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What Is The Cutoff For Diabetes?

Misdiagnosis By Design - The Story Behind The Ada Diagnostic Criteria

Misdiagnosis By Design - The Story Behind The Ada Diagnostic Criteria

This is the little known story of how--and why--the American Diabetes Association keeps doctors from diagnosing Type 2 diabetes early. If you wait for your doctor to give you a diabetes diagnosis, the chances are good that by the time you are diagnosed you'll already have one or more serious diabetic complications. These include retinal damage, nerve damage, and early kidney damage. It is now known that these diabetic complications only develop after years of chronic exposure to high blood sugars. But, tragically, the way that today's doctors are forced to diagnose diabetes ensures that you will get no warning that you are experiencing those chronically high blood sugars until they have reached a level so high they have already done irreversible damage. This is not an accident. Years ago a committee of medical experts whose task was to decide how diabetes should be diagnosed decided it was better to avoid diagnosing patients with diabetes than to give them early warning that they were suffering from elevated blood sugars. As a result, these medical experts intentionally set the standards for diagnosing diabetes artificially high, so that most patients do not get diagnosed until their blood sugar has reached a level where they may soon develop the diabetic eye disease that leads to blindness. Their reasons for doing this this made sense in the late 1970s when these diagnostic criteria were originally crafted. At that time there was no treatment that could help people with early diabetes, while delivering a diabetes diagnosis could make it impossible for their patients to get health or life insurance. These circumstances led the experts to conclude that an early diagnosis of diabetes was more likely to harm than help their patients. So they defined diagnostic criteria tha Continue reading >>

New Cut-off Point Recommended For Diagnosing Prediabetes

New Cut-off Point Recommended For Diagnosing Prediabetes

New cut-off point recommended for diagnosing prediabetes blood sugar , Diabetes , Diabetes mellitus type 2 , Diagnosis , Hyperglycemia , Metabolic syndrome , prediabetes , Reference range , Reference ranges for blood tests , Research Author: Camille Bienvenu/Source: diabetes.co.uk A new study in the BMJ reports that the cut-off scores for defining whether someone has prediabetes needs revising. Prediabetes, a term that is often used interchangeably with metabolic syndrome, exists when a person is diagnosed with high blood sugar levels near-characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Someone who is diagnosed with prediabetes will also usually have higher than normal blood sugar levels after eating, and/or raised HbA1c levels . The cut-off points at which a persons blood sugar is considered abnormal vary across guidelines and countries. This study suggests that health risks associated with prediabetes seem to increase at the lower cut-off point for blood sugar levels recommended by some guidelines. The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines prediabetes as fasting glucose levels of 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L, while NICE considers abnormal anything above 7.0 mmol/L . After conducting a meta-analysis of 53 studies, involving over 1.6 million individuals, researchers from Southern Medical University in China found that risk assessment for prediabetes should be reviewed. They found that the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality from prediabetes tend to be higher in people with fasting blood sugar levels as low as 5.6 mmol/L. This corresponds to the American Diabetes Association (ADA)s lower cut-off point for impaired fasting blood sugar levels. Aside from having blood sugar levels regularly tested, the most effective preventative tools in our arsenal against prediab Continue reading >>

4363.0.55.001 - Australian Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2011-13

4363.0.55.001 - Australian Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2011-13

DIABETES BIOMARKERS Diabetes is a chronic condition where insulin, a hormone that controls blood glucose levels, is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body.1 If left undiagnosed or poorly managed, diabetes can lead to coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, limb amputations or blindness. In 2011, diabetes was the sixth leading cause of death in Australia.2 The National Health Measures Survey (NHMS) provides an objective measurement of the number of people with diabetes in Australia. It included two tests to measure diabetes: a fasting plasma glucose test and a glycated haemoglobin test (commonly referred to as HbA1c). Estimates of diabetes prevalence and management from the NHMS were derived using a combination of blood tests, medications use (see AHS referral form in the Downloads page of this product) and self reported information on diabetes from the National Health Survey (NHS) and the National Nutritional and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS). The biomedical results from the NHMS can be used together with the self reported data to estimate disease prevalence rates. For details on self reported diabetes information, see the relevant Diabetes Mellitus chapter in this product. DIABETES PREVALENCE Diabetes prevalence was derived using a combination of blood test results and self-reported information on diabetes diagnosis and medication use. A person was considered to have known diabetes if: they had ever been told by a doctor or nurse that they have diabetes and they were taking diabetes medication (either insulin or tablets); OR they had ever been told by a doctor or nurse that they have diabetes and their blood test result for fasting plasma glucose was greater than or equal to the cut off point for diabetes (that is, ≥7.0 mmol/L Continue reading >>

About Diabetes

About Diabetes

Intermediate states of hyperglycemia IFG, IGT, and diabetes mellitus are seen as progressive stages of the same disease process, and treatment at earlier stages has been shown to prevent progression to later stages (by diet, exercise and lifestyle management). Not all patients with IGT have IFG, so it is considered a separate category. As well, the implications of the two states are slightly different. Impaired Fasting Hyperglycemia (IFG) is a state of higher than normal fasting blood (or plasma) glucose concentration, but lower than the diagnostic cut-off for diabetes. Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is a state of higher than normal blood (or plasma) glucose concentration 2 hours after 75 gram oral glucose load but less than the diagnostic cut-off for diabetes. Symptoms Patients usually have no symptoms and are diagnosed because a test is done upon patient request or because he/she falls into a high risk category. Diagnosis IFG: fasting plasma glucose >=6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL) and <7 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) per WHO 1999 criteria. (ADA has chosen a lower cutoff of 5.6mmol/L or 100mg/dL). IGT: fasting plasma glucose (if available) <7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) AND 2 hour post 75g glucose drink of >= 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) and <11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL). Treatment lifestyle modifications (diet, physical activity, weight loss) are the mainstay of treatment, although sometimes medications are used. large, population-based studies in China , Finland and USA have recently demonstrated the feasibility of preventing, or delaying, the onset of diabetes in overweight subjects with mild glucose intolerance (IGT). studies suggest that even moderate reduction in weight and only half an hour of walking each day reduces the incidence of diabetes by more than one half. Complications of diabetes Dia Continue reading >>

Prediabetes (impaired Glucose Tolerance)

Prediabetes (impaired Glucose Tolerance)

Wed, 11/17/2010 - 13:55 -- Richard Morris Pre-diabetes (previously called Impaired Glucose Tolerance IGT) was first named in 2003 and is designed to foster attention and action in people who receive this diagnosis. It is defined as having a blood glucose level that is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. The cutoff for pre-diabetes is a fasting blood sugar of 100 mg/dl. Fasting levels between 100 and 126 mg/dl are diagnosed as pre-diabetes and a fasting level of 126 mg/dl and up is diabetes. The other determiner of pre-diabetes is a blood sugar level two hours after eating carbs of 140 to 199 mg/dl. A blood sugar under 140 mg/dl is considered normal and one 200mg/dl and over is considered diabetes. Early diagnosis is important. In the early years of pre-diabetes or diabetes, the beta cells are progressively damaged by high blood sugars.Usually by the time diabetes is diagnosed, half of the beta cells are nonfunctional. This can not be reversed so that the beta cells can go back to insulin production. When an early diagnosis of pre-diabetes is made, almost 100 percent of beta cells are functional. If lifestyle changes are made and some diabetes medications are used right away, many beta cells will stay healthy and make blood sugar control easier Criteria for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes An estimated 20 million people have pre-diabetes in the U.S. and this number is growing rapidly. 50 percent of the people who have pre-diabetes are likely to develop Type 2 diabetes, however diet, exercise and glucose monitoring can greatly reduce the onset of diabetes altogether. People who have a higher risk of developing pre-diabetes or Type 2 diabetes are: those overweight, especially in the abdominal area. people with steroid induced hyperglyc Continue reading >>

Optimal Hemoglobin A1c Cutoff Value For Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Korean Adults☆

Optimal Hemoglobin A1c Cutoff Value For Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Korean Adults☆

Abstract Commonly used tests for the diagnosis of diabetes include measurements of fasting plasma glucose levels and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Recently, a hemoglobin A1C (A1C) level of 6.5% has been included as a criterion for diabetes diagnosis by the American Diabetes Association. We aimed to determine appropriate A1C cutoff values for identifying patients with diabetes or prediabetes, including impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose among Korean adults and to determine whether these cutoffs vary according to age. We recruited 4616 adults without a history of diabetes from 10 university hospitals. A 75-g OGTT and A1C sampling were performed in all examinees. Pointwise area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the A1C cutoff. An A1C threshold of 6.1% proved to be the optimal limit for diagnosing diabetes, with 63.8% sensitivity and 88.1% specificity. The cutoff value increased with age (5.9% in 18–39 years, 6.2% in 40–64 years, and 6.4% in older than 65 years) and were similar for men and women. An A1C cutoff of 5.7% had reasonable sensitivity (48.6%) and specificity (65.7%) for the identification of prediabetes. Further prospective studies should be carried out to determine whether the application of age-specific diagnostic criteria is appropriate. Continue reading >>

Optimal Cut-off Points Of Fasting Plasma Glucose For Two-step Strategy In Estimating Prevalence And Screening Undiagnosed Diabetes And Pre-diabetes In Harbin, China

Optimal Cut-off Points Of Fasting Plasma Glucose For Two-step Strategy In Estimating Prevalence And Screening Undiagnosed Diabetes And Pre-diabetes In Harbin, China

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Optimal Cut-Off Points of Fasting Plasma Glucose for Two-Step Strategy in Estimating Prevalence and Screening Undiagnosed Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes in Harbin, China Contributed equally to this work with: Chundan Bao, Dianfeng Zhang Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, P. R. China Contributed equally to this work with: Chundan Bao, Dianfeng Zhang Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, P. R. China, Department of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, P. R. China Affiliation Department of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, P. R. China Affiliation Department of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, P. R. China Affiliation Department of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, P. R. China Affiliation Department of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, P. R. China Affiliation Department of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, P. R. China Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Public Health College, Harbin Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes generally results in few symptoms;[2] however, it does increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, depression, and requiring a Caesarean section.[2] Babies born to mothers with poorly treated gestational diabetes are at increased risk of being too large, having low blood sugar after birth, and jaundice.[2] If untreated, it can also result in a stillbirth.[2] Long term, children are at higher risk of being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes.[2] Gestational diabetes is caused by not enough insulin in the setting of insulin resistance.[2] Risk factors include being overweight, previously having gestational diabetes, a family history of type 2 diabetes, and having polycystic ovarian syndrome.[2] Diagnosis is by blood tests.[2] For those at normal risk screening is recommended between 24 and 28 weeks gestation.[2][3] For those at high risk testing may occur at the first prenatal visit.[2] Prevention is by maintaining a healthy weight and exercising before pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes is a treated with a diabetic diet, exercise, and possibly insulin injections.[2] Most women are able to manage their blood sugar with a diet and exercise.[3] Blood sugar testing among those who are affected is often recommended four times a day.[3] Breastfeeding is recommended as soon as possible after birth.[2] Gestational diabetes affects 3–9% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied.[3] It is especially common during the last three months of pregnancy.[2] It affects 1% of those under the age of 20 and 13% of those over the age of 44.[3] A number of ethnic groups including Asians, American Indians, Indigenous Australians, and Pacific Continue reading >>

Fasting Plasma Glucose Cutoff For Diagnosis Of Diabetes In A Japanese Population

Fasting Plasma Glucose Cutoff For Diagnosis Of Diabetes In A Japanese Population

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Fasting Plasma Glucose Cutoff for Diagnosis of Diabetes in a Japanese Population Departments of Environmental Medicine (Y.D., M.K., K.Y., T.N., H.A., J.H. Y.T., Y.K.), Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan Medicine and Clinical Science (Y.D., M.K., T.N., M.I., H.A., J.H. Y.T., M.I., Y.K.), Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Yasufumi Doi, M.D., Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Search for other works by this author on: Departments of Environmental Medicine (Y.D., M.K., K.Y., T.N., H.A., J.H. Y.T., Y.K.), Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan Medicine and Clinical Science (Y.D., M.K., T.N., M.I., H.A., J.H. Y.T., M.I., Y.K.), Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan Search for other works by this author on: Departments of Environmental Medicine (Y.D., M.K., K.Y., T.N., H.A., J.H. Y.T., Y.K.), Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan Search for other works by this author on: Departments of Environmental Medicine (Y.D., M.K., K.Y., T.N., H.A., J.H. Y.T., Y.K.), Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan Medicine and Clinical Science (Y.D., M.K., T.N., M.I., H.A., J.H. Y.T., M.I., Y.K.), Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan Search for other works by this author on: Medicine and Clinical Science (Y.D., M.K., T.N., M.I., H.A., J.H. Y.T., M.I., Y.K.), Graduate School of M Continue reading >>

Efficient Cutoff Points For Three Screening Tests For Detecting Undiagnosed Diabetes And Pre-diabetes

Efficient Cutoff Points For Three Screening Tests For Detecting Undiagnosed Diabetes And Pre-diabetes

An economic analysis Abstract OBJECTIVE—Opportunistic screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes (either impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose) is recommended by the American Diabetes Association. The aim of this study was to determine efficient cutoff points for three screening tests for detecting undiagnosed diabetes alone or both undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We estimated the number of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes alone or with both undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes that could be detected by using different cutoff points for each screening test as the product of the prevalence of each condition, the sensitivity of the tests at each cutoff point for identifying each condition, and the number of individuals who would be eligible for screening in the U.S. We estimated the total cost of opportunistic screening by multiplying the cost for screening one person by the number of individuals screened. RESULTS—The most efficient cutoff points for both detecting pre-diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes (100 mg/dl for the fasting plasma glucose test, 5.0% for the HbA1c test, and 100 mg/dl for the random capillary blood glucose test) were less than those for detecting undiagnosed diabetes alone (110 mg/dl for the fasting plasma glucose test, 5.7% for the HbA1c test, and 120 mg/dl for the random capillary blood glucose test). CONCLUSIONS—A lower cutoff value should be used when screening for pre-diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes together than when screening for undiagnosed diabetes alone. Type 2 diabetes is a costly disease and is found in epidemic proportions in the U.S. (1). Because of the asymptomatic nature of type 2 diabetes, ∼33–50% of individuals with the disease do not know they ha Continue reading >>

New Cut-off Point Recommended For Diagnosing Prediabetes

New Cut-off Point Recommended For Diagnosing Prediabetes

New cut-off point recommended for diagnosing prediabetes New cut-off point recommended for diagnosing prediabetes BBC agrees to consult JDRF about diabetes after EastEnders joke 26 February 2016 A new study in the BMJ reports that the cut-off scores for defining whether someone has prediabetes needs revising. Prediabetes, a term that is often used interchangeably with metabolic syndrome, exists when a person is diagnosed with high blood sugar levels near-characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Someone who is diagnosed with prediabetes will also usually have higher than normal blood sugar levels after eating, and/or raised HbA1c levels . The cut-off points at which a person's blood sugar is considered abnormal vary across guidelines and countries. This study suggests that health risks associated with prediabetes seem to increase at the lower cut-off point for blood sugar levels recommended by some guidelines. The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines prediabetes as fasting glucose levels of 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L, while NICE considers abnormal anything above 7.0 mmol/L . After conducting a meta-analysis of 53 studies, involving over 1.6 million individuals, researchers from Southern Medical University in China found that risk assessment for prediabetes should be reviewed. They found that the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality from prediabetes tend to be higher in people with fasting blood sugar levels as low as 5.6 mmol/L. This corresponds to the American Diabetes Association (ADA)'s lower cut-off point for impaired fasting blood sugar levels. Aside from having blood sugar levels regularly tested, the most effective preventative tools in our arsenal against prediabetes remain eating a balanced diet and exercising often. The new findings highlight t Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm): Relationship Between Higher Cutoff Values For 100g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (ogtt) And Insulin Requirement During Pregnancy

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm): Relationship Between Higher Cutoff Values For 100g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (ogtt) And Insulin Requirement During Pregnancy

, Volume 21, Issue7 , pp 14881492 | Cite as Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): Relationship Between Higher Cutoff Values for 100g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and Insulin Requirement During Pregnancy Objectives To study if there is any relationship about higher cutoff values for 100g oral glucose tolerance test and the need for insulin in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective population-based study of 201 women diagnosed with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) between January 2012 and June 2014 in the area of Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. According to diagnostic criteria recommended by GEDE, NDDG, gestational diabetes is diagnosed if two or more plasma glucose levels meet or exceed the following threshold: fasting glucose of 105mg/dl, 1-h 190mg/dl, 2-h 165mg/dl, or 3-h 145mg/dl. We aim to know if there is any relationship between higher cutoffs and insulin requirement. Results 36 out of 201 patients (17.91%) needed insulin to achieve the targets of blood glucose control. There were no differences in mean maternal age and birthweights. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in women with further need for insulin than those who only needed diet and exercise (p < 0.001). Also, blood glucose levels 2h after the oral glucose intake were statistically different between the two groups (p 0.032). AUC for fasting glucose value was the highest according to ROC curve. Conclusions Fasting cutoff vales for 100g oral glucose tolerance test are consistently higher in women diagnosed with Gestational Diabetes that further needed insulin to achieve adequate blood glucose control. The positive predictive value of fasting glucose value 105mg/dl on OGTT was 81.1%, whereas for the cut-off 95mg/dl it was 54.0%. Gestation Continue reading >>

Hba1c Better Than Glucose For Predicting Prediabetes Risk

Hba1c Better Than Glucose For Predicting Prediabetes Risk

HbA1c Better Than Glucose for Predicting Prediabetes Risk Using HbA1c to diagnose prediabetes may improve identification of people at risk for major health complications over the next 10 years, according to the latest analysis from the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, published online November 15 in Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. "The goal is to figure out who is at the highest risk of not only developing diabetes but of developing its serious complications, including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease [CVD], and even death. Hemoglobin A1c appears to be the tool that is best able to do that," commented first author Bethany Warren, a PhD student at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, in a press release from her institute. This analysis is the first to formally compare several prediabetes definitions and how well they can predict major long-term health problems. Lack of Consensus About Exact Definition of Prediabetes Prediabetes affects roughly 12% to 30% of US adults, although getting an accurate estimate has been difficult because of lack of consensus about the exact definition of prediabetes, which is also sometimes called "intermediate hyperglycemia." Not all patients with prediabetes go on to develop type 2 diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends a fasting glucose cutoff of 100 to 125 mg/dL, an HbA1c cutoff of 5.7% to 6.4%, or a 2-hour glucose-concentration cutoff of 140 to 199 mg/dL. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the same 2-hour glucose concentration cutoff as the ADA but stipulates a higher fasting glucose cutoff of 110 to 125 mg/dL to indicate prediabetes. Meanwhile, the International Expert Committee (IEC) recommends an HbA1c cutoff of 6.0% to 6.4% Continue reading >>

Hba1c For The Diagnosis Of Diabetes And Prediabetes: Is It Time For A Mid-course Correction?

Hba1c For The Diagnosis Of Diabetes And Prediabetes: Is It Time For A Mid-course Correction?

An estimated 6.2 million people in the United States have undiagnosed diabetes. The average time between onset and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is 7 yr (1). Diagnosing diabetes is the first step in assuring that appropriate lifestyle, glycemic, and nonglycemic interventions are implemented (2) to reduce the toll that end-organ complications take on the life of the individual and on the health of the nation. The 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) standards of care for diabetes, based largely on the opinion of an international expert committee, added hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as diagnostic criteria for diabetes (≥6.5%) and prediabetes (5.7–6.4%) (3,4). In theory, wider application of this new approach should reduce the delay in diagnosing diabetes by adding a straightforward test to complement fasting glucose and oral glucose tolerance testing. However, if HbA1c is not sensitive, that is, if it does not identify individuals who truly have diabetes, and if its limitations are not fully appreciated by those implementing it, this new approach could fail to achieve this goal or further delay the diagnosis of diabetes. HbA1c has long been used as a marker of glycemic control in established diabetes. In affected patients, the rate of HbA1c formation is a direct function of the average blood glucose concentration. Compared with glucose measurements, the use of HbA1c as a diagnostic test has advantages, including convenience, less day-to-day variability, greater preanalytical stability, and international standardization (3,4). Disadvantages are: HbA1c is more costly than fasting plasma glucose (FPG), guidelines do not adequately reflect the accuracy of HbA1c measurements available across the nation at the current level of standardization, and more importantly perhaps, it m Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that blood glucose screening for adults begin at age 45, or sooner if you are overweight and have additional risk factors for prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. There are several blood tests for prediabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test This test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. In general: An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal An A1C level between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates type 2 diabetes Certain conditions can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as if you are pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant). Fasting blood sugar test A blood sample is taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. In general: A fasting blood sugar level below 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 5.6 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — is considered normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 7.0 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. This result is sometimes called impaired fasting glucose. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 2 diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test This test is usually used to diagnose diabetes only during pregnancy. A blood sample is taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. Then you'll drink a sugary solution, and your blood sugar level will be measured again after two hours. In general: A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmo Continue reading >>

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