many individuals. Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age 6, I was taught the differences between the two forms of the disease. I understood many details about diabetes and I assumed that everyone else did also. After interacting with many individuals over the years, I discovered that this was not the case. Persons usually make the assumption that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes come about as a result of poor health choices and being overweight. However, this assumption is incorrect. While both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterised by having higher than normal blood sugar levels, the cause and development of the each type are different. Below are the primary differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. 1. Cause: Type 1 Diabetes is an Autoimmune Disease While Type 2 Diabetes Isn’t In response to an unknown trigger, the immune system may begin producing antibodies that instead of fighting infections, attack the body’s own tissues. Immune system antibodies attack and destroy insulin-producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas resulting in type 1 diabetes. As a result, sugar builds up in the blood instead of being used as energy. Therefore, people with this type of the disease require insulin injections to get the sugar from the blood stream into the cells to survive. After diagnosis, the immune system will still continue to destroy any new beta cells produced. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed from infancy to the early 20s. Type 1 occurs as a sudden onset and symptoms usually manifest quickly. Type 2 diabetes is usually a result of lifestyle factors and poor health. Being overweight, having high blood pressure, having high cholesterol and lack of exercise or Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is a disorder in which the blood glucose levels remain too high. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1, which usually develops during childhood Type 2, which usually develops in later life. The table summarises some differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Some differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Who it mainly affects Children and teenagers. Adults under the age of 40. Adults, normally over the age of 40 (there is a greater risk in those who have poor diets and/or are overweight). How it works The pancreas stops making enough insulin. The body no longer responds to its insulin. How it is controlled Injections of insulin for life and an appropriate diet. Exercise and appropriate diet. When treating Type 1 diabetes, the dosage of insulin needed by a person depends on their diet and activity. Human body temperature can be measured in several places, including the ear, finger, mouth and anus. There are various ways to measure body temperature, including using a clinical thermometer, heat-sensitive strips, digital probes or thermal imaging cameras. Extremes of body temperature are dangerous because: low temperatures can cause hypothermia and death if untreated high temperatures can cause dehydration, heat stroke and death if untreated. Control mechanisms Heat can be gained by respiration, shivering, exercise or by reducing the blood flow to the skin. Clothing also helps to retain heat. If we get too hot, heat can be lost by reducing the blood flow to the skin or by sweating. Sweating increases heat loss by evaporation. Control mechanisms- Higher tier The body’s temperature is monitored by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. If you are too hot or too cold, it sends nerve impulses to the skin. The blo Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

The majority of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. This is a disease where there are two different deficits. The body is not making enough insulin, and the body is resistant to the effects of the insulin that it does make. Type 2 diabetes typically affects older individuals. Most people with type 2 have a genetic risk that's aggravated by lifestyle issues such as lack of activity or dietary habits. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The body basically turns against its own pancreas and the cells that make insulin are no longer functional. So, these individuals always rely on insulin for treatment as opposed to type 2 patients, who can respond very successfully to pills or a combination of insulin and pills. Trinity Health is a Catholic health care organization that acts in accordance with the Catholic tradition and does not condone or support all practices covered in this site. In case of emergency call 911. This site is educational and not a substitute for professional medical advice, always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider. Type 1 diabetes is, like type 2, a disease of high blood sugar, but there are some differences. In this video, endocrinologist Athena Philis-Tsimikas, MD, of Scripps Health, explains how type 2 diabetes differs in its symptoms and treatment. Diabetes is marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. Most of the 24 million Americans with this condition have type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin (the hormone made by the pancreas that enables cells to draw sugar from the blood for energy) and does not produce enough insulin to overcome the resistance. Although the exact cause of type 2 diabetes isn't clear, one thing is certain: excess body fat is the No. 1 risk factor. T Continue reading >>

Treating Type 2 Diabetes: The Difference Between Children And Adults

Treating Type 2 Diabetes: The Difference Between Children And Adults

As type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become more prevalent around the country, it has also become an issue among children. Given the higher number of diagnosed cases and the alarming rate of failure for oral medication, some pediatricians are now considering a more aggressive course of treatment for children who have been diagnosed with this disease. With type 1 diabetes, children are often immediately started on insulin injections, and these can become a lifelong course of treatment. On the other hand, new treatment guidelines stress better diets and increased levels of physical fitness for children who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The problem is that it is much more difficult for children to make significant changes in their normal behavior in order to manage their disease. Guidelines were specified after doctors realized that children with type 2 diabetes were at a higher risk of developing health complications than adults living with T2D. Diabetes clinical trials have also shown significant evidence that lifestyle changes alone are often not enough to properly manage this disease (which has been linked to cases of childhood obesity). Growing Prevalence of Diabetes in Children With the growing number of juvenile diabetes cases, it means that more children are being seen by family doctors, but are not given easy access to specialists or endocrinologists. During the initial phases, it can be difficult to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes based on their symptoms in children. Pediatricians are hoping that improved treatment guidelines might help to address this issue. Diabetes is an expensive disease to manage in the long run, and it becomes all the more expensive when patients develop further complications. American pediatricians want to be sure that c Continue reading >>

Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes Similarities Differences (cont.)

Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes Similarities Differences (cont.)

What are the differences between the signs and symptoms of type 1 vs. type 2 diabetes? Signs and symptoms of diabetes, whether type 1 or type 2, do not differ. Early diabetes may not produce any symptoms at all. When symptoms do occur, the age of onset is typically different, with type 1 diabetes being diagnosed most often in younger people (in a child, for example), while type 2 diabetes is diagnosed more commonly in adults. However, this is not always the case. The increasing incidence of obesity among children and adolescents has caused a rise in the development of type 2 diabetes in young people. Further, some adults with diabetes may be diagnosed with a form of late onset type 1 diabetes. How are the signs and symptoms similar? There isn't a difference between the symptoms of either disease. The "classic" symptoms are the same for both diabetes type 1 and type 2: Increased urine output (polyuria) Increased thirst (polydipsia) Increased hunger (Polyphagia ) Unexplained weight loss For both type 1 and type 2, early symptoms of untreated diabetes arise due to elevated blood sugar levels and the presence of glucose in the urine. High amounts of glucose in the urine can cause increased urine output and dehydration. Dehydration, in turn, causes increased thirst. A lack of insulin or an inability of insulin to work properly affects protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin normally encourages storage of fat and protein, so when there is inadequate insulin or poorly functioning insulin, this eventually leads to weight loss despite an increase in appetite. Some untreated diabetes patients also experience generalized symptoms like fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. People with diabetes are also at risk for infections of the bladder, skin, and vaginal areas. Changes in bl Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2

Diabetes: The Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2

Devinder Bains Boots pharmacist Angela Chalmers outlines the key differences between the two main types of diabetes and the help available for diagnosis and treatment. My job as a Boots pharmacist means I spend a lot of time speaking to customers about diseases and illnesses, and their symptoms. Diabetes is a subject that pops up very often and I’m always asked: “How do the two types differ?” Here is what you should know. Type 1 diabetes I tend to meet fewer type 1 sufferers because this affects only 10 per cent of the four million diabetes sufferers in the UK. Type 1 diabetes tends to be genetic or triggered by the immune system, and occurs when the pancreas stops producing insulin. What causes it? Type 1 is known as an autoimmune disease. It is caused when the immune system (the body's way of fighting infection) turns against a part of the body itself. In diabetes, the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them, leaving the body unable to produce insulin on its own. What age are you likely to get it? It is more common in childhood and in the past it was often referred to as “juvenile diabetes”, but it can occur in adulthood. Is it a genetic condition? It can be. How do you manage it? Insulin therapy is usually required because the beta cells of the pancreas produce no insulin. Some people with diabetes may use a morning injection of a longer-acting insulin, along with doses of shorter-acting insulin throughout the day to help control rises in blood sugar levels after meals. Other people may follow different regimes. People with type 1 diabetes need to monitor their blood glucose levels to make sure the insulin dose keeps their levels in the normal range. The number of times they have to monitor blood glucose thro Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes? The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2

What Is Diabetes? The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2

26 million people in America have it, in one type or another. 79 million have pre-type 2. But what exactly is Diabetes? There are a lot of myths and misunderstandings surrounding the disease, particularly when it comes to type 1 versus type 2. So let’s start with the basics. Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high blood glucose (sugar), but it’s really all about a hormone called insulin. Depending on the type of diabetes you have, your body either can’t make enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels down (type 1), or can’t effectively use the little insulin that it does produce (type 2). First, to understand what happens in the bodies of people who have diabetes, you should know what happens in the bodies of people who don’t. Blood sugar, or glucose, is the body’s main source of energy. This glucose comes from food—mostly carbohydrates, but occasionally from proteins, too. In a healthy body, carbs are all broken down into glucose. That glucose leaves the intestine, travels through the liver, and eventually makes its way into the blood stream. Its final destination is the body’s cells, where it is used to create energy. Insulin comes into play here, at the cells’ entrance. The hormone acts as a doorman, allowing glucose to come inside. Insulin is produced in the pancreas by little clusters of cells, known as beta cells. Beta cells sense when there is an excess of glucose in the blood stream, such as just after a meal, and they send insulin out to meet the glucose at the cell’s doors. When working properly, this interplay between glucose, insulin, and beta cells maintains glucose levels between 70 and 140 milligrams per deciliter of blood. In both types of diabetes, this balance gets interrupted in some way. In type 1, the body’s immune Continue reading >>

C-peptide Levels In Differentiation Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

C-peptide Levels In Differentiation Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

C-peptide is a peptide composed of 31 amino acids released from the pancreatic beta-cells during cleavage of insulin from proinsulin preproinsulin, is produced in pancreatic beta-cells and is later cleaved to proinsulin and transported to the Golgi apparatus, where is packed into secretory granules during maturation of this granules, proinsulin is cleaved into 3 peptide chains - insulin (2 chains, A and B) and C-peptide C-peptide mainly excreted by the kidney half-life of C-peptide is 3-4 times longer than that of insulin amount of C-peptide in the blood can indicate the production or absence of endogenous insulin production abnormally low amounts of C-peptide in the blood suggest the insulin production is too low (or absent) because of type I diabetes C-peptide testing can help differentiate between factitious hypoglycemia due to exogenous insulin use (low C-peptide level, high insulin level) abnormally high amounts of C-peptide if hypoglycaemia warn of the possible presence of an insulinoma C-peptide measurement can be used to differentiate between insulin-dependent hypoglycemia (high C-peptide levels) versus insulin-independent hypoglycemia (low C-peptide levels) in a person with diabetes, a normal level of C-peptide indicates the body is making plenty of insulin but the body is just not responding properly to it - hallmark of type 2 diabetes (adult insulin-resistant diabetes) C-peptide can help differentiate between type 2 diabetes mellitus (normal C-peptide levels) and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) (low C-peptide levels) Use of C-peptide in diagnosis of diabetes (1) do not measure C-peptide and/or diabetes-specific autoantibody titres routinely to confirm type 1 diabetes in adults consider further investigation in adults that involves measurement of C Continue reading >>

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