diabetestalk.net

What Is The Chemical Equation For The Metabolism Of Glucose?

Metabolic Energy - The Cell - Ncbi Bookshelf

Metabolic Energy - The Cell - Ncbi Bookshelf

Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates ; 2000. Many tasks that a cell must perform, such as movement and the synthesis of macromolecules, require energy. A large portion of the cell's activities are therefore devoted to obtaining energy from the environment and using that energy to drive energy-requiring reactions. Although enzymes control the rates of virtually all chemical reactions within cells, the equilibrium position of chemical reactions is not affected by enzymatic catalysis. The laws of thermodynamics govern chemical equilibria and determine the energetically favorable direction of all chemical reactions. Many of the reactions that must take place within cells are energetically unfavorable, and are therefore able to proceed only at the cost of additional energy input. Consequently, cells must constantly expend energy derived from the environment. The generation and utilization of metabolic energy is thus fundamental to all of cell biology. The energetics of biochemical reactions are best described in terms of the thermodynamic function called Gibbs free energy (G), named for Josiah Willard Gibbs. The change in free energy (G) of a reaction combines the effects of changes in enthalpy (the heat that is released or absorbed during a chemical reaction) and entropy (the degree of disorder resulting from a reaction) to predict whether or not a reaction is energetically favorable. All chemical reactions spontaneously proceed in the energetically favorable direction, accompanied by a decrease in free energy (G < 0). For example, consider a hypothetical reaction in which A is converted to B: If G < 0, this reaction will proceed in the forward direction, as written. If G > 0, however, the reaction will proceed in the reverse direction and B will be converted to A. The G of Continue reading >>

Module 21 /catabolic And Anabolic Reactions

Module 21 /catabolic And Anabolic Reactions

What is Metabolism? Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism. A chemical reaction is a chemical change in which new molecules are formed from existing molecules. Reactions that release energy are called exergonic (“exer” refers to “out” and “gonic” refers to “energy,” so these are “energy out” reactions). Reactions that require energy are called endergonic (“energy in”). Exergonic reactions can be used to power endergonic reactions. For example, building ATP from ADP and a phosphate molecule requires energy (it is an endergonic reaction). Metabolic pathways are ordered sets of chemical reactions that occur within a cell to modify an initial molecule to form another product; enzymes catalyze (or increase) the rate of reaction. Metabolic pathways are catabolic (break-down molecules) or anabolic (synthesize or combine molecules) and result in molecular products which can be used by the cell immediately, used to initiate another chemical reaction, or stored in the cell. You will explore catabolism and anabolism further in the next sections. Catabolic Reactions Catabolic reactions (also called “catabolism”) break down larger, more complex molecules into smaller molecules and release energy in the process. The smaller end products of a catabolic reaction may be released as waste or they may be fed into other reactions. The energy that is released by catabolic reactions can be captured and used in many ways. Some of the energy is released as heat and increases the temperature of the cell. Sometimes the energy is stored in the chemical bonds of another molecule. And sometimes it can be used to do work, such as movement of cellular machinery to power the active transport of materials across cell membranes. Catabolic rea Continue reading >>

Carbohydrate Catabolism

Carbohydrate Catabolism

Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates to yield an energy rich compound called ATP . The production of ATP is achieved through the oxidation of glucose molecules. In oxidation, the electrons are stripped from a glucose molecule to reduce NAD+ and FAD . NAD+ and FAD possess a high energy potential to drive the production of ATP in the electron transport chain . ATP production occurs in the mitochondria of the cell. There are two methods of producing ATP: aerobic and anaerobic . In aerobic respiration, oxygen is required. Oxygen plays a key role as it increases ATP production from 4 ATP molecules to about 30 ATP molecules. In anaerobic respiration, oxygen is not required. When oxygen is absent, the generation of ATP continues through fermentation.There are two types of fermentation: alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation . There are several different types of carbohydrates : polysaccharides (e.g., starch , amylopectin , glycogen , cellulose ), monosaccharides (e.g., glucose , galactose , fructose , ribose ) and the disaccharides (e.g., sucrose , maltose , lactose ). Glucose reacts with oxygen in the following redox reaction, C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O, Carbon dioxide and water are waste products, and the overall reaction is exothermic . The breakdown of glucose into energy in the form of molecules of ATP is therefore one of the most important biochemical pathways found in living organisms. Glycolysis , which means sugar splitting, is the initial process in the cellular respiration pathway. Glycolysis can be either an aerobic or anaerobic process. When oxygen is present, glycolysis continues along the aerobic respiration pathway. If oxygen is not present, then ATP production is restricted to anaerobic respiration . The location where glycolysis, aerobic or Continue reading >>

Energy And Metabolism

Energy And Metabolism

The Role of Energy and Metabolism All organisms require energy to complete tasks; metabolism is the set of the chemical reactions that release energy for cellular processes. Learning Objectives Explain the importance of metabolism Key Takeaways All living organisms need energy to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments; metabolism is the set of the processes that makes energy available for cellular processes. Metabolism is a combination of chemical reactions that are spontaneous and release energy and chemical reactions that are non-spontaneous and require energy in order to proceed. Living organisms must take in energy via food, nutrients, or sunlight in order to carry out cellular processes. The transport, synthesis, and breakdown of nutrients and molecules in a cell require the use of energy. metabolism: the complete set of chemical reactions that occur in living cells bioenergetics: the study of the energy transformations that take place in living organisms energy: the capacity to do work Energy and Metabolism All living organisms need energy to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical processes that enables organisms transform the chemical energy stored in molecules into energy that can be used for cellular processes. Animals consume food to replenish energy; their metabolism breaks down the carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids to provide chemical energy for these processes. Plants convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy stored in molecules during the process of photosynthesis. Bioenergetics and Chemical Reactions Scientists use the term bioenergetics to discuss the concept of energy flow through living sys Continue reading >>

Chemical Equation For Cellular Respiration

Chemical Equation For Cellular Respiration

Chemical Equation for Cellular Respiration The equation of cellular respiration provides information about the products and reactants of this most important biochemical process. Read to know how this process, the most crucial chemical reaction of life, works in every cell of the body. Every organism on Earth needs energy for survival. Its life is sustained through the process of respiration at the cellular level, which provides the requisite energy. This process makes every cell an independent unit that creates its own energy. This process of deriving energy is quite complex but it can be adequately summed up with the help of the chemical equation presented further. Respiration, at the cellular level, is a set of connected metabolic processes that are directed towards converting stored biochemical energy in food, into ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) molecules, which are the body's energy currency. Through subtle manipulation, with the help of enzymes, energy in the form of ATP molecules is derived from glucose. The production of glucose in turn, is done by plants, through the process of photosynthesis. Glucose and complex carbohydrates, created by plants, are consumed by other animals and processed to derive energy. Food in the form of carbohydrates and fats is first broken down to simpler form of glucose molecules, which are then processed inside the cell to create ATP molecules. Every action in the human body is made possible through use of the ATP molecules. That is why, they are called the energy currency of the body. Energy is derived through the conversion of ATP into ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate). Every metabolic process, including cellular respiration, is complex and constitutes a series of reactions that are connected with each other. It is made possible due to man Continue reading >>

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. Carbohydrates are central to many essential metabolic pathways.[1] Plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water through photosynthesis, allowing them to store energy absorbed from sunlight internally.[2] When animals and fungi consume plants, they use cellular respiration to break down these stored carbohydrates to make energy available to cells.[2] Both animals and plants temporarily store the released energy in the form of high energy molecules, such as ATP, for use in various cellular processes.[3] Although humans consume a variety of carbohydrates, digestion breaks down complex carbohydrates into a few simple monomers for metabolism: glucose, fructose, and galactose.[4] Glucose constitutes about 80% of the products, and is the primary structure that is distributed to cells in the tissues, where it is broken down or stored as glycogen.[3][4] In aerobic respiration, the main form of cellular respiration used by humans, glucose and oxygen are metabolized to release energy, with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts.[2] Most of the fructose and galactose travel to the liver, where they can be converted to glucose.[4] Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into its monosaccharide components, glucose and galactose.[5] Metabolic pathways[edit] Overview of connections between metabolic processes. Glycolysis[edit] Glycolysis is the process of breaking down a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules, while storing energy released Continue reading >>

The Study Of Metabolic Pathways

The Study Of Metabolic Pathways

There are two main reasons for studying a metabolic pathway: (1) to describe, in quantitative terms, the chemical changes catalyzed by the component enzymes of the route; and (2) to describe the various intracellular controls that govern the rate at which the pathway functions. Studies with whole organisms or organs can provide information that one substance is converted to another and that this process is localized in a certain tissue; for example, experiments can show that urea, the chief nitrogen-containing end product of protein metabolism in mammals, is formed exclusively in the liver. They cannot reveal, however, the details of the enzymatic steps involved. Clues to the identity of the products involved, and to the possible chemical changes effected by component enzymes, can be provided in any of four ways involving studies with either whole organisms or tissues. First, under stress or the imbalances associated with diseases, certain metabolites may accumulate to a greater extent than normal. Thus, during the stress of intense exercise, lactic acid appears in the blood, while glycogen, the form in which carbohydrate is stored in muscle, disappears. Such observations do not, however, prove that lactic acid is a normal intermediate of glycogen catabolism; rather, they show only that compounds capable of yielding lactic acid are likely to be normal intermediates. Indeed, in the example, lactic acid is formed in response to abnormal circumstances and is not directly formed in the pathways of carbohydrate catabolism. Second, the administration of metabolic poisons may lead to the accumulation of specific metabolites. If fluoroacetic acid or fluorocitric acid is ingested by animals, for example, citric acid accumulates in the liver. This correctly suggests that fluoroci Continue reading >>

Equation For Glucose Metabolism

Equation For Glucose Metabolism

The cells in your body can break down or metabolize glucose to make the energy they need. Rather than merely releasing this energy as heat, however, cells store this energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP; ATP acts as a kind of energy currency that's available in a convenient form to meet the cell's needs. Overall Chemical Equation Since the breakdown of glucose is a chemical reaction, it can be described using the following chemical equation: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O, where 2870 kilojoules of energy are released for each mole of glucose that's metabolized. Although this equation does describe the overall process, its simplicity is deceptive, because it conceals all the details of what's really taking place. Glucose isn't metabolized in a single step. Instead, the cell breaks glucose down in a series of small steps, each of which releases energy. The chemical equations for these appear below. Glycolysis The first step in glucose metabolism is glycolysis, a ten-step process where a molecule of glucose is lysed or split into two three-carbon sugars which are then chemically altered to form two molecules of pyruvate. The net equation for glycolysis is as follows: C6H12O6 + 2 ADP + 2 [P]i + 2 NAD+ --> 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH, where C6H12O6 is glucose, [P]i is a phosphate group, NAD+ and NADH are electron acceptors/carriers and ADP is adenosine diphosphate. Again, while this equation gives the overall picture, it also conceals a lot of the dirty details; since glycolysis is a ten-step process each step could be described using a separate chemical equation. Citric Acid Cycle The next step in glucose metabolism is the citric acid cycle (also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle). Each of the the two molecules of pyruvate formed by gly Continue reading >>

What Is The Balance Chemical Equation For The Metabolism Of Glucose? | Yahoo Answers

What Is The Balance Chemical Equation For The Metabolism Of Glucose? | Yahoo Answers

What is the balance chemical equation for the metabolism of glucose? Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Best Answer: C6H12O6+ 6O2---> 6CO2+ 6H2O, cellular respiration There are many more , more complicated formulas for metabolism. what is the balance chemical equation for the metabolism of glucose? Source(s): balance chemical equation metabolism glucose: For the best answers, search on this site 1. Starch -> glucose Starch doesn't necessarily have a definite pure formula that is consistent every time. It's a long chain which can vary. Starch + water -enzyme> glucose. This process overall requires energy, but the glucose can then be used for metabolism (refer to 2, it releases energy). 2. Glucose -> carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O This process overall releases energy. (This energy is used to power the reaction ADP + P -> ATP). 3. ATP -> ADP. ATP -> ADP + P (P is a phosphate group, not phosphate as an atom itself). This process also releases energy. I think this question violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this question violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property has been infringed and would like to file a complaint, please see our Copyright/IP Policy I think this answer violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this answer violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property has been infringed an Continue reading >>

Metabolism

Metabolism

Every time you swallow a bite of sandwich or slurp a smoothie, your body works hard to process the nutrients you've eaten. Long after the dishes are cleared and the food is digested, the nutrients you've taken in become the building blocks and fuel needed by your body. Your body gets the energy it needs from food through a process called metabolism. Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-lih-zem) is a collection of chemical reactions that takes place in the body's cells. Metabolism converts the fuel in the food we eat into the energy needed to power everything we do, from moving to thinking to growing. Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of metabolism, and each chemical reaction is coordinated with other body functions. In fact, thousands of metabolic reactions happen at the same time all regulated by the body to keep our cells healthy and working. Metabolism is a constant process that begins when we're conceived and ends when we die. It is a vital process for all life forms not just humans. If metabolism stops, living things die. Here's an example of how the process of metabolism works in humans and it begins with plants: First, a green plant takes in energy from sunlight. The plant uses this energy and a molecule called chlorophyll (which gives plants their green color) to build sugars from water and carbon dioxide. This process is called photosynthesis, and you probably learned about it in biology class. When people and animals eat the plants (or, if they're carnivores, they eat animals that have eaten the plants), they take in this energy (in the form of sugar), along with other vital cell-building chemicals. Then, the body breaks the sugar down so that the energy released can be distributed to, and used as fuel by, the body's cells. After food Continue reading >>

Metabolism

Metabolism

Metabolism is such a big word to explain a simple idea. We all need energy to survive. Whether we are plants, animals, or bacteria, we all need energy. Energy doesn't just float around in a form we can use to survive. We need to eat (mainly sugars) and digest food. That process of chemical digestion and its related reactions is called metabolism. Metabolism is the total of all the chemical reactions an organism needs to survive. Sounds a lot like biology. Why is it here in biochemistry? There are two main chemical processes that make our world go round, involving two simple chemical reactions. The first is called glycolysis. That's the breakdown of sugars. The second process is called photosynthesis. That is the series of reactions that builds sugars. You need to remember that the overall metabolism of an organism includes thousands of chemical reactions. The reactions in glycolysis and photosynthesis are just the cornerstones to life. Building Up First, you need to build up the molecules that store energy. We'll start with photosynthesis. It's no use explaining the breakdown of sugars without telling you how they were made: LIGHT (Energy) + CO2 + H2O --> C6H12O6 + O2 You will only find this reaction in plants and algae (maybe some bacteria). They take sunlight and combine carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). Then they create glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen gas (O2). Chemists say that they are fixing the atmospheric carbon (C). Remember, plants put the energy in glucose. Glucose is in most of the foods you eat, and the oxygen you breathe comes from those plants. Even if you have a piece of meat, that animal was originally able to get its glucose from a plant. You need to understand just how important plants are to you and the rest of life on Earth. Breaking Down Respirati Continue reading >>

Overview Metabolism

Overview Metabolism

Under aerobic conditions the end product of glycolysis is pyruvic acid. The next step is the formation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) which is the initiator of the citric acid cycle. In carbohydrate metabolism, acetyl CoA is the link between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. The citric acid cycle is also known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The citric acid cycle contains the final oxidation reactions, coupled to the electron transport chain, which produce the majority of the ATP in the body. Although we have only studied the formation of acetyl CoA from carbohydrates, it is also produced from the metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids which will be studied in later pages. The reactions of the citric acid cycle occur in the mitochondria which is also the location of the electron transport chain. The overall reaction which occurs in the citric acid cycle may seem slightly odd. Actually, none of the compounds in the citric acid cycle appear in th equation since it is a cycle--the starting compound, oxaloacetic acid, is regenerated. acetyl CoA + 3 H2O + 3 NAD+ + FAD + ADP ---> HSCoA + 2 CO2 + NADH + 3H+ + FADH2 + ATP In the overall scheme of the metabolism of glucose, the citric acid cycle shows where the carbon dioxide comes from and starts the path of hydrogen and electrons into the electrontransport chain to produce water and trap energy as ATP. The overall reaction for the metabolism of glucose is written: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -----> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy Continue reading >>

Metabolism And Energy

Metabolism And Energy

Countless chemical reactions take place in cells and are responsible for all the actions of organisms. Together, these reactions make up an organism's metabolism. The chemicals taking part in these reactions are called metabolites. In all reactions: chemical bonds in the reacting molecules are broken; this takes in energy new chemical bonds form to make the products; this gives out energy When a chemical reaction takes place energy is either taken in or released. This depends on the relative strengths of bonds being broken and bonds being formed. In an exergonic reaction, energy is released to the surroundings. The bonds being formed are stronger than the bonds being broken. In an endergonic reaction, energy is absorbed from the surroundings. The bonds being formed are weaker than the bonds being broken. Hydrogen and chlorine - an exergonic reaction You may also come across the terms exothermic and endothermic reactions. These describe exergonic and endergonic reactions when the energy released or absorbed is heat energy. In an exothermic reaction the temperature of the surroundings increases. In an endothermic reaction the temperature of the surroundings decreases. Anabolism and catabolism Two types of metabolic reactions take place in the cell: 'building up' (anabolism) and 'breaking down' (catabolism). Anabolic reactions use up energy. They are endergonic. In an anabolic reaction small molecules join to make larger ones. For example, the following condensation reactions that occur in cells are anabolic: amino acids join together to make dipeptides: e.g. NH2CHRCOOH + NH2CHRCOOH NH2CHRCONHCHRCOOH + H2O and the process continues as large protein molecules are built up small sugar molecules join together to make dissacharides: e.g. C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 C12H22O11 + H2O and t Continue reading >>

What Is The Equation For Glucose Metabolism?

What Is The Equation For Glucose Metabolism?

Updated 137w ago Author has 234 answers and 601.1k answer views The glucose metabolism is to burn glucose and use the released energy. Burning anything needs oxygen on the left side of the equation and releases carbon dioxide on the right. So, the overall equation is [math]C_6H_{12}O_6 + 6 O_2 6 CO_2 + 6 H_2O + Energy[/math] (Eq. 1) As we all are savvy enough to know that the released energy is 4 kilo calories per gram. We want to change it to a scientifically more recognizable number. In other words, change the energy from per gram value to per mol value by using the molar mass of glucose 180.16 g/mol. The result is Energy = 4 kcal/g 4 kcal/g 180.16 g/mol = 720 kcal/mol. But this is only the beginning of the story about the glucose mechanism. 720 kcal/mol is a tremendously large amount of energy. If we get that amount of energy in a single step, our bodies will be charred. As a result of millions and millions of years of evolution, our bodies are able to divide this chemical reaction into hundreds of tiny steps. Instead of being burned by the energy, we can use it for good. These tiny steps are roughly symbolized in the following diagram. The diagram looks awful, but we only need look at the essential part. Everything except the red-circled part is recycled and hence not changed in an overall reaction. The red-circled part is exactly what is shown in Eq. (1). These tiny steps are roughly divided into three categories. The first is to cut glucose into halves, called pyruvates, and convert them into a co-enzymes (Acetyl-CoA). The second is the circular shape in the lower left called citric acid cycle (or tricarboxylic acid cycle, or Kreb cycle), which releases two CO2 molecules. The third part on lower right happens in our mitochondria, which consumes O2 molecule and sp Continue reading >>

What Is The Chemical Equation For Cellular Respiration?

What Is The Chemical Equation For Cellular Respiration?

What Is the Chemical Equation for Cellular Respiration? Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today An error occurred trying to load this video. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. You must create an account to continue watching Start Your Free Trial To Continue Watching As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 70,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Coming up next: What Is the Primary Fuel for Cellular Respiration? Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Custom Courses are courses that you create from Study.com lessons. Use them just like other courses to track progress, access quizzes and exams, and share content. Organize and share selected lessons with your class. Make planning easier by creating your own custom course. Create a new course from any lesson page or your dashboard. Click "Add to" located below the video player and follow the prompts to name your course and save your lesson. Click on the "Custom Courses" tab, then click "Create course". Next, go to any lesson page and begin adding lessons. Edit your Custom Course directly from your dashboard. Name your Custom Course and add an optional description or learning objective. Create chapters to group lesson within your course. Remove and reorder chapters and lessons at any time. Share your Custom Course or assign lessons and chapters. Share or assign lessons and chapters by clicking the "Teacher" tab on the lesson or chapter page you want to assign. Students' quiz scores and video views will be trackable in your "Teacher" tab. You can share your Custom Course by copying and pasting the course URL. Only Study.com members will be able to access the enti Continue reading >>

More in diabetes