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What Is The Definition Of Diabetes Mellitus?

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of hea Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus Definition Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Symptoms include frequent urination, lethargy, excessive thirst, and hunger. The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin. Description Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes serious health complications including renal (kidney) failure, heart disease, stroke, and blindness. Approximately 17 million Americans have diabetes. Unfortunately, as many as one-half are unaware they have it. Every cell in the human body needs energy in order to function. The body's primary energy source is glucose, a simple sugar resulting from the digestion of foods containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches). Glucose from the digested food circulates in the blood as a ready energy source for any cells that need it. Insulin is a hormone or chemical produced by cells in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. Insulin bonds to a receptor site on the outside of cell and acts like a key to open a doorway into the cell through which glucose can enter. Some of the glucose can be converted to concentrated energy sources like glycogen or fatty acids and saved for later use. When there is not enough insulin produced or when the doorway no longer recognizes the insulin key, glucose stays in the blood rather entering the cells. The body will attempt to dilute the high level of glucose in the blood, a condition called hyperglycemia, by drawing water out of the cells and into the bloodstream in an effort to dilute the sugar and excrete it in the urine. It is not unusual for p Continue reading >>

Adult-onset Diabetes Mellitus

Adult-onset Diabetes Mellitus

mild form of diabetes mellitus that develops gradually in adults; can be precipitated by obesity or severe stress or menopause or other factors; can usually be controlled by diet and hypoglycemic agents without injections of insulin Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintain proper levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder. They are instead related to the diseases that develop as a result of chronic diabetes mellitus. These include diseases of large blood vessels (macrovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease) and small blood vessels (microvascular disease, including retinal and renal vascular disease), as well as diseases of the nerves. Causes and types Insulin is a hormone secreted by beta cells, which are located within clusters of cells in the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Insulin’s role in the body is to trigger cells to take up glucose so that the cells can use this energy-yielding sugar. Patients with diabetes may have dysfunctional beta cells, resulting in decreased insulin secretion, or their muscle and adipose cells may be resistant to the effects of insulin, resulting in a decreased ability of these cells to take up and metabolize glucose. In both cases, the levels of glucose in the blood increase, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). As glucose accumulates in the blood, excess levels of this sugar are excreted in the urine. Because of greater amounts of glucose in the urine, more water is excreted with it, causing an increase in urinary volume and frequency of urination as well as thirst. (The name diabetes mellitus refers to these symptoms: diabetes, from the Greek diabainein, meaning “to pass through,” describes the copious urination, and mellitus, from the Latin meaning “sweetened wi Continue reading >>

Definition Of Diabetes Mellitus

Definition Of Diabetes Mellitus

There are those who have heard of the term "diabetes mellitus," but might not be familiar with it. Diabetes Mellitus is a condition in which the body has elevated blood sugar levels , usually because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. There are several different types of diabetes mellitus which affect different groups . For instance, prediabetes is the pre-cursor to the full-blown condition. In this scenario, the glucose levels are higher than normal, but have not quite reached dangerous levels. For these people, it is often possible to curtail diabetes. Gestational diabetes affects pregnant women, even if they have no history of the disease. The condition may continue to develop into type 2 diabetes or the symptoms may pass soon after delivery. If the symptoms disappear and the woman becomes pregnant again, the chances are quite high that she will contract the symptoms once again. Type 1 diabetes , once referred to as juvenile diabetes, only affects a small portion of diabetics. These individuals have few insulin producing cells in their pancreas. On the other end of the spectrum, type 2 diabetes, also known as adult-onset diabetes, is a result of someone having insulin resistance . This means insulin is not being processed correctly. There are several other forms of this disease, some of which can be derived from genetic defects, certain illnesses, or even high doses of certain steroids. Regardless of the types, the symptoms are generally the same with varying degrees of severity. Excessive thirst and urination are common and as is a tendency to lose weight unexpectedly. Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Go to: DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS— Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the β-cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action. Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycemia. Symptoms of marked hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, sometimes with polyphagia, and blurred vision. Impairment of growth and susceptibility to certain infections may also accompany chronic hyperglycemia. Acute, life-threatening consequences of uncontrolled diabetes are hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis or the nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome. Long-term complications of diabetes include retinopathy with potential loss of vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; peripheral neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputations, and Charcot joints; and autonomic neuropathy causing gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and c Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Definition Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which the body is not able to correctly process glucose for cell energy due to either an insufficient amount of the hormone insulin or a physical resistance to the insulin the body does produce. Without proper treatment through medication and/or lifestyle changes, the high blood glucose (or blood sugar) levels caused by diabetes can cause long-term damage to organ systems throughout the body. Description There are three types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 (also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes), type 2 (also called adult-onset diabetes), and gestational diabetes. While type 2 is the most prevalent, consisting of 90 to 95 percent of diabetes patients in the United States, type 1 diabetes is more common in children. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy and resolves at birth. Every cell in the human body needs energy in order to function. The body's primary energy source is glucose, a simple sugar resulting from the digestion of foods containing carbohydrates (primarily sugars and starches). Glucose from the digested food circulates in the blood as a ready energy source for any cells that need it. However, glucose requires insulin in order to be processed for cellular energy. Insulin is a hormone or chemical produced by cells in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. Insulin bonds to a receptor site on the outside of a cell. It acts like a key to open a doorway into the cell through which glucose can enter. When there is not enough insulin produced (as is the case with type 1 diabetes) or when the doorway no longer recognizes the insulin key (which happens in type 2 and gestational diabetes), glucose stays in the bloodstream rather entering the cells. The high blood glucose, or blood Continue reading >>

Report Of A Who Consultation Part 1: Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Report Of A Who Consultation Part 1: Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

© World Health Organization 1999 Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications World Health Organization Department of Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance Geneva Contents - Copyright - Authors COPYRIGHT AND REPRODUCTION COPYRIGHT AND REPRODUCTION COPYRIGHT AND REPRODUCTION CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS WHO CONSULTATION WHO CONSULTATION Members Secretariat Observers WHO CONSULTATION INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION DEFINITION AND DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA 2. DEFINITION AND DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR DIABETES MELLITUS AND OTHER CATEGORIES OF GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE 2.1 Definition 2.2 Diagnosis and diagnostic criteria 2.2.1 Diagnosis 2.2.2 Diabetes in children 2.3 Diagnostic criteria Glucose concentration, mmol l-1 (mg dl-1) Whole blood Whole blood Plasma* Venous Capillary Venous Diabetes Mellitus: Fasting >=6.1 (>=110) >=6.1 (>=110) >=7.0 (>=126) or 2-h post glucose load >=10.0 (>=180) >=11.1 (>=200) >=11.1 (>=200) or both Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT): Fasting (if measured) <6.1 (<110) <6.1 (<110) <7.0 (<126) and 2-h post glucose load >=6.7 (>=120) and >=7.8 (>=140) and >=7.8 (>=140) and <10.0 (<180) <11.1 (<200) <11.1 (<200) Impaired Fasting Glycaemia (IFG): Fasting >=5.6 (>=100) and >=5.6 (>=100) and >=6.1 (>=110) and <6.1 (<110) <6.1 (<110) <7.0 (<126) and (if measured) 2-h post glucose load <6.7 (<120) <7.8 (<140) <7.8 (<140) 2.3.1 Change in diagnostic value for fasting plasma/blood glucose concentrations 2.3.2 Epidemiological studies 2.3.3 Individual diagnosis DEFINITION AND DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA CLASSIFICATION 3. CLASSIFICATION 3.1 Earlier classifications 3.2 Revised classification 3.2.1 Application of the new classification The terms Type 1 and Type 2 should be reintroduced. The aetiological type named Type 1 encompasses the majority of cases Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a condition where the body fails to utilize the ingested glucose properly. This could be due to lack of the hormone insulin or because the insulin that is available is not working effectively. Diabetes mellitus The term diabetes is the shortened version of the full name diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is derived from: the Greek word diabetes meaning siphon - to pass through the Latin word mellitus meaning honeyed or sweet This is because in diabetes excess sugar is found in blood as well as the urine. It was known in the 17th century as the “pissing evil”. Diabetes epidemiology Diabetes is the fastest growing long term disease that affects millions of people worldwide. According to the charity Diabetes UK, more than two million people in the UK have the condition and up to 750,000 more are unaware of having the condition. In the United States 25.8 million people or 8.3% of the population have diabetes. Of these, 7.0 million have undiagnosed diabetes. In 2010, about 1.9 million new cases of diabetes were diagnosed in population over 20 years. It is said that if this trend continues, 1 in 3 Americans would be diabetic by 2050. Types of diabetes There are two types of diabetes – Type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and occurs at a younger age or childhood. In these patients there is complete lack of the hormone insulin that mandates external administration of the hormone regularly as treatment. Around 75% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was earlier termed non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or maturity-onset diabetes mellitus. The number of people with type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing. In type 2 diabetes, not enough insulin is produced or the insulin that is made Continue reading >>

Definition Of Diabetes Mellitus.

Definition Of Diabetes Mellitus.

Full Text Articles from The British Journal of General Practice are provided here courtesy of Royal College of General Practitioners Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

During pregnancy, some women develop high blood sugar levels. This condition is known as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM typically develops between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it’s estimated to occur in up to 9.2 percent of pregnancies. If you develop GDM while you’re pregnant, it doesn’t mean that you had diabetes before your pregnancy or will have it afterward. But GDM does raise your risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. If poorly managed, it can also raise your child’s risk of developing diabetes and add other risk factors to you and your baby during pregnancy and delivery. It’s rare for GDM to cause symptoms. If you do experience symptoms, they will likely be mild. They may include: fatigue blurred vision excessive thirst excessive need to urinate The exact cause of GDM is unknown, but hormones likely play a role. When you’re pregnant, your body produces larger amounts of some hormones, including: human placental lactogen estrogen hormones that increase insulin resistance These hormones affect your placenta and help sustain your pregnancy. Over time, the amount of these hormones in your body increases. They may interfere with the action of insulin, the hormone that regulates your blood sugar. Insulin helps move glucose out of your blood into cells, where it’s used for energy. If you don’t have enough insulin, or you have high levels of hormones that prevent insulin from working properly, your blood glucose levels may rise. This can cause GDM. You’re at higher risk of developing GDM if you: are over the age of 25 have high blood pressure have a family history of diabetes were overweight before you became pregnant have previously given birth to a baby weighin Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism in which sugars in the body are not oxidized to produce energy due to lack of the pancreatic hormone insulin. The accumulation of sugar leads to its appearance in the blood (hyperglycaemia), then in the urine; symptoms include thirst, loss of weight, and the excessive production of urine. The use of fats as an alternative source of energy leads to disturbances of the acid-base balance, the accumulation of ketones in the bloodstream (ketosis), and eventually to diabetic coma. There appears to be an inherited tendency to diabetes; the disorder may be triggered by various factors, including physical stress. Diabetes that starts in childhood or adolescence is usually more severe than that beginning in middle or old age. It is known as type 1 (or insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus as patients have little or no ability to produce the hormone and are entirely dependent on insulin injections for survival. In type 2 (noninsulin-dependent or maturity-onset) diabetes ... Show More Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia). Here are some key points about diabetes. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Diabetes is a long-term condition that causes high blood sugar levels. In 2013 it was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world had diabetes (Williams textbook of endocrinology). Type 1 Diabetes - the body does not produce insulin. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1. Type 2 Diabetes - the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type. Gestational Diabetes - this type affects females during pregnancy. The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet. If you have Type 1 and follow a healthy eating plan, do adequate exercise, and take insulin, you can lead a normal life. Type 2 patients need to eat healthily, be physically active, and test their blood glucose. They may also need to take oral medication, and/or insulin to control blood glucose levels. As the risk of cardiovascular disease is much higher for a diabetic, it is crucial that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored regularly. As smoking might have a serious effect on c Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the β-cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action. Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycemia. Symptoms of marked hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, sometimes with polyphagia, and blurred vision. Impairment of growth and susceptibility to certain infections may also accompany chronic hyperglycemia. Acute, life-threatening consequences of uncontrolled diabetes are hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis or the nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome. Long-term complications of diabetes include retinopathy with potential loss of vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; peripheral neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputations, and Charcot joints; and autonomic neuropathy causing gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cardiovascu Continue reading >>

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