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What Is The Blood Test To Test For Diabetes?

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often appear suddenly and are often the reason for checking blood sugar levels. Because symptoms of other types of diabetes and prediabetes come on more gradually or may not be evident, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended screening guidelines. The ADA recommends that the following people be screened for diabetes: Anyone with a body mass index higher than 25, regardless of age, who has additional risk factors, such as high blood pressure, a sedentary lifestyle, a history of polycystic ovary syndrome, having delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds, a history of diabetes in pregnancy, high cholesterol levels, a history of heart disease, and having a close relative with diabetes. Anyone older than age 45 is advised to receive an initial blood sugar screening, and then, if the results are normal, to be screened every three years thereafter. Tests for type 1 and type 2 diabetes and prediabetes Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 percent indicates prediabetes. Below 5.7 is considered normal. If the A1C test results aren't consistent, the test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar Continue reading >>

Blood Tests For Diabetes: Random Plasma Glucose Test

Blood Tests For Diabetes: Random Plasma Glucose Test

Also known as: RPG; casual plasma glucose test; random blood sugar test. What is it? The random plasma glucose test measures plasma (or blood) glucose levels. It is performed with a small blood draw taken at any time of the day (hence the term “random”). Why is this test performed? Generally, as a screening test for diabetes when a patient has serious diabetes symptoms and has had food or drink, and therefore can’t do a fasting plasma glucose test or oral glucose tolerance test. How is this test performed? The test consists of a simple blood draw, which is sent to your doctor’s lab for analysis. What do normal results mean? A random plasma glucose test that is under 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) is considered acceptable. What do abnormal results mean? Levels of 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) or higher, along with the presence of symptoms of diabetes (e.g., excessive thirst and/or urination, blurry vision, unexplained weight loss), indicate a diagnosis of diabetes. The results should be confirmed through a separate test, either the oral glucose tolerance test or the fasting plasma glucose test, taken on another day. Other conditions which may result in an elevated result include pancreatitis, Cushing’s syndrome, liver or kidney disease, eclampsia, and other acute illnesses, such as sepsis and myocardial infarction (heart attack). SOURCES American Diabetes Association. “Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes.” Accessed August 30, 2017. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. “Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.” AACE Diabetes Resource Center. Accessed August 30, 2017. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. “Diabetes & Prediabetes Tests.” April 2014. Accessed August 30, 2017. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Continue reading >>

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

If you experience symptoms of severe increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger, tingling of your hands or feet -- your doctor may run a test for diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some 29 million children and adults in the U.S., or over 9% of the population, have diabetes today. Yet, millions of Americans are unaware that they have diabetes, because there may be no warning signs. To confirm the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, your doctor will order a fasting plasma glucose test or a casual plasma glucose. The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes, because it is easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than other tests, according to the American Diabetes Association. Before taking the blood glucose test, you will not be allowed to eat anything for at least eight hours. During a blood glucose test, blood will be drawn and sent to a lab for analysis. Normal fasting blood glucose -- or blood sugar -- is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL for people who do not have diabetes. The standard diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show that your fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL. However, if you have normal fasting blood sugar, but you have risk factors for diabetes or symptoms of diabetes, your doctor may decide to do a glucose tolerance test (see below) to be sure that you do not have diabetes. Some people have a normal fasting blood sugar reading, but their blood sugar rapidly rises as they eat. These people may have impaired glucose tolerance. If their blood sugar levels are high enough, they may be diagnosed with diabetes. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests

Diabetes Tests

Diabetes is a condition that affects the body’s ability to either produce or use insulin. Insulin helps the body utilize blood sugar for energy. Diabetes results in blood sugar, or blood glucose, that rises to abnormally high levels. Over time, diabetes results in damage to blood vessels and nerves, causing a variety of symptoms, including: difficulty seeing tingling and numbness in the hands and feet increased risk for a heart attack or stroke An early diagnosis means you can start treatment and take steps toward a healthier lifestyle. In its early stages, diabetes may or may not cause many symptoms. You should get tested if you experience any of the early symptoms that do sometimes occur, including: extreme thirst feeling tired all the time feeling very hungry, even after eating blurry vision urinating more often than usual have sores or cuts that won’t heal Some people should be tested for diabetes even if they aren’t experiencing symptoms. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends you undergo diabetes testing if you’re overweight (body mass index greater than 25) and fall into any of the following categories: you’re a high risk ethnicity (African American, Latino, Native American, Pacific Islander, Asian American) you have high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, or heart disease you have a family history of diabetes you have a personal history of abnormal blood sugar levels or signs of insulin resistance you don’t engage in regular physical activity you’re a woman with a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or gestational diabetes The ADA also recommends you undergo an initial blood sugar test if you are over the age of 45. This helps you establish a baseline for blood sugar levels. Because your risk for diabetes i Continue reading >>

The A1c Test & Diabetes

The A1c Test & Diabetes

What is the A1C test? The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test. The A1C test is the primary test used for diabetes management and diabetes research. How does the A1C test work? The A1C test is based on the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. In the body, red blood cells are constantly forming and dying, but typically they live for about 3 months. Thus, the A1C test reflects the average of a person’s blood glucose levels over the past 3 months. The A1C test result is reported as a percentage. The higher the percentage, the higher a person’s blood glucose levels have been. A normal A1C level is below 5.7 percent. Can the A1C test be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Yes. In 2009, an international expert committee recommended the A1C test as one of the tests available to help diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes.1 Previously, only the traditional blood glucose tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. Because the A1C test does not require fasting and blood can be drawn for the test at any time of day, experts are hoping its convenience will allow more people to get tested—thus, decreasing the number of people with undiagnosed diabetes. However, some medical organizations continue to recommend using blood glucose tests for diagnosis. Why should a person be tested for diabetes? Testing is especially important because early in the disease diabetes has no symptoms. Although no test is perfect, the A1C and blood glucose tests are the best tools available to diagnose diabetes—a serious and li Continue reading >>

Tests For Blood Sugar (glucose) And Hba1c

Tests For Blood Sugar (glucose) And Hba1c

Blood sugar (glucose) measurements are used to diagnose diabetes. They are also used to monitor glucose control for those people who are already known to have diabetes. Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. If your glucose level remains high then you have diabetes. If the level goes too low then it is called hypoglycaemia. The main tests for measuring the amount of glucose in the blood are: Random blood glucose level. Fasting blood glucose level. The HbA1c blood test. Oral glucose tolerance test. Capillary blood glucose (home monitoring). Urine test for blood sugar (glucose). Blood tests for blood sugar (glucose) Random blood glucose level A sample of blood taken at any time can be a useful test if diabetes is suspected. A level of 11.1 mmol/L or more in the blood sample indicates that you have diabetes. A fasting blood glucose test may be done to confirm the diagnosis. Fasting blood glucose level Continue reading >>

4 Lab Tests For Diabetes

4 Lab Tests For Diabetes

Four blood tests are available to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes: • Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) • Hemoglobin A1c (A1c) test • Random plasma (blood) glucose To make a diagnosis, the results of each test must be confirmed by repeat testing on a different day, unless you have obvious symptoms of elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia). If diabetes is diagnosed, you’ll need periodic A1c tests to monitor your blood glucose control. 1. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test The fasting plasma glucose test is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes in children, men, and nonpregnant women. The test measures blood glucose levels after an overnight fast (no food intake for at least eight hours). A diagnosis of diabetes is made when the fasting blood glucose level is 126 mg/dL or higher on at least two tests. Values of 100 to 125 mg/dL indicate prediabetes. A normal fasting blood glucose level is less than 100 mg/dL. 2. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) This test is done when diabetes is suspected, but you have normal results on a fasting plasma glucose test. For the test, you’ll have to fast overnight and then drink a very sweet solution containing 75 g of glucose. A sample of your blood will be drawn two hours later. Normal glucose levels are less than 140 mg/dL at two hours. The criterion for a diagnosis of diabetes with this test is a two-hour blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL or higher. Prediabetes is diagnosed if the blood glucose level at two hours is 140 to 199 mg/dL. 3. Hemoglobin A1c (A1c) test This blood test measures the amount of glucose attached to hemoglobin—the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells that gives blood its color. The A1c test was originally used to monitor glucose levels in people already diagn Continue reading >>

How Is Diabetes Diagnosed?

How Is Diabetes Diagnosed?

Out of the estimated 24 million people with diabetes, one third, or eight million, don’t know they have the disease. According to Martin J. Abrahamson, M.D., Medical Director and Senior Vice President at Joslin Diabetes Center, this is because people with type 2 diabetes often have no symptoms. However, a simple blood test is all you need to find out if you are one the millions with untreated diabetes. Who should be tested? The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that everyone aged 45 and over should be tested for diabetes, and if the results are normal, re-tested every three years. Testing should be conducted at earlier ages and carried out more frequently in individuals who have any of the following diabetes risk factors: You have a parent or sibling with diabetes You are overweight (BMI higher than 25) You are a member of a high-risk ethnic population (African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American or Pacific Islander) You had gestational diabetes or a baby weighing over 9 pounds Your HDL cholesterol levels are 35 mg/dl or less, and/or your triglyceride level is 250 mg/dl or above You have high blood pressure You have polycystic ovarian syndrome On previous testing, had impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting tolerance What tests are used for diagnosis? Fasting Plasma Glucose –This blood test is taken in the morning, on an empty stomach. A level of 126 mg/dl or above, on more than one occasion, indicates diabetes. Casual or Random Glucose - This blood test can be taken anytime during the day, without fasting. A glucose level of 200 mg/dl and above may suggest diabetes. If any of these test results occurs, testing should be repeated on a different day to confirm the diagnosis. If a casual plasma glucose equal to 200 mg/dl or Continue reading >>

5 Important Tests For Type 2 Diabetes

5 Important Tests For Type 2 Diabetes

It takes more than just one abnormal blood test to diagnose diabetes.Istockphoto For centuries, diabetes testing mostly consisted of a physician dipping his pinkie into a urine sample and tasting it to pick up on abnormally high sugar. Thankfully, testing for type 2 diabetes is lot easier now—at least for doctors. Urine tests can still pick up diabetes. However, sugar levels need to be quite high (and diabetes more advanced) to be detected on a urine test, so this is not the test of choice for type 2 diabetes. Blood tests Almost all diabetes tests are now conducted on blood samples, which are collected in a visit to your physician or obstetrician (if you're pregnant). More about type 2 diabetes If you have an abnormal resultmeaning blood sugar is too high—on any of these tests, you'll need to have more testing. Many things can affect blood sugar (such as certain medications, illness, or stress). A diabetes diagnosis requires more than just one abnormal blood sugar result. The main types of diabetes blood tests include: Oral glucose-tolerance test. This test is most commonly performed during pregnancy. You typically have your blood drawn once, then drink a syrupy glucose solution and have your blood drawn at 30 to 60 minute intervals for up to three hours to see how your body is handling the glut of sugar. Normal result: Depends on how many grams of glucose are in the solution, which can vary. Fasting blood sugar. This is a common test because it's easy to perform. After fasting overnight, you have your blood drawn at an early morning doctor's visit and tested to see if your blood sugar is in the normal range. Normal result: 70-99 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or less than 5.5 mmol/L Two-hour postprandial test. This blood test is done two hours after you have eate Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests

Diabetes Tests

Tweet Diabetes screening tests are a good preventative method for catching the development of diabetes at an early stage. Diabetes screening tests are becoming more commonly used, in the UK, as diabetes prevalence continues to grow. What should a diabetes screening test be used for? A results from a diabetes screening test can be used to seek further medical advice from a doctor or medical professional. The screening test is not intended as a diagnosis, and diabetes screening test are not always accurate. If, at any stage of the test, you are nervous or unsure, contact your doctor for further advice. Find out more about prediabetes tests What tests currently exist for diagnosing diabetes? The following tests are currently used to diagnose or distinguish between certain types of diabetes: Should I be screened for diabetes? If you are aged between 40 and 74, you are eligible to receive an NHS Health Check, which checks for the presence or risk of type 2 diabetes and other common long term health conditions. A screening test is advisable if you have any of the symptoms of diabetes, such as frequently needing to urinate, increased thirst or persistent lethargy. Diabetes screening tests are also advisable for people with a number of risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as being overweight or obese, having a close family member with type 2 diabetes or being of African-Caribbean, Middle Eastern or South Asian origin. Screening for gestational diabetes should either occur between weeks 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy or, if you have had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy, between 16 and 18 weeks and, if negative, followed by a second test at 28 weeks. NHS Health check If you are between 40 and 74 years old, the NHS Health Check is a great way to assess your risk for a n Continue reading >>

Test Center

Test Center

Test Guide Laboratory Testing for Diabetes Diagnosis and Management This Test Guide discusses the use of laboratory tests (Table 1) for diagnosing diabetes mellitus and monitoring glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Diagnosis Tools for diagnosing diabetes mellitus include fasting plasma glucose (FPG) measurement, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), and standardized hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) assays (Table 2). FPG and OGTT tests are sensitive but measure glucose levels only in the short term, require fasting or glucose loading, and give variable results during stress and illness.1 In contrast, HbA1c assays reliably estimate average glucose levels over a longer term (2 to 3 months), do not require fasting or glucose loading, and have less variability during stress and illness.1,2 In addition, HbA1c assays are more specific for identifying individuals at increased risk for diabetes.1 Clinically significant glucose and HbA1c levels are shown in Table 2.1 The American Diabetes Association® (ADA) recommends using these values for diagnosing diabetes and increased diabetes risk (prediabetes). Management Following a diagnosis of diabetes, a combination of laboratory and clinical tests can be used to monitor blood glucose control, detect onset and progression of diabetic complications, and predict treatment response. Table 3 shows the recommended testing frequency and target results for these tests. Different laboratory tests are available for monitoring blood glucose control over the short, long, and intermediate term to help evaluate the effectiveness of a management plan.1 Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is useful for tracking short-term treatment responses in insulin-treated patients, but its usefulness is less clear in non–insulin-treated patients.1 By co Continue reading >>

3 Diabetes Tests You Must Have

3 Diabetes Tests You Must Have

Mike Ellis was fly fishing when he first noticed a change in his vision. Ellis, an avid angler, had so much trouble focusing he struggled for 20 minutes before he was finally able to get a fly on his hook, something he'd done countless times over many years of fly fishing. Then, after casting his line, he was unable to see his lure on the water. "I thought I'd scorched my eyeballs from being out in the sun too much," says Ellis, 63, a retired mechanical engineer in Denver. An eye exam the following month revealed an equally unsettling reality: Ellis had type 2 diabetes, the most common type of the disease. Years of going undiagnosed had taken a toll on his eyesight. He had diabetic retinopathy. The blood vessels in the back of his eye were damaged, a problem that often comes with the condition. "Diabetes damages every blood vessel in your body, including the ones in your eyes," says Robert Rizza, MD, professor of medicine at the Mayo Clinic. "Similar damage can also occur in your heart, your head, and your kidneys. But if you take care of yourself -- if you control your blood sugar, blood cholesterol, and blood pressure -- the chances of bad things happening to you are very low." Certainly, that's the case with Ellis. With the help of three basic tests, he has his diabetes in check. These tests can help you, too. A simple blood test, the A1c (your doctor may call it "glycosylated hemoglobin") is done on a sample of blood taken from a finger-stick or from a small vial of it drawn from your arm. Not to be confused with the daily at-home monitoring that allows some people with diabetes to measure their blood sugars in the moment, the A1c test paints a picture of your average blood sugar level for the past 3 months. If you can keep your hemoglobin A1c in the range of about Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Lab Test Results

Understanding Your Lab Test Results

Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires an enormous amount of self-care and that can affect many parts of the body. Because of this, people who have diabetes are generally advised to visit their doctors multiple times a year and also to see various specialists (such as endocrinologists, podiatrists, and eye doctors) periodically to screen for potential problems and treat any complications that arise. Along with blood pressure readings and inspection of the feet and eyes, there are a number of laboratory tests recommended by the American Diabetes Association. These tests are used to track blood glucose control, kidney function, cardiovascular health, and other areas of health. Although you certainly can’t and won’t be expected to analyze the lab report when your test results come back, knowing a little bit about what your report says can be a way for you to more fully understand and take charge of your health. If it isn’t already your doctor’s regular practice to give you copies of your lab reports, ask for a copy the next time you have lab tests done. Use the information in this article to learn more about what lab reports show, and discuss your results with your doctor to learn what your results mean with regards to your health. Lab reports All lab reports share certain standard features, regardless of the test(s) they show. A Federal law, the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act, regulates all aspects of clinical laboratory testing. It states exactly what information must be included in your lab test report. Some of the standard features include the following: • Your name and a unique identification number, which may be either your birth date or a medical record number assigned to you by the lab. • The name and address of the lab that tested your bloo Continue reading >>

Hba1c Test For Diabetes

Hba1c Test For Diabetes

Tweet The HbA1c test, also known as the haemoglobin A1c or glycated haemoglobin test, is an important blood test that gives a good indication of how well your diabetes is being controlled. Together with the fasting plasma glucose test, the HbA1c test is one of the main ways in which type 2 diabetes is diagnosed. HbA1c tests are not the primary diagnostic test for type 1 diabetes but may sometimes be used together with other tests. For HbA1c guidelines for monitoring diabetes control, see our HbA1c targets page. HbA1c testing in diagnosing diabetes The World Health Organisation (WHO) suggests the following diagnostic guidelines for diabetes: HbA1c below 42 mmol/mol (6.0%): Non-diabetic HbA1c between 42 and 47 mmol/mol (6.0–6.4%): Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) or Prediabetes HbA1c of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) or over: Type 2 diabetes If your HbA1c test returns a reading of 6.0–6.4%, that indicates prediabetes. Your doctor should work with you to suggest appropriate lifestyle changes that could reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. HbA1c is not used to diagnose gestational diabetes in the UK. Instead, an oral glucose tolerance test is used. A random blood glucose test will usually be used to diagnose type 1 diabetes. However, in some cases, an HbA1c test may be used to support a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. People with diabetes who reduced their HbA1c by less than 1% can cut their risk of dying within 5 years by 50%, according to Swedish research presented at the annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, Sept. 2012 (EASD). How is HbA1c tested? To measure a person's HbA1c level, a blood sample is taken from the patient's arm, and used to produce a reading. In some cases, such as with HbA1c testing for children, a single droplet of blo Continue reading >>

Signs, Symptoms And Diagnosis Of Diabetes

Signs, Symptoms And Diagnosis Of Diabetes

The signs and symptoms of Type 1 diabetes usually develop quickly, especially in children, over a period of weeks. In babies and young children, the first indication of Type 1 diabetes may be a yeast infection that causes a severe diaper rash that's far worse than the common red, puffy and tender skin rash. In young children and infants, lethargy, dehydration and abdominal pain also may indicate Type 1 diabetes. Once the symptoms appear, a blood test generally will reveal very high blood glucose. Type 2 diabetes can be detected easily during a routine screening exam and blood test. However, it frequently can go undiagnosed for years unless a physician draws a blood sample to check the blood glucose. In the early stages of Type 2 diabetes, you experience few to no noticeable signs of the disease. As time goes by and the untreated blood glucose continues to rise, symptoms begin. If you're over 40 or have parents or siblings with diabetes, be sure to have your blood glucose checked routinely. The most common symptoms of undiagnosed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are: Extreme thirst and a greater need to urinate: As excess glucose (sugar) builds up in the bloodstream, fluid is pulled from the tissues. The loss of fluid makes you thirsty. As a result, you may drink and urinate more than usual. Frequent hunger: Without enough insulin to move sugar into the cells (Type 1) or insulin resistance prohibiting insulin from entering the cells (Type 2), the muscles and organs are low on energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss: Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, rapid weight loss sometimes occurs. Without the energy that glucose supplies, muscle tissues and fat stores simply shrink. Unexplained weight loss is often one of the first symptoms to be noticed. Blurred Continue reading >>

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