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What Is The Best Test For Diagnosing Diabetes?

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults (lada)

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults (lada)

Diagnosis Since latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is commonly confused with type 2 diabetes at first, patients typically undergo traditional glucose testing to arrive at a diabetes diagnosis. A diabetes diagnosis is made when any one of these tests is positive. The result may be confirmed by a second positive test on a different day: A1c greater than or equal to 6.5 percent Fasting plasma glucose of greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL Casual plasma glucose (taken at any time of the day) of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL with the symptoms of diabetes Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) value of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL Most cases of LADA are only “suspected” after a patient has little or no response to oral diabetes medications. When these LADA patients are started on injectable insulin, they do well. The only way to confirm LADA is through antibody testing. There are two tests your doctor can perform to measure your blood glucose level: the fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The FPG test is the most common, but either one will reveal whether you are metabolizing blood glucose correctly. Fasting blood glucose test Fasting blood glucose testing checks blood glucose levels after fasting for 12-14 hours. You can drink water during this time, but should strictly avoid any other food or drink. Individuals with diabetes may be asked to delay their diabetes medication or insulin dose until the test is completed. This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or prediabetes. A “normal” level for this test is below 100 mg/dl. A level of 100-125 mg/dl is termed prediabetes, and a level of 126 mg/dl or higher on two separate occasions indicates diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test During an oral glucose tolerance Continue reading >>

Criteria For Diagnosing Diabetes

Criteria For Diagnosing Diabetes

Topic Overview Have symptoms of diabetes (increased thirst, increased urination, and unexplained weight loss) and a blood sugar level equal to or greater than 11.1 millimoles per litre (mmol/L). The blood sugar test is done at any time, without regard for when you last ate (random plasma glucose test or random blood sugar test). Have a fasting blood sugar level that is equal to or greater than 7.0 mmol/L. A fasting blood sugar test (fasting plasma glucose) is done after not eating or drinking anything but water for 8 hours. Have a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) result that is equal to or greater than 11.1 mmol/L. An OGTT is most commonly done to check for diabetes that occurs with pregnancy (gestational diabetes). Have a hemoglobin A1c that is 6.5% or higher. (This test is most reliable for adults. Some experts recommend using one of the other tests to diagnose diabetes in children.)1 Your doctor may repeat the test to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes. If the results of your fasting blood sugar test are between 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L, your OGTT result is between 7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L (2 hours after the beginning of the test), or your hemoglobin A1c is 6.0% to 6.4%, you have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is above normal but not high enough to be diabetes. Discuss with your doctor how often you need to be tested.2 Continue reading >>

Lada And Gad: Diagnosing Type 1.5 Diabetes

Lada And Gad: Diagnosing Type 1.5 Diabetes

Researchers in Germany have further endorsed the effectiveness of a blood test that helps determine whether some adult diabetics diagnosed as type 2 diabetes are actually in the early stages of having type 1 diabetes. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults (LADA) like type 1 diabetes, is an autoimmune response that that destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. It is often misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes because it looks and acts a lot like type 2– arising usually in adulthood and progressing slowly– but, unlike type 2 diabetes, LADA results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. A test for glutamic acid decarboxylase, or GAD, antibodies, has long been used as a method of differentiating between LADA (which is sometimes referred to at type 1.5 diabetes) and type 2 diabetes in people over age 30. With LADA as well as type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system begins to attack its own beta cells. When the immune system attacks pathogens, one weapon in its arsenal is the creation of antibodies that bind to the foreign objects and mark them as invaders. In the case of autoimmune diabetes, the body begins to create antibodies against parts of proteins that are not foreign, but rather are associated with its own beta cells. GAD is one of the earliest proteins to be targeted by antibodies, and so by testing for the presence of GAD antibodies, doctors can determine whether there is an autoimmune reaction to beta cells taking place. “At diagnosis, people with LADA usually do not require insulin right away because they are still producing some insulin,” according to Christy L. Parkin, MSN, RN, CDE, Associate Editor of Diabetes Forecast. “Because of their older age, they are often misdiagnosed as type 2 and started on oral medication Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Diabetes With A Blood Test

Diagnosing Diabetes With A Blood Test

Diabetes is a common disease that can impact absolutely everyone. When an individual has diabetes, their body is incapable of producing insulin –a hormone responsible for utilizing glucose for energy. This is problematic as this results in the incapability to metabolize carbohydrates leading to elevated levels of glucose in the bloodstream. There are different forms of diabetes, as well as multiple reasons for its onset. For this reason, it is imperative to manage and monitor your health. Diabetes is a gradually developing disease. Some individuals catch this progression at the prediabetes stage. This stage includes symptoms such as aggravated hunger, weight loss, fatigue, frequent urination, and other symptoms commonly associated with diabetes. Some individuals, however, do not demonstrate any symptoms. For this reason, it is Important to consult your doctor about any concerns and regularly monitor your condition. If you are in the prediabetes stage, it is possible to prevent the condition from progressing through lifestyle changes regarding diet and physical activity. To diagnose prediabetes or diabetes, most frequently the doctor will rely on blood tests. Due to its efficiency, the Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG) is the most prevalent blood test used. The Fasting Plasma Glucose Test involves overnight fasting where an individual is not to eat or drink for a minimum of eight hours. The fasting is then followed by a blood test. If the fasting blood sugar is over 100 mg/dl and under 125 mg/dl the individual will be diagnosed with prediabetes. If however, the individual’s blood sugar is over 125 mg/dl the individual will be diagnosed with diabetes. Another test commonly used by physicians is the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). In addition to measuring the faste Continue reading >>

Diabetes Screening And Diagnosis

Diabetes Screening And Diagnosis

If you have the symptoms of diabetes, you should contact your clinician and arrange to be checked for the presence of diabetes. In some cases, your clinician may ask you to have a diagnosis test if he or she suspects you may already have diabetes (undiagnosed diabetes). Have you recently been diagnosed? See our guide for the newly diagnosed How a diagnosis is made Diabetes is usually diagnosed by taking one or more measurements of your blood glucose levels. Whether you are diagnosed as having diabetes or prediabetes will depend on what the result is as well as whether it was in a state of fasting or following a meal. In some cases, a urine test may be taken to diagnose diabetes. Diabetes screening tests provide doctors with a strong indication of whether you have diabetes. There are a number of different screening tests which may be chosen to diagnose diabetes depending on which type of diabetes is suspected. In most cases you will have two tests on separate days to confirm diabetes. However, a repeat test may not be needed if the result is very high. Random plasma glucose test A random plasma glucose test can be carried out simply and will often be used in the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. If the doctor is testing for type 1 diabetes, a test for ketones in the blood or urine may also be performed. A random plasma glucose test involves taking a sample of blood at any time of day and measuring the concentration of glucose in the sample. A reading of 200 mg/dL or more for a random blood or urine test will confirm a diagnosis of diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can be used to diagnose type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, prediabetes and gestational diabetes. This test involves taking a drink containing 75g of glucose and having blood Continue reading >>

Diabetes Diagnosis

Diabetes Diagnosis

Tweet Diagnosis for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can occur in a number of different ways. Usually type 2 is diagnosed by diabetes symptoms, such as polyuria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst). Otherwise, diabetes is picked up through screening, hyperglycaemia when doctor investigates a complication, or signs and symptoms prompted by diabetes. What is a diabetes screening test? A screening test determines whether a person has diabetes, and how serious it is. Depending on where you are and what your circumstances are, the screening test will vary. Tests include: Random blood glucose tests - commonly used to test for type 1 diabetes Urine glucose test Fasting plasma glucose tests (FPG tests) Oral glucose tolerance tests Additional diagnostic tests, such as urine ketone tests, GAD autoantibodies tests or C-peptide tests may also be used, as part of the diagnosis, to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. For adults aged between 40 and 50, screening should be considered. For people who have higher risk factors (ethnicity, family history, obesity) screening should be conducted beforehand. More on tests for diabetes If you have recently been diagnosed with diabetes by your healthcare team, please see our guide for newly diagnosed. Measuring hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) can help diagnose cases of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. According to diagnostic guidelines set out by the World Health Organisation (WHO), a HbA1c value of: 6% (below 42 mmol/mol) is considered non-diabetic 6-6.4% (42 to 47 mmol/mol) indicates impaired fasting glucose regulation and is considered prediabetes 6.5% or more (48 mmol/mol and above) indicates the presence of type 2 diabetes Diabetes screening is strongly recommended for adults aged between 40 and 50 years, or earlier fo Continue reading >>

New Test For Diagnosis Of Diabetes And Pre-diabetes

New Test For Diagnosis Of Diabetes And Pre-diabetes

The ADA and other organizations will be announcing the guidelines on how to use the A1c test to diagnose diabetes. The test that has been used by most doctors is the fasting blood glucose test. The problem with the fasting blood glucose is that you have to be fasting, but it can still give you a false reading. Now the A1c test which is a 90 day average of your blood sugars will be used, which means fasting will not be required. Leading diabetes organizations in the U.S., as the American Diabetes Association and others will come out with the guidelines within the next couple of months. They will contain information explaining how to use the A1c test as a diagnostic tool for type 2 diabetes. This change is coming at a time when the diagnosis of diabetes has increased over 90% among U.S. adults in the past 10 years. From 4.8 cases per 1,000 population during 1995-97, the number climbed up to 9.1 per 1,000 people in 2005-07 in 33 states. Right now most doctors use the fasting blood sugar result to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. But we know that you can have a normal fasting blood sugar but still have undiagnosed diabetes. This change will allow us to catch more people with diabetes and they will not have to fast for the test. The glycated hemoglobin test (HbA1c) or the A1c test has been around for more than 30 years. It provides average blood glucose over the previous 90 days. It has become the gold standard test in diabetes care. But, it has not been used as a way to diagnose a person with diabetes because it was not a standardized test. Meaning that a 6% in one lab could be an 8% in another lab. Or that a 6% in one lab is 126mg/dL and a 6% in another lab would be 154mg/dL. It has only been used to find out how a person with diabetes is doing over the last 90 -120 days Continue reading >>

Diagnosis Of Diabetes

Diagnosis Of Diabetes

Diabetes is a condition of elevated blood sugar where the body does not produce enough insulin or the body is unable to respond properly to the insulin that is produced. Insulin is a hormone that is made in the pancreas, which is a small organ situated behind the stomach. Insulin is important because it moves glucose, a simple sugar, from the blood into the body's cells. It also has a number of other important effects on metabolism. The foods people eat provide the body with glucose, which is used by the cells as a source of energy. If insulin isn't available or doesn't work correctly to move glucose from the blood into the cells, glucose will stay in the blood. High blood glucose levels are toxic. Cells that don't get glucose are lacking the fuel they need to work properly. The symptoms of diabetes are a result of high sugar levels in the blood. Diabetes is diagnosed by taking a blood glucose level. When screening for diabetes, the physician or primary health care provider might take what is called a "random" blood sugar level. This is a sugar level that is taken at any time of the day, without any specific preparation and independent of the food that has been eaten. A random blood sugar level of at least 11.1 mmol/L can be used to diagnose diabetes. Other diagnostic tests can include the measurement of a fasting blood sugar level. A fasting blood sugar of at least 7.0 mmol/L can be used to diagnose diabetes. Also, a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can be used to diagnose diabetes. A 2-hour blood sugar level of at least 11.1 mmol/L after an OGTT can be used to diagnose diabetes. Lastly, an A1C (which measures the average blood sugar levels over the past 2 to 3 months) of at least 6.5% can be used to diagnose diabetes. A1C is not used to diagnose diabetes for ch Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Is Diagnosed

How Diabetes Is Diagnosed

Fasting Blood Glucose Test What it is: After you fast for at least 8 hours, you'll undergo a simple blood test that measures the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. Pro: It's widely available (it'll probably be included in your standard physical) and not too expensive. The results are also pretty reliable, assuming you complete the required fast. Con: If you eat when you're supposed to be fasting, the test could give false positives or negatives. For example, coffee is often allowed during the fast, but just adding a dash of cream to your cup can throw off test results. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test What it is: After fasting for at least 8 hours, you drink a sugary solution akin to super-concentrated soda (without the fizz). Frequent blood tests measure your glucose levels over the next 2 or more hours. Pro: It's the most accurate diagnostic test. Con: Frankly, who wants to sit in the doctor's office all day? Random (Non-Fasting) Blood Glucose Test What it is: Similar to the fasting glucose test, but, of course, without the fasting. Pro: It's convenient. Con: It's not actually sanctioned as a diagnostic test for diabetes, so it's likely that you'll be asked to make a return visit for a second test to validate the results. A1C Test What it is: A blood test that measures blood glucose levels in your red blood cells, which live in your bloodstream for about 3 months. Pro: It's the most comprehensive test to diagnose diabetes. Each red blood cell can reveal how much blood glucose was attached to it over its 3-month lifespan, serving as a calendar of your average blood glucose levels. Con: It's not technically considered a diagnostic test—yet. But in April 2009, an expert panel comprised of representatives from the American Diabetes Association, the International Diabetes F Continue reading >>

Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing

Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing

The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of diabetes. The recommended preparation for and administration of the OGTT are important to ensure that test results are not affected. Interpretation is based on venous plasma glucose results before and 2 hours after a 75 g oral glucose load. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of diabetes. The recommended preparation for and administration of the OGTT are important to ensure that test results are not affected. Interpretation is based on venous plasma glucose results before and 2 hours after a 75 g oral glucose load. When should an OGTT be ordered? The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) recommends an OGTT when the results of fasting or random blood glucose are equivocal (Figure 1): fasting 5.5–6.9; random 5.5–11.0 mmol/L.1 An OGTT is unnecessary if fasting or random blood glucose values are clearly in the nondiabetic or diabetic range: fasting or random <5.5; fasting ≥7.0 or random ≥11.1 mmol/L respectively. Diagnosis should be based on laboratory results, not results from a benchtop glucose meter. The Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society recommends a 50 or 75 g glucose challenge at 26–28 weeks in all pregnant women. An OGTT should be performed if the test result is abnormal: 1 hour values after a 50 or 75 g glucose challenge exceeding 7.8 or 8.0 mmol/L respectively. If a woman has had gestational diabetes, a repeat OGTT is recommended at 6–8 weeks and 12 weeks after delivery. If the results are normal, repeat testing is recommended between 1 and 3 years depending on the clinical circumstances.1 There is a recent Australian recommendation to screen all women with polycystic ovarian syndrome Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Diabetes

Diagnosing Diabetes

Diagnosing diabetes centers on testing the blood glucose and there are different types of tests available. Perhaps the best test for diabetes is one known as the hemoglobin A1c or the glycated hemoglobin test. This is a simple serum blood test tells the percentage of the hemoglobin molecules circulating in our blood stream which have an attached sugar molecule to them. In effect, it measures the average of one’s blood sugar level over the past two or three months and therefore is considered very reliable. When the hemoglobin A1c result is 6.5% or higher, this means diabetes. Of note, a hemoglobin A1c level between 5.7% and 6.4% indicates pre-diabetes. It is usually recommended to have two separate tests before instituting treatment, although in many cases, treatment consisting of a change in diet with reduced carbohydrate intake, increased exercise, and weight loss should be done immediately. Fasting blood glucose is the most common traditional test for diabetes, and if the fasting serum blood sugar level is over 125 mg/dL on two separate occasions, this means diabetes is present. Of note, when the fasting blood sugar level is between 100-125 mg/dL, this is considered pre-diabetes. Additional blood tests include the oral glucose tolerance test in which an initial fasting blood sugar is measured, and then a sugary oral beverage is provided followed by additional blood sugar measurements after two hours. Testing for ongoing diabetes treatments and maintenance: The most commonly used test for monitoring of blood sugar control is the hemoglobin A1c. Uncontrolled diabetes will be indicated by higher levels of hemoglobin A1c, reflecting the level of blood sugar over the last two to three months. Once proper diet, exercise and medications have been instituted, the hemoglobin Continue reading >>

How To Beat Diabetes: Simple Test To Show If You Need Treatment

How To Beat Diabetes: Simple Test To Show If You Need Treatment

If you're in an at-risk group, you can get a free annual blood-glucose test The earlier diabetes is picked up, the better the prognosis, expert says One in three of us has raised blood-sugar levels, research suggests Some experts call these levels 'stage one diabetes' or 'pre-diabetes' So you think you might be at risk of type 2 diabetes — what next? If you are in one of the at-risk groups (over 25 and from a South Asian or Afro-Caribbean background, or Caucasian and over 40, particularly if you are overweight, obese or have a family history of diabetes) you can ask your GP for a free annual blood-glucose test. 'All the evidence shows that the earlier diabetes is picked up the better the prognosis, as it allows for better blood glucose control,' says Professor Anthony Barnett, a leading diabetes researcher based at Birmingham's Heartlands Hospital. 'A GP screening is best in a high-risk individual because it is free and they can then offer immediate treatment.' If you don't qualify for this, some chemists, such as Lloydspharmacy, will do a risk assessment involving a questionnaire looking at such factors as weight, age, diet and family history. If this indicates you are at risk of diabetes, you will be given a simple finger-prick blood test which checks your levels of glucose and gives immediate results. If your levels are above normal, you will be asked to come back and do a second test after fasting overnight. There are home test kits, which will give you the same reading as a pharmacy test, but a pharmacist's interpretation will be more informed, says Professor Barnett. People with borderline readings may benefit from a discussion with their GP, he adds. To get the most accurate result from a home test kit, he suggests taking it at least 1-2 hours after a meal, or Continue reading >>

Criteria For Diagnosing Diabetes

Criteria For Diagnosing Diabetes

Topic Overview To be diagnosed with diabetes, you must meet one of the following criteria:2 Have symptoms of diabetes (increased thirst, increased urination, and unexplained weight loss) and a blood sugar level equal to or greater than 11.1 millimoles per litre (mmol/L). The blood sugar test is done at any time, without regard for when you last ate (random plasma glucose test or random blood sugar test). Have a fasting blood sugar level that is equal to or greater than 7.0 mmol/L. A fasting blood sugar test (fasting plasma glucose) is done after not eating or drinking anything but water for 8 hours. Have a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) result that is equal to or greater than 11.1 mmol/L. An OGTT is most commonly done to check for diabetes that occurs with pregnancy (gestational diabetes). Have a hemoglobin A1c that is 6.5% or higher. (This test is most reliable for adults. Some experts recommend using one of the other tests to diagnose diabetes in children.)1 Your doctor may repeat the test to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes. If the results of your fasting blood sugar test are between 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L, your OGTT result is between 7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L (2 hours after the beginning of the test), or your hemoglobin A1c is 6.0% to 6.4%, you have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is above normal but not high enough to be diabetes. Discuss with your doctor how often you need to be tested.2 Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Diabetes: The Value Of Hba1c Testing

Diagnosing Diabetes: The Value Of Hba1c Testing

Directly responsible for an estimated 1.6 million deaths in 2015, diabetes is predicted by the World Health Organization to become the seventh leading cause of death in 2030. Rates of people living with the disease are also rapidly rising, more than doubling in the UK since 1996. A chronic disease characterized by a lack of blood glucose control, diabetes is associated with the development of a range of health conditions, including heart disease, stroke, eye problems and kidney disease. Diagnosing diabetes early is crucial in seeking appropriate treatment and minimizing the risk of complications developing. Yet estimates suggest that almost one in four people in the UK don’t know they have the disease. EKF Diagnostics has recently published a guide to ‘Diabetes and HbA1c testing’, which provides an overview of the global diabetes ‘epidemic’, symptoms and complications, and discusses both glucose and HbA1c testing. We spoke to EKF’s Gavin Jones to learn more about the current methods of diabetes diagnosis and monitoring, the advantages of HbA1C testing, and how testing may change in the future. How can diabetes be diagnosed? There are multiple options for the diagnosis of diabetes, most of which involve measuring the level of glycemic control a person exhibits i.e. how much glucose is present in their blood. Measuring blood sugar levels Currently, the two main methods used in the UK are: Fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (whole blood ≥ 6.1 mmol/l) or Two hour plasma glucose concentration ≥ 11.1 mmol/l two hours after 75g anhydrous glucose administered in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). When using either fasting plasma glucose or the OGTT to diagnose diabetes it’s important to consider the accuracy of the device being used to mak Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Your health care professional can diagnose diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes through blood tests. The blood tests show if your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Do not try to diagnose yourself if you think you might have diabetes. Testing equipment that you can buy over the counter, such as a blood glucose meter, cannot diagnose diabetes. Who should be tested for diabetes? Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes should be tested for the disease. Some people will not have any symptoms but may have risk factors for diabetes and need to be tested. Testing allows health care professionals to find diabetes sooner and work with their patients to manage diabetes and prevent complications. Testing also allows health care professionals to find prediabetes. Making lifestyle changes to lose a modest amount of weight if you are overweight may help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Most often, testing for occurs in people with diabetes symptoms. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Because type 1 diabetes can run in families, a study called TrialNet offers free testing to family members of people with the disease, even if they don’t have symptoms. Type 2 diabetes Experts recommend routine testing for type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older are between the ages of 19 and 44, are overweight or obese, and have one or more other diabetes risk factors are a woman who had gestational diabetes1 Medicare covers the cost of diabetes tests for people with certain risk factors for diabetes. If you have Medicare, find out if you qualify for coverage . If you have different insurance, ask your insurance company if it covers diabetes tests. Though type 2 diabetes most often develops in adults, children also ca Continue reading >>

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