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What Is The Biology Of Diabetes?

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

"the New Biology Of Diabetes": | Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center

Listen to Domenico Accili, MD, Deliver the Banting Lecture At the American Diabetes Association 77th Scientific Sessions, Domenico Accili, MD, the Russell Berrie Foundation Professor of Diabetes, was awarded the Banting Medal, the Associations top honor that recognizes long-term contributions to the understanding, treatment and prevention of diabetes. On Sunday, July 11, Dr. Accili delivered the Banting Medal Lecture, The New Biology of Diabetes, a broad and brilliant overview of the fieldwith an optimistic glimpse into the future. How will diabetes be treated in 2021, 100 years after the discovery of insulin? Dr. Accili believes it will be treated with selective insulin sensitizers, by preventing beta cell differentiation in type2 diabetes and by producing insulin in the gut for type1 diabetes. Currently, the Chief of the Endocrinology Division and Director of the Diabetes Research Center atColumbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Dr. Accili is highly regarded for transformative findings that have advanced the understanding of the pathogenesis, or causes and development, of type 2 diabetes. Dr. Accili has contributed to more than 230 publications and has a body of work that reflects significant, paradigm-shifting discoveries that hold promise for translating novel approaches for diabetes prevention and care. Click below to watchthe webcast of the Banting Lecture The New Biology of Diabetes. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

Chemical Biology Of Diabetes

Chemical Biology Of Diabetes

Small-molecule discovery is a key activity within type 2 diabetes (T2D) research. Newly discovered or synthesized molecules: help the Diabetes Research Group understand the biological basis of diabetes serve as candidates for testing therapeutic hypothesesin vivo may potentially become lead compounds for clinical development The groups overall approach leverages human experiments of nature to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention. As genetic loci associated with diabetes are uncovered within the human genome and validated through extensive molecular, cellular, and physiological studies, researchers aim to transition knowledge of the mechanisms underlying disease risk into assay development and high-throughput compound screening. The Diabetes Research Groupuses a wide range of biochemical, cell-based, and protein-binding techniques to measure chemical modulation of key genetic targets. Once the scientists identify active small molecules, they take a variety of cell-based approaches to confirm activity, assess specificity of action, and understand the mechanism of action of compounds within cells. Together, these methods move them closer to their ultimate ambition to advance the understanding and treatment of diabetes. In addition to genetic targets, one area of focus for small-molecule discovery is pancreatic betacell biology. Beta cell death, and the consequent deficiency in insulin secretion, is a key feature of type 1 diabetes. Beta cell dysfunction is also a hallmark of T2D, resulting in the inability of patients to compensate for high bloodglucose levels. A chemical intervention capable of restoring glycemic control in patients with diabetes would have enormous clinical impact. To that end, we have developedphenotypic cell-based assays to identify compo Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (t2dm): Biological Overview From Pathways To Organelles And Its Translation Toward A Torpid Wound Healing Process

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (t2dm): Biological Overview From Pathways To Organelles And Its Translation Toward A Torpid Wound Healing Process

Received date: July 16, 2013; Accepted date: August 14, 2013; Published date: August 20, 2013 Citation: Berlanga-Acosta J, Lpez-Saura P, Guillen-Prez I, Guillen-Nieto G, Acevedo-Castro B, et al. (2013) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM): Biological Overview from Pathways to Organelles and its Translation toward a Torpid Wound Healing Process. J Diabetes Metab 4:285. doi: 10.4172/2155-6156.1000285 Copyright: 2013 Berlanga-Acosta J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. T2DM is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Hyperglycemia may simply represent the tip of a broad series of molecular events from mitochondrial damages, to epigenetic and metabolic pathways deregulations. At the same time, hyperglycemia appears as the most proximal trigger for the onset and perpetual progression of multi-organ complications even under normoglycemic conditions. Thus, the initial hyperglycemic hit translates into a permanently harmful cellular imprinting as has been demonstrated in diabetic donors cells after several passages and cultured in ideal conditions. The wound healing failure along with the inability of the innate immunity to control peripheral infections is the hybrid that determines that 85% of all non-traumatic lower extremity amputations are practiced in diabetic subjects. Diabetic wounds exhibit a complex networking of inflammatory cytokines, local proteases, cytotoxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and a polymicrobial biofilm that impose a stagnant phenotype. All t Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes mellitus is a common disease where there is too much sugar (glucose) floating around in your blood. This occurs because either the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin or the cells in your body have become resistant to insulin. When you eat food, the amount of glucose in your blood skyrockets. That’s because the food you eat is converted into glucose (usable energy for your cells) and enters your blood to be transported to your cells around the body. Special cells in your pancreas sense the increase of glucose and release insulin into your blood. Insulin has a lot of different jobs, but one of its main tasks is to help decrease blood glucose levels. It does this by activating a system which transports glucose from your blood into your cells. It also decreases blood glucose by stimulating an enzyme called glycogen synthase in the liver. This molecule is responsible for making glycogen, a long string of glucose, which is then stored in the liver and used in the future when there is a period of low blood glucose. As insulin works on your body, the amount of glucose in the blood slowly returns to the same level it was before you ate.. This glucose level when you haven’t eaten recently (called fasting glucose) sits around 3.5-6 mmol/L (70-110 mg/dL). Just after a meal, your blood glucose can jump as high as 7.8mmol/L (140 mg/dL) depending on how much and what you ate. There are two types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. In both types, your body has trouble transporting sugar from your blood into your cells. This leads to high levels of glucose in your blood and a deficiency of glucose in your cells. The main difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the underlying mechanisms that cause your blood sugar to stray from the normal range. T Continue reading >>

Background About Diabetes

Background About Diabetes

Personal Assistant for a healthy Lifestyle Type 1 diabetes, or T1DM, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow glucose to enter cells to produce energy. Glucose is the main type of sugar in the blood. It comes from the foods we eat and is the major source of energy for the bodys functions. Large chains of glucose molecules are called carbohydrates. The glucose level in the blood rises after a meal and triggers the pancreas to make the hormone insulin and release it into the bloodstream. But in people with diabetes, the body either cant make (type 1) or cant respond to insulin properly (type 2). Insulin works like a key that opens the doors to the cells of the body and allows the glucose in. Without insulin, glucose cant get into the cells (the doors are locked and there is no key) and so it stays in the bloodstream. As a result, the level of sugar in the blood remains higher than normal. High blood sugar levels are a problem because they can cause a number of health problems. Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high bloodglucose(bloodsugar). Highblood glucosehappens when the body has too little insulin or when the body cant useinsulinproperly. on the contrary, hypoglycemiais a low blood glucose leveloccurring in a person with diabetes mellitus. It is one of the most common types of hypoglycemiaseen inemergency departmentsandhospitals. The subsequent lack of insulin leads to increased blood and urine glucose. The classical symptoms are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger), weight loss and tierdness. The cause of diabetes mellitus type 1 is unknown. Various factors may contribute to type 1 di Continue reading >>

The New Biology Of Diabetes

The New Biology Of Diabetes

Home / Conditions / Type 2 Diabetes / The New Biology of Diabetes Could study of FOXO transcription factor one day lead to new therapies? The treatment of diabetes mellitus is a common topic that has been discussed in many studies. The cost of treatments could be a huge burden for patients and their families, and the World Health Organization estimates that diabetes mellitus will be the seventh leading cause of death by the year 2030. Since it is a devastating disease that can involve any system of the body, patients and their physicians focus on the control of blood glucose levels to prevent further complications. Because of insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes, the current treatment options of T2M are aimed at increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing blood glucose levels in the patients body. A review study published in Diabetologia investigated whether forkhead box protein O (FOXO) transcription factor could help people to understand the pathophysiology of diabetes, and potentially lead to the design of new therapies. This study included many biological functions of FOXO in metabolism, such as the regulation of hepatic glucose production, liver lipids, and bile acids. They focused on the role of FOXO in the hepatic insulin resistance and beta cell failure. In the regulation of hepatic glucose production, FOXO1 can drive the G6pc gene, which is encoding glucose 6-phosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase is rate-limiting enzyme in glycogenolysis, and hepatic insulin resistance can be correlated with excessive FOXO activity. The study also concludes hepatocyte FOXO1 can be inactivated by insulin, and then G6PC expression is repressed. At the same time, FOXO also linked to beta cell failure. FOXO nuclear translocation can indicate beta Continue reading >>

Biology For Kids: Diabetes (disease)

Biology For Kids: Diabetes (disease)

Diabetes is a disease that causes a person to have high blood sugar. Over time, high blood sugar can damage organs such as the kidneys and heart. Nerve and blood vessel damage can lead to blindness and even the need for amputation of extremities such as the toes. High blood sugar is a result of the body not getting enough insulin or not responding to the insulin it is getting. Insulin is a hormone produced by an organ called the pancreas. Insulin takes the sugar in our blood (also called glucose) and helps it get absorbed into our cells. Our cells then use the glucose for energy. When there isn't enough insulin in the blood two things happen. First, the glucose level in the blood increases. As the body continues to eat food, carbohydrates are turned into glucose and absorbed into the blood stream to be used for energy. If there is no insulin, the glucose can't be absorbed by the cells and used up. Second, the cells are starved of energy. They end up getting their energy from fat. Type I diabetes is caused when the body's own immune system decides to attack the pancreas and destroy the cells (called beta cells) that make insulin. Doctors aren't sure what causes the immune system to do this, but, once all the beta cells are destroyed, the pancreas will stop producing insulin. Type I diabetes is often referred to as juvenile diabetes. This is because most people are first diagnosed with the disease while they are still young. However, some people do get the disease later in life. Also, once a person has the disease they will have it for their entire life. There is no cure. Type II diabetes is when the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin for the body or that the insulin isn't working right. When the insulin isn't working right, this is called "insulin resistance." Type Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.[6] Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss.[3] Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal.[3] Often symptoms come on slowly.[6] Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations.[1] The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon.[4][5] Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than others.[6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[12][13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).[3] Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.[1] If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.[7][14] Many people may eventually also require insulin injections.[9] In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills.[15] Bariatri Continue reading >>

Biology Of Diabetes Explored

Biology Of Diabetes Explored

Type 2 diabetes may be caused by a chain reaction which destroys vital insulin-producing cells, BBC News reported. The website said that a malfunctioning protein called amyloid could trigger the condition, in which the body loses its ability to control blood sugar levels. The news is based on a laboratory study that investigated a series of complex chemical reactions affecting cells involved in type 2 diabetes, the more common form of diabetes. It has discovered a series of complex processes that might trigger the formation of amyloid deposits in the cells of the pancreas. These deposits damage the cells that produce insulin, a hormone that the body uses to regulate blood sugar. News reports also suggested that it may eventually be possible to interrupt these processes and stop the disease from progressing. Any such developments are a long way off and it is too soon to claim that a cause or cure for diabetes has been found. Nevertheless, this early research is an important exploration of the processes behind type 2 diabetes. The study was carried out by researchers from Trinity College in Dublin and other academic and medical institutions around the world. It was funded by Australias National Health and Medical Research Council, the Science Foundation Ireland, the US Department of Veterans Affairs and the US National Institutes of Health. The study was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal Nature Immunology. BBC News covered the research well, and although it did not provide much detail of its methodology, it put the study in context by explaining type 2 diabetes and highlighting the scale of problem in the UK. This laboratory research investigated the complex chemical pathways involved in type 2 diabetes . Type 2 diabetes is characterised by high levels of gl Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. Type 2 diabetes If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chan Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is an incurable condition in which the body cannot control blood sugar levels, because of problems with the hormone insulin. There are two main variations of the illness, Type I and Type II. How does the body control blood sugar levels? Your body uses blood sugar (glucose) for energy. Glucose is a basic ingredient of sweet foods such as sweets and cakes. It can also be produced by carbohydrates such as potatoes, pasta or bread when they are digested and broken down. Under normal circumstances, the hormone insulin, which is made by your pancreas, carefully regulates how much glucose is in the blood. Insulin stimulates cells all over your body to absorb enough glucose from the blood to provide the energy, or fuel, that they need. After a meal, the amount of glucose in your blood rises, which triggers the release of insulin. When blood glucose levels fall, during exercise for example, insulin levels fall too. Types of diabetes There are two main types of diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes the cells of the pancreas stop making insulin. In Type 2 diabetes, either the pancreas cells do not make enough insulin, or the body's cells do not react properly to it. This is known as insulin resistance. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, and the immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas. It tends to affect people before the age of 40, and often follows a trigger such as a viral infection. The exact mechanisms that lead to Type 2 diabetes are not fully understood, but an underlying genetic susceptibility is usually present. This could be a family history of the illness, for example. The condition is then triggered by lifestyle factors - such as obesity - and it usually appears in people over the age of 40. There are three other, less common, forms of diabetes: Gestati Continue reading >>

The New Biology Of Diabetes.

The New Biology Of Diabetes.

Diabetologia. 2015 Nov;58(11):2459-68. doi: 10.1007/s00125-015-3722-5. Epub 2015 Aug 7. Department of Medicine and Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, Columbia University Medical Center, 1150 St Nicholas Av., New York, NY, 10032, USA. [email protected] Department of Medicine and Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, Columbia University Medical Center, 1150 St Nicholas Av., New York, NY, 10032, USA. [email protected] Erratum to: The new biology of diabetes. [Diabetologia. 2015] Until recently, type 2 diabetes was seen as a disease caused by an impaired ability of insulin to promote the uptake and utilisation of glucose. Work on forkhead box protein O (FOXO) transcription factors revealed new aspects of insulin action that have led us to articulate a liver- and beta cell-centric narrative of diabetes pathophysiology and treatment. FOXO integrate a surprisingly diverse subset of biological functions to promote metabolic flexibility. In the liver, they controls the glucokinase/glucose-6-phosphatase switch and bile acid pool composition, directing carbons to glucose or lipid utilisation, thus providing a unifying mechanism for the two abnormalities of the diabetic liver: excessive glucose production and increased lipid synthesis and secretion. Moreover, FOXO are necessary to maintain beta cell differentiation, and diabetes development is associated with a gradual loss of FOXO function that brings about beta cell dedifferentiation. We proposed that dedifferentiation is the main cause of beta cell failure and conversion into non-beta endocrine cells, and that treatment should restore beta cell differentiation. Our studies investigating these proposals have revealed new dimensions to the pathophysiology of diabetes that can be leveraged to design new therapies. Beta cell failure; Bile Continue reading >>

Network-based Analysis Of Affected Biological Processes In Type 2 Diabetes Models

Network-based Analysis Of Affected Biological Processes In Type 2 Diabetes Models

Network-Based Analysis of Affected Biological Processes in Type 2 Diabetes Models Contributed equally to this work with: Manway Liu, Arthur Liberzon, Sek Won Kong *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected] (ML); [email protected] (SK) Affiliation Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Contributed equally to this work with: Manway Liu, Arthur Liberzon, Sek Won Kong Affiliation Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Contributed equally to this work with: Manway Liu, Arthur Liberzon, Sek Won Kong Affiliations Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America , Children's Hospital Informatics Program at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Affiliation Harvard-Partners Center for Genetics and Genomics, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Affiliations Children's Hospital Informatics Program at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America , Harvard-Partners Center for Genetics and Genomics, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Affiliations Children's Hospital Informatics Program at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America , Center of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Continue reading >>

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