Bg & A1c: What Does It All Mean?
About the author View all posts by Meryl Krochmal, RD, CSP, CDE, CNSC Glycemic control is the assessment of blood glucose control in a person with diabetes. Daily self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and periodic testing of A1c (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c) are currently the two primary methods for assessing both short term and long term glycemic control, respectively. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG ) is done by using a home blood glucose meter . A small amount of blood is added to a test strip that has been inserted into the meter. The meter measures the amount of glucose in the blood. Test results are available within a few seconds. Why is blood glucose monitoring important? SMBG allows you to see on a day-to-day basis how food, exercise and medication impact your blood glucose levels. Keeping a written blood glucose log (or using an application on your phone) over a period of 1- 2 weeks can help reveal patterns. Your physician and/or diabetes educator can use this information to recommend changes to your current diabetes regimen. How often should blood glucose be checked? The frequency of blood glucose monitoring will depend on how your diabetes is currently managed (i.e. diet/exercise, oral medication , insulin ). Work with your physician to determine how often you should check your blood glucose. The American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2017 recommends the following: Most patients using intensive insulin regimens (multiple-dose insulin or insulin pump therapy) should perform self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) prior to meals and snacks, at bedtime, occasionally postprandially (after meals), prior to exercise, when they suspect low blood glucose, after treating low blood glucose until they are normoglycemic, and prior to crit Continue reading >>
What Effect Does Excess Protein Have On Blood Sugar?
What effect does excess protein have on blood sugar? I have had type 1 diabetes for 43 years and I still do not understand the effect that excess protein has on blood sugar. Once in awhile I will overindulge on a steak. Can you please help me get this straight in my head? I would greatly appreciate your assistance. A: I have had type 1 diabetes for 43 years and I still do not understand the effect that excess protein has on blood sugar. Once in awhile I will overindulge on a steak. Can you please help me get this straight in my head? I would greatly appreciate your assistance. During digestion, your body breaks down protein into individual amino acids, which are absorbed into your bloodstream. In people who don't have diabetes, higher levels of amino acids signal the pancreas to produce the hormones glucagon and insulin. Insulin stimulates your muscle cells to take up amino acids, and glucagon causes your liver to release stored sugar. As a result, blood sugar levels remain stable after protein consumption. However, people with type 1 diabetes don't produce insulin, yet the pancreas still secretes glucagon when amino acids appear in the blood. When there is no insulin to balance the glucagon, blood sugar levels rise as the liver releases stored sugar. Importantly, this rise in blood sugar occurs gradually over several hours and increases much less than it would if you ate an equivalent amount of carbohydrates. On the other hand, if you eat a large steak, you will likely require additional insulin to prevent high blood sugar. Most people with type 1 diabetes find that dividing their carb-to-insulin ratio in half works best. For example, if you ate a steak containing 45 grams of protein and your carb-to-insulin ratio is 15:1, you would use a 30:1 ratio to cover the prote Continue reading >>
A Practical Guide To Clinical Medicine
A comprehensive physical examination and clinical education site for medical studentsand other health care professionals Web Site Design by Jan Thompson, Program Representative, UCSD School of Medicine. Content and Photographs by Charlie Goldberg, M.D., UCSD School of Medicine and VA Medical Center, San Diego, California 92093-0611. The "daVinci Anatomy Icon" denotes a link to related gross anatomy pictures. AA - Alcoholics Anonymous; African American ABPA - Allergic Broncho Pulmonary Aspergillosis AC - Anterior Chamber; also Acromio-Clavicular and Before Meals ACE-I - Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADTP - Alcohol and Drug Treatment Program AED - Automatic External Defibrillator; Anti-Epileptic Drug ALL - Allergies; also Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia ALS - Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; also Advanced Life Support AMA - Against Medical Advice; American Medical Association AMI - Acute Myocardial Infarction; Anterior Myocardial Infarction AMS - Altered Mental Status; Acute Mountain Sickness ARDS - Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome AS - Aortic Stenosis; also Anklyosing Spondylitis AVNRT - Atrio-Ventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia BE - Bacterial Endocarditis; also Barium Enema BIPAP - Bi-Level Positive Airway Pressure BPD - Borderline Personality Disorder; also Bi-Polar Disorder and Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia BS - Bowel Sounds; also Breath Sounds and Blood Sugar CAP - Prostate Cancer; Community Acquired Pneumonia CBD - Common Bile Duct; Closed Bag Drainage CIDP - Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy CMT - Cervical Motion Tenderness; Charcot Marie Tooth COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease CPAP - Continuous Positive Airway Pressure CT - Cat Scan; also Chest Tube and Cardio-Thoracic DC - Dischar Continue reading >>
What Does It Mean To Have High Blood Sugar?
What is hyperglycemia? Have you ever felt like no matter how much water or juice you drink, it just isn’t enough? Does it seem like you spend more time running to the restroom than not? Are you frequently tired? If you answered yes to any of these questions, you may have high blood sugar. High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, primarily affects people who have diabetes. It occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough insulin. It can also happen when your body is unable to absorb insulin properly or develops a resistance to insulin entirely. Hyperglycemia can also affect people who don’t have diabetes. Your blood sugar levels can spike when you’re ill or under stress. This occurs when the hormones that your body produces to fight off illness raise your blood sugar. If your blood sugar levels are consistently high and left untreated, it can lead to serious complications. These complications can involve problems with your vision, nerves, and cardiovascular system. You generally won’t experience any symptoms until your blood sugar levels are significantly elevated. These symptoms can develop over time, so you may not realize that something is wrong at first. Early symptoms can include: increased urinary frequency increased thirst blurred vision headaches fatigue The longer the condition remains untreated, the more serious symptoms can become. If left untreated, toxic acids can build up in your blood or urine. More serious signs and symptoms include: vomiting nausea dry mouth shortness of breath abdominal pain Your diet may cause you to have high blood sugar levels, particularly if you have diabetes. Carbohydrate-heavy foods such as breads, rice, and pasta can raise your blood sugar. Your body breaks these foods down into sugar molecules during digestion. One of these Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar - How Is Blood Sugar Abbreviated?
Blood sugar - How is blood sugar abbreviated? Basel Stadt (Basel Town; Suisse Half Canton) Belgisch Staatsblad (Dutch; Belgian government publication) Buy Stop (trading markets; stocks, bonds, commodities) Bungie Software (Microsoft-owned game developer) Body Shopping (bringing in foreign contractors to work for the US companies at lower salaries) Broadcast Satellaview (Super Nintendo Entertainment System) Bentonite slurry (tunnel boring machines) Bird Screen (drawings for HVAC fan or louver accessory) Brodosplit (Shipyard Company, Split, Croatia) Business Stupidity (opposite of Business Intelligence) Bjarne Stroustroup (creator of C++ language) Bien-Etre Sociale (Canadian French: welfare) Barfko Swill (Frank Zappa Production Company) Before Stinson (How I Met Your Mother; TV series reference) Black Sheep Brotherhood (gaming community) Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us , add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content . Write what you mean clearly and correctly. Previous research has focused on the effects of high blood sugars on patients with diabetes, so more research was needed to understand how low blood sugars in patients with Type 2 diabetes caused irregular heartbeats, Heller emphasised. Low blood sugar may lead to heart rhythm disturbances Home blood sugar meters vary in price, size, and complexity, but overall they're relatively simple to use and require only a tiny drop of blood placed on a test strip. Innovation Direct[TM] at Forefront of Marketing Campaign for Non-Invasive Blood Sugar Reading Invention Refined carbohydrates, such as cookies, breads, and baked goods made with refined white flour, and foods high in simple sugars, such as jams, jellies, and candy, can cause blood sugar levels to climb becau Continue reading >>
Glucosamine: Does It Affect Blood Sugar?
Even though glucosamine is technically a type of sugar, it doesn't appear to affect blood sugar levels or insulin sensitivity. Some early research had suggested that glucosamine might worsen insulin resistance, which can contribute to increases in blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. But later studies refuted these findings. Glucosamine is one of the most popular dietary supplements sold in the United States, although study results have been mixed regarding its ability to reduce osteoarthritis pain. Although glucosamine doesn't appear to affect glucose levels or insulin sensitivity, it can interact with other medications you might be taking — such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven), a blood thinner. As is important with any dietary supplement, talk to your doctor before you add glucosamine to your daily regimen. Continue reading >>
List Of Medical Abbreviations: B
Sortable table Abbreviation Meaning Bx biopsy Ba barium BAC blood alcohol content BAD Bipolar affective disorder BAL bronchoalveolar lavage British anti-Lewisite blood alcohol level BAO basic acid output BAT brown adipose tissue BAV bicuspid aortic valve BBA bilateral breast augmentation BBB blood–brain barrier BBB L left bundle branch block BBB R right bundle branch block BBT basal body temperature BC bone conduction blood culture BCC basal cell carcinoma blind carbon copy BCG bacille Calmette–Guérin (a tuberculosis vaccination) BCP birth control pill BCP Blood chemistry profile BCX BCx blood culture BDR Background Diabetic Retinopathy BBMF "bone break, me fix" (orthopedic consent form) BD bipolar disorder twice a day (from Latin bis in die) BDD body dysmorphic disorder BDI Beck Depression Inventory BE barium enema base excess BEP bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (chemotherapy regimen) BFP bundle forming pilus BG blood glucose BGAT blood glucose awareness training (to help patients with diabetic hypoglycemia) BGL blood glucose level BIB brought in by BIBA brought in by ambulance BID bid b.i.d. twice a day (from Latin bis in die) Bilat eq bilaterally equal BiPAP bilevel positive airway pressure BIS Bispectral index BiVAD bilateral ventricular assist device (left and right) BK bradykinin BKA below-the-knee amputation b/l bilateral BL Burkitt's lymphoma bl.cult blood culture bld blood BLE Bilateral Lower Extremity (in/on both legs). BLS basic life support BM bone marrow bowel movement breast milk BMBx Bone marrow biopsy BMC bone mineral content BMD bone mineral density (also termed bone mass measurement) BMI body mass index BMP basic metabolic panel BMR basal metabolic rate BMT bone marrow transplantation BNO bowel not open BNP brain natriuretic peptide BO bowel o Continue reading >>
Asknadia: Does Coconut Oil Help In Maintaining Good Blood Sugars?
AskNadia: Does Coconut Oil Help in Maintaining Good Blood Sugars? Ive heard that coconut oil is good for maintaining blood sugar. Is this true, or did I misunderstand? In the past, the benefits of coconut oil were considered controversial because some felt there was not enough evidence-based research to support the benefits of using it as an alternative in cooking. The concern was that the demand for the oil is falsely generated, making it another fad with higher risks associated with cardiovascular disease. Today, many studies have shown it to be a healthy addition to the diet. Coconut oil has shown to have anti-viral properties, improves insulin absorption and helps regulate blood sugars by raising the metabolic rate. Some research suggests it boosts energy and endurance. The fat in coconut oil breaks down quickly in our bodies without needing to be stored. The medium chain fatty acids do not impact your metabolism as it uses the oils as energy without affecting your metabolism. By no means is this meant as an endorsement of coconut oil as a magic cure or treatment for diabetes, but it does seem to be a good choice for cooking and preparing food, due to the beneficial qualities attributed to this often-forgotten oil. Coconut oil is one of the most stable oils you can buy, so it does not turn rancid easily. It is also considered by some to be a low fat because it is broken down rapidly and used for quick energy like a carbohydrate, not stored like other fats. Type 3 diabetes sometimes referred to as Alzheimer is a condition when the brain is glucose intolerant. Coconut oil is an alternative to glucose, where the brain uses the medium fatty chain acids from the fat for energy instead of glucose. Ayurveda medicine is one of the oldest therapies in India, dating back 500 Continue reading >>
A accommodation; acetum; angstrm unit; anode; anterior AC adrenal cortex; air conduction; alternating current; axiocervical AI aortic incompetence; aortic insufficiency AICD automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator AML acute myelogenous (myeloblastic) leukemia AS ankylosing spondylitis; aortic stenosis; auris sinistra (left ear) ASC-US atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance ASCVD atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease A-V; AV; A/V arteriovenous; atrioventricular BBB blood-brain barrier; bundle branch block CBRNE chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive agents CCU coronary care unit; critical care unit CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CFTR cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator CHD congenital heart disease; coronary heart disease CK-MB serum creatine kinase, myocardial-bound COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease CPHSS Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale CR conditioned reflex; controlled release; crown-rump length CREST calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia (cluster of features of systemic sclerosis scleroderma) CS cardiogenic shock; cesarean section; culture and sensitivity CSF cerebrospinal fluid; colony-stimulating factor CVA cardiovascular accident; cerebrovascular accident; costovertebral angle D5/0.9 NaCl 5% dextrose and normal saline solution (0.9% NaCl) D5/ /NS 5% dextrose and half-normal saline solution (0.45% NaCl) DC direct current; doctor of chiropractic DISIDA (scan) diisopropyl iminodiacetic acid (cholescintigraphy) DPat diphtheria-acellular pertussis tetanus (vaccine) DPT diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (vaccine) DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision ECF extended care facility; extracellular fluid ECG ele Continue reading >>
A A1C, A1c, GHB, GHb, hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, Hb1c, HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c (a lab test for diabetes) (See The A1C Test and Diabetes) AADE: American Association of Diabetes Educators (a not-for-profit diabetes organization) (Website: www.diabeteseducator.org) ACE-I: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (a class of medications for treatment of hypertension) ADA: American Diabetes Association (a not-for-profit diabetes organization) (Website: www.diabetes.org) American Dietitic Association (previous name for The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, a not-for-profit nutrition organization) (Website: www.eatright.org) American Dental Association (a not-for-profit dental organization) (Website: www.ada.org) Americans with Disabilities Act (a U.S. law) (Website: www.ada.gov) AGEs: Advanced glycosylation end products (See AGEs) AODM: Adult-onset diabetes mellitus (a former term for type 2 diabetes) ARB: Angiotensin receptor blocker (a class of medications for treatment of hypertension) ASCVD: Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease or Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Continue reading >>
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The following table lists some medical abbreviations with their intended meaning. Medical abbreviations beginning with ... A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z A Abbreviation Meaning A atrial fibrillation A & E accident and emergency A & W alive and well AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm acute anxiety attack AB apex beat Ab antibody abortion Abd abdomen abdominal ABE acute bacterial endocarditis ABG arterial blood gases ABR absolute bed rest ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone AD alzheimer's disease ADH antidiuretic hormone ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADL activities of daily living ADR adverse drug reaction AED antiepileptic drug AFB acid-fast bacillus AFP α-fetoprotein Ag antigen AGL acute granulocytic leukaemia AGN acute glomerular nephritis AHD autoimmune haemolytic disease AI aortic incompetence aortic insufficiency AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome AJ ankle jerk AKA above knee amputation AL acute leukaemia ALL acute lymphocytic leukaemia ALT alanine transaminase AMA against medical advice AMI acute myocardial infarction ANA antinuclear antibody AOB alcohol on breath AP anteroposterior alkaline phosphatase apical pulse APPT activated partial thromboplastin time APSAC anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex A-R apical-radial pulse ARDS adult respiratory distress syndrome ARF acute renal failure AS anal sphincter ankylosing spondylitis aortic stenosis arteriosclerosis ASAP as soon as possible ASB asymptomatic bacteriuria ASD atrial septal defect AST aspartate transaminase ATN acute tubular necrosis AV atrioventricular aortic valve B Abbreviation Meaning BaE barium enema BB bed bath BBA born before arrival BBB blood-brain barrier bundle Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Or Blood Glucose: What Does It Do?
Blood sugar, or blood glucose, is sugar that the bloodstream carries to all the cells in the body to supply energy. Blood sugar or blood glucose measurements represent the amount of sugar being transported in the blood during one instant. The sugar comes from the food we eat. The human body regulates blood glucose levels so that they are neither too high nor too low. The blood's internal environment must remain stable for the body to function. This balance is known as homeostasis. The sugar in the blood is not the same as sucrose, the sugar in the sugar bowl. There are different kinds of sugar. Sugar in the blood is known as glucose. Blood glucose levels change throughout the day. After eating, levels rise and then settle down after about an hour. They are at their lowest point before the first meal of the day, which is normally breakfast. How does sugar get into the body's cells? When we eat carbohydrates, such as sugar, or sucrose, our body digests it into glucose, a simple sugar that can easily convert to energy. The human digestive system breaks down carbohydrates from food into various sugar molecules. One of these sugars is glucose, the body's main source of energy. The glucose goes straight from the digestive system into the bloodstream after food is consumed and digested. But glucose can only enter cells if there is insulin in the bloodstream too. Without insulin, the cells would starve. After we eat, blood sugar concentrations rise. The pancreas releases insulin automatically so that the glucose enters cells. As more and more cells receive glucose, blood sugar levels return to normal again. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen, or stored glucose, in the liver and the muscles. Glycogen plays an important role in homeostasis, because it helps our body function du Continue reading >>
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Appendix B: Some Common Abbreviations
This is a list of some common abbreviations and acronyms. This appendix supplements the MedlinePlus Understanding Medical Words tutorial. Abbreviation Stands for More information ABG Arterial blood gases You may have an ABG test to detect lung diseases. ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme Drugs called ACE inhibitors are used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, diabetes and kidney diseases. ACL Anterior cruciate ligament Commonly injured part of the knee ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder A behavior disorder AFIB Atrial fibrillation A disturbance of the rhythm of the heart AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Infection caused by human immunodeficiency virus ALP Alkaline phosphatase You may have a blood test for ALP to detect liver or bone disease. ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease ALT Alanine aminotransferase You may have a blood test for ALP to detect liver disease. AMD Age-related macular degeneration An eye problem AMI Acute myocardial infarction Heart attack AODM Adult onset diabetes mellitus Type 2 diabetes AST Aspartate aminotransferase You may have a blood test for ALP to detect liver disease. AVM Arteriovenous malformation A defect in the circulatory system. BID Twice a day Your doctor may write this on your prescription. BMI Body mass index A measure of how much you should weigh based on your height BP Blood pressure The force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries BPH Benign prostatic hypertrophy Enlargement of the prostate gland BRCA Breast Cancer Gene People with the gene may be at increased risk for breast or ovarian cancer. BUN Blood urea nitrogen You may have a blood test for BUN to detect kidney disease problems. CA Cancer OR Calcium CA-125 Cancer antigen 125 You may have a blood t Continue reading >>
Blood Test Abbreviations
BMP - Basic Metabolic Panel (a group of tests) BNP - Beta Natriuretic Peptide (testing for congestive heart failure) BUN - Blood Urea Nitrogen (part of kidney function test) CBC - Complete Blood Count (test red and white blood cells) CK - Creatine Phosphokinase (test for muscle damage) CR - Creatinine (part of kidney function test) ESR - Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (tests for inflammation) HDL/LDL - High Density Lipoproteins/High Density Lipoproteins (testing for good and bad cholesterol) INR - International Normalized Ratio (blood clotting test) K - Potassium (test for potassium levels) Mg - Magnesium (test for magnesium levels) PSA - Prostate Specific Antigen (prostate cancer test) PT - Prothrombin Time (test blood clotting) RBC - Red Blood Cell Count (part of the CBC test) TPO - Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (test for antibodies to thyroid) Trig - Triglygerides (part of cholesterol test) TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (one of the main tests of a thyroid test) WBC - White Blood Cell Count (part of the CBC test) Blood tests are one of a doctor's basic tools to check your health. Many specialized tests are available. For clarification on blood test abbreviations other than those listed above just ask your medical professional. YourDictionary definition and usage example. Copyright 2018 by LoveToKnow Corp Continue reading >>
What Does A1c Stand For?
You may have heard of a diabetes test called a hemoglobin A1c, sometimes called HgbA1c, HbA1c, or just A1C. What is an A1C test, and what should you know about it? HgbA1c is hemoglobin (pronounced HE-mo-glow-bin) that has sugar attached to it. Hemoglobin is the protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body. Hemoglobin is an important component of red blood cells (RBCs). Nearly all cells in the human body need oxygen to power them. All animals with backbones, except one family of fish, have hemoglobin. Hemoglobin and molecules like it are also found in many invertebrates, plants, and fungi. Types of hemoglobin The “A” in Hemoglobin A (HgbA) stands for “adult.” After a person reaches six months of age, nearly all the hemoglobin is type A. About 98% of HgbA is type 1, or HgBA1. There is also HgBA2 (in addition to other types of hemoglobin), but not much. Type A1 has subtypes A1a, A1b, A1c, and others. Type A1c is the most common, making up about two-thirds of hemoglobin with glucose attached. HgbA1c is a good marker for glucose control, because the more glucose is circulating in the blood, the more hemoglobin will be glycated (covered with sugar). What an A1C test means Once hemoglobin is glycated, it stays that way until the red blood cell dies. Red blood cells live an average of three to four months. That is why your A1C level indicates your average glucose over the last few months. A1C results are expressed as the percentage of all hemoglobin that is glycated. An A1C of 7.0% means an average blood glucose level of 154 mg/dl, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). You can use this calculator to convert your A1C to an estimated average blood glucose number. However, A1C tests can sometimes mislead because: • Newer blood c Continue reading >>