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What Is Metformin Made Out Of

Dailymed - Metformin Hydrochloride - Metformin Hydrochloride Tablet, Extended Release

Dailymed - Metformin Hydrochloride - Metformin Hydrochloride Tablet, Extended Release

Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets are oral antihyperglycemic drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes. Metformin hydrochloride (N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride) is not chemically or pharmacologically related to any other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. The structural formula is as shown: Metformin hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline compound with a molecular formula of C4H11N5 HCl and a molecular weight of 165.63. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68. Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets, USP contain 500 mg or 750 mg of metformin hydrochloride USP as the active ingredient. Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets 500 mg contain the inactive ingredients xanthan gum, hypromellose, sodium carbonate, povidone, talc, colloidal silicon dioxide and magnesium stearate. Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets 750 mg contain the inactive ingredients xanthan gum, hypromellose, sodium carbonate, povidone, talc, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate and ferric oxide (red). Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets meet USP dissolution test 10. System Components and Performance-Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets comprises a hydrophilic polymer matrix system. Metformin hydrochloride is combined with a drug release controlling polymers to form a monophasic matrix system. After administration, fluid from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract enters the tablet, causing the polymers to hydrate and swell. Drug is released slowly from the dosage form by a process of diffusion through the gel matrix t Continue reading >>

Weekly Dose: Metformin, The Diabetes Drug Developed From French Lilac

Weekly Dose: Metformin, The Diabetes Drug Developed From French Lilac

Metformin is the most widely used drug to treat type 2 diabetes globally. In Australia, approximately two-thirds of patients with type 2 diabetes are prescribed metformin, either alone or in combination with other pills, or with insulin injections. Alongside diet and exercise, metformin is considered the first-choice drug to improve glucose control in type 2 diabetes. Metformin hydrochloride is the scientific or generic name for the active ingredient in tablets sold in Australia under 40 different proprietary or brand names. History Metformin was originally developed from natural compounds found in the plant Galega officinalis, known as French lilac or goat’s rue. Synthetic biguanides were developed in the 1920s in Germany, but their use was limited due to side effects. During the 1940s, however, French physician Jean Sterne examined a new biguanide called dimethylbiguanide or metformin. At the time, it was being studied for the treatment of influenza, but Sterne recognised it had glucose-lowering properties. He proposed calling it glucophage, meaning glucose eater, a name with which it is still commercially associated today. Metformin has been used to treat diabetes since the late 1950s. It is now on the World Health Organisation’s List of Essential Medicines needed for a basic health care system. How does it work? Insulin suppresses the production of glucose by the liver. One reason glucose levels remain high in those with type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin. The liver continues to inappropriately make large amounts of glucose, even when glucose levels are already high. Metformin is able to reduce glucose production by the liver by approximately one-third, through mechanisms that remain to be fully understood. When taken as directed, it will reduce the Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,[4][5] particularly in people who are overweight.[6] It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.[4] Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer complications of diabetes.[7][8] It is not associated with weight gain.[8] It is taken by mouth.[4] Metformin is generally well tolerated.[9] Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain.[4] It has a low risk of causing low blood sugar.[4] High blood lactic acid level is a concern if the medication is prescribed inappropriately and in overly large doses.[10] It should not be used in those with significant liver disease or kidney problems.[4] While no clear harm comes from use during pregnancy, insulin is generally preferred for gestational diabetes.[4][11] Metformin is in the biguanide class.[4] It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver and increasing the insulin sensitivity of body tissues.[4] Metformin was discovered in 1922.[12] French physician Jean Sterne began study in humans in the 1950s.[12] It was introduced as a medication in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995.[4][13] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[14] Metformin is believed to be the most widely used medication for diabetes which is taken by mouth.[12] It is available as a generic medication.[4] The wholesale price in the developed world is between 0.21 and 5.55 USD per month as of 2014.[15] In the United States, it costs 5 to 25 USD per month.[4] Medical uses[edit] Metformin is primarily used for type 2 diabetes, but is increasingly be Continue reading >>

How Does Metformin Work?

How Does Metformin Work?

Metformin is a type of oral medication used to treat type 2 diabetes and according to Gary Scheiner, CDE , in his book, Until There is a Cure, metformin is the most prescribed medication for type 2 diabetes, and one of those most widely used drugs in the world. But type 1 diabetics can take metformin, too, explains Scheiner, if theyre struggling with insulin resistance and persistent high blood sugars. The brand names for metformin are Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, and Riomet. Metformin has also beencombined with other medications, giving you two diabetes treatment methods in one medication. Those combo-medications are:glyburide (Glucovance), glipizide (Metaglip), rosiglitazone (Avandamet), pioglitazone (Actoplus Met), sitagliptin (Janumet) and repaglinide (PrandiMet). [Download our free Guide to Type 2 Diabetes Medications ] Metformin is taken in pill-form. It is generally taken twice per day, at breakfast and at dinner. For those with higher levels of insulin resistance, your doctor may prescribe metformin to be taken at all three meals: breakfast, lunch, and dinner. While there are a variety of oral medications to help people with type 2 diabetes reduce their blood sugar levels, they all work very differently in the body. Scheiner explains exactly how metformin works in the body: Metformin does not increase insulin levels and does not cause hypoglycemia. Instead, it decreases the amount of sugar produced by the liver and tends to suppress appetite. Until There is a Cure, page 81 In every human body, the liver releases small amounts of glucose throughout the day. The primary effect of taking metformin is that this release of glucose from the liver is lessened, resulting in lower blood sugars. Metformin also works to lower blood sugar in two secondary Continue reading >>

Ingredients Of Metformin

Ingredients Of Metformin

Michelle Kerns writes for a variety of print and online publications and specializes in literature and science topics. She has served as a book columnist since 2008 and is a member of the National Book Critics Circle. Kerns studied English literature and neurology at UC Davis. Metformin is an effective type 2 diabetes medication that contains a number of active and inactive ingredientsPhoto Credit: Kritchanut/iStock/Getty Images Metformin is the generic name for the type 2 diabetes medication known by a number of brand names, including Glucophage, Riomet and Fortamet. Metformin decreases the amount of circulating blood glucose, decreases the chance of diabetes complications such as kidney or heart disease, lowers cholesterol levels and can cause a mild amount of weight loss. Metformin consists of the active ingredient metformin hydrochloride, and inactive ingredients that function as anti-caking agents, emulsifiers and delayed release agents. The active chemical in metformin, metformin hydrochloride, works as an effective non-insulin dependent diabetes treatment in a number of ways: it decreases the amount of glucose produced by the liver, inhibits the absorption of glucose in your stomach and enhances the function of insulin, causing you to burn through circulating glucose faster. Metformin hydrochloride cannot be used as a treatment for insulin-dependent diabetes as it is broken down in the digestive system, destroying the effect of the medication. Silicon dioxide is an inactive ingredient in metformin as a way to prevent the various other compounds in the medication from coagulating or clumping together in uneven amounts throughout the tablet. The silicon dioxide--which has the consistency of very fine sand--helps to create a smooth mixture with which to form the me Continue reading >>

Metformin Side Effects

Metformin Side Effects

Generic Name: metformin (met FOR min) Brand Names: Fortamet, Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Riomet What is metformin? Metformin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. Metformin is used together with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin is sometimes used together with insulin or other medications, but it is not for treating type 1 diabetes. Important information You should not use metformin if you have severe kidney disease or diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment). If you need to have any type of x-ray or CT scan using a dye that is injected into your veins, you will need to temporarily stop taking metformin. This medicine may cause a serious condition called lactic acidosis. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms such as: muscle pain or weakness, numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs, trouble breathing, stomach pain, nausea with vomiting, slow or uneven heart rate, dizziness, or feeling very weak or tired. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to metformin: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Some people develop lactic acidosis while taking this medicine. Early symptoms may get worse over time and this condition can be fatal. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms such as: muscle pain or weakness; numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs; trouble breathing; feeling dizzy, light-headed, tired, or very weak; stomach pain, nausea with vomiting; or slow or uneven heart rate. Common metformin side effects may include: low blood sugar; nausea, upset stomach; or diarrhea. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doc Continue reading >>

Metformin Wonder Drug

Metformin Wonder Drug

A while back I wrote about why metformin is the number one treatment for Type 2 diabetes. Now new research finds metformin prevents cancer and heart disease and may actually slow aging! Where can I get this stuff? A study from Scotland found that people on metformin had only roughly half the cancer rate of people with diabetes who weren’t on the drug. This is important, because diabetes is associated with higher risks of liver, pancreas, endometrial, colon and rectum, breast, and bladder cancer. Nobody could explain how metformin helped, but then Canadian researchers showed that metformin reduces cell mutations and DNA damage. Since mutations and DNA damage promote both cancer and aging, this is striking news. No one thought we could limit mutations before, but perhaps metformin can do it. A study on mice exposed to cigarette smoke showed that those given metformin had 70% less tumor growth. A small study of humans in Japan showed similar improvements in colorectal cancer outcomes. Metformin is now being studied in clinical trials for breast cancer. The researchers write, “Women with early-stage breast cancer taking metformin for diabetes have higher response rates to [presurgical cancer therapies] than diabetic patients not taking metformin.” They also had better results than people without diabetes. How Does It Work? According to Michael Pollak, MD, professor in McGill’s Medicine and Oncology Departments, metformin is a powerful antioxidant. It slows DNA damage by reducing levels of “reactive oxygen species” (ROS). ROS are produced as byproducts when cells burn glucose. Just as oxygen helps fires burn or metals rust, ROS will oxidize (“burn” or “rust”) the nuclei or other parts of cells. ROS are what the antioxidant vitamins are supposed to block. Continue reading >>

Metformin Smelling Fishy? What You Can Do.

Metformin Smelling Fishy? What You Can Do.

Researchers have discovered what many people with diabetes have known for years: The popular Type 2 diabetes drug metformin (brand names Glumetza, Riomet, Glucophage, Fortamet, and others) has a distinctive scent that, for some people, is enough to cause them to stop taking it. But as the most widely prescribed diabetes drug in the United States, metformin plays an important role in helping people with Type 2 diabetes control their blood glucose levels, and experts have suggested several solutions for dealing with the medicine’s unique scent. In a letter published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, physicians from the Medical College of Georgia described two adult men with Type 2 diabetes who complained of a “dead fish” odor of metformin that had led both men to stop taking the medicine. Searching the medical literature for more information, author J. Russell May, PharmD, and colleagues found no reports of this issue. Upon searching the Internet, however, the researchers came across hundreds of message board posts referencing metformin’s odor, and an informal survey of pharmacists found that many could identify the medicine by its distinct smell. May and his colleagues wrote to the journal to raise awareness of this issue and questioned whether nausea, one of the most commonly reported side effects of metformin, could in some cases in fact be a reaction the fishy odor. May noted that “Metformin is an excellent drug, but the immediate-release formulation may have an odor to it. The smell is fishy or like the inside of an inner tube, and in a patient’s mind…they may think the drug isn’t good.” (A manufacturer of metformin notes that there has been no association between the odor of metformin and its effectiveness.) The authors indicated that switching t Continue reading >>

Fortamet

Fortamet

FORTAMET® (metformin hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets DESCRIPTION FORTAMET® (metformin hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets contain an oral antihyperglycemic drug used in the management of type 2 diabetes. Metformin hydrochloride (N, Ndimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride) is a member of the biguanide class of oral antihyperglycemics and is not chemically or pharmacologically related to any other class of oral antihyperglycemic agents. The empirical formula of metformin hydrochloride is C4H11N5•HCl and its molecular weight is 165.63. Its structural formula is: Metformin hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline powder that is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68. FORTAMET® Extended-Release Tablets are designed for once-a-day oral administration and deliver 500 mg or 1000 mg of metformin hydrochloride. In addition to the active ingredient metformin hydrochloride, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: candellila wax, cellulose acetate, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycols (PEG 400, PEG 8000), polysorbate 80, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, synthetic black iron oxides, titanium dioxide, and triacetin. FORTAMET® meets USP Dissolution Test 5. System Components And Performance FORTAMET® was developed as an extended-release formulation of metformin hydrochloride and designed for once-a-day oral administration using the patented single-composition osmotic technology (SCOT™). The tablet is similar in appearance to other film-coated oral administered tablets but it consists of an osmotically active core formulation that is surrounded by a semipermeable membra Continue reading >>

Metformin Diabetes Drug Could Extend Lifespan

Metformin Diabetes Drug Could Extend Lifespan

Metformin is approved in the US as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. A new study by Cardiff University, UK, involving over 180,000 people, reveals that the drug could also increase the lifespan of those individuals who are non-diabetics. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are around 29.1 million people in the US with diabetes, equating to 9.3% of the population. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of diabetes cases and is usually associated with older age, obesity and physical inactivity, family history of type 2 diabetes or a personal history of gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is preventable through healthful eating, regular physical activity and weight loss. It can be controlled with these same activities, but insulin or oral medication also may be necessary. Metformin (metformin hydrochloride) is an oral biguanide antidiabetic medicine to treat type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood. Metformin helps to control the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood, it decreases the amount of glucose you absorb from your food and the amount of glucose made by your liver. Metformin also increases your body's response to insulin, a natural substance that controls the amount of glucose in the blood. The objective of the study, published in leading diabetes journal Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, was to compare all-cause mortality in diabetic patients treated with either sulphonylurea or metformin with matched individuals without diabetes including age, gender, same general practice, smoking status and clinical status criteria. The data is from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), which encompasses clinically rich, pseudonymize Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

Metformin may rarely cause a serious, life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you have kidney disease. Your doctor will probably tell you not to take metformin. Also, tell your doctor if you are over 65 years old and if you have ever had a heart attack; stroke; diabetic ketoacidosis (blood sugar that is high enough to cause severe symptoms and requires emergency medical treatment); a coma; or heart or liver disease. Taking certain other medications with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you are taking acetazolamide (Diamox), dichlorphenamide (Keveyis), methazolamide, topiramate (Topamax, in Qsymia), or zonisamide (Zonegran). Tell your doctor if you have recently had any of the following conditions, or if you develop them during treatment: serious infection; severe diarrhea, vomiting, or fever; or if you drink much less fluid than usual for any reason. You may have to stop taking metformin until you recover. If you are having surgery, including dental surgery, or any major medical procedure, tell the doctor that you are taking metformin. Also, tell your doctor if you plan to have any x-ray procedure in which dye is injected, especially if you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol or have or have had liver disease or heart failure. You may need to stop taking metformin before the procedure and wait 48 hours to restart treatment. Your doctor will tell you exactly when you should stop taking metformin and when you should start taking it again. If you experience any of the following symptoms, stop taking metformin and call your doctor immediately: extreme tiredness, weakness, or discomfort; nausea; vomiting; stomach pain; decreased appetite; deep and rapid breathing or shortness of breath; dizzi Continue reading >>

Metformin Hcl

Metformin Hcl

Uses Metformin is used with a proper diet and exercise program and possibly with other medications to control high blood sugar. It is used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Metformin works by helping to restore your body's proper response to the insulin you naturally produce. It also decreases the amount of sugar that your liver makes and that your stomach/intestines absorb. How to use Metformin HCL Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start taking metformin and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist. Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually 1-3 times a day with meals. Drink plenty of fluids while taking this medication unless otherwise directed by your doctor. The dosage is based on your medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products). To reduce your risk of side effects (such as upset stomach), your doctor may direct you to start this medication at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Follow your doctor's instructions carefully. Take this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day. If you are already taking another diabetes drug (such as chlorpropamide), follow your doctor's directions carefully for stopping/continuing the old drug and starting metformin. Check your blood sugar regularly a Continue reading >>

The Origins Of Metformin

The Origins Of Metformin

Goat's rue, French lilac, Italian fitch, and professor weed are all names for the same plant: Galega officinalis. This perennial herb, 3 feet tall and with purple, blue, or white flowers, was used in folk medicine to treat diabetes starting in the Middle Ages, maybe earlier. Though it gave rise to metformin, one of the most popular diabetes medications in the world, G. officinalis is now widely considered poisonous. In the early 20th century, researchers isolated a compound from G. officinalis called guanidine, which could lower blood glucose levels in animals but was also toxic. Chemists found that they could make the compound more tolerable by bonding two guanidines together, forming a biguanide. Metformin is one such biguanide, first synthesized in 1929 and then clinically developed in the late 1950s by the French physician Jean Sterne, who gave it its first trade name, Glucophage ("glucose eater"). Two other biguanides—phenformin and buformin—were also produced around this time but later withdrawn because they became associated with lactic acidosis. This condition results from a buildup of lactic acid in the blood, lowering its pH to unhealthy levels. It can be particularly dangerous for people with diabetes. Metformin seemed guilty by association, and the damage done to its reputation meant that metformin took time to catch on, even though it was later shown to trigger lactic acidosis only in rare cases. Over the next few decades, studies about metformin's safety and efficacy trickled in, but it wasn't until the landmark United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (1977 to 1997) that metformin gained the renown that it enjoys today. In the study, overweight and obese people with type 2 diabetes on metformin lived longer and had fewer heart attacks than those wit Continue reading >>

Metformin History

Metformin History

Metformin, a principle biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used agent, represents a mainstay of today's therapy in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and shows significant effectiveness in decreasing the risk of disease development. The discovery of this drug can be traced back to the pioneering work with extracts of the herb Galega officinalis, which led to the characterization of the blood lowering effects of an active ingredient named galegine. Galega officinalis (also known by many other names including as goat's rue, false indigo, professor-weed, French lilac, Spanish sanfoin and Italian fitch) is a summer-flowering perennial herb with white, blue or purple flowers found in most temperate regions. It originated in southern Europe and western Asia, but in the last two centuries it has spread to many countries around the globe. In medieval times, a prescription of Galega officinalis was used in folklore medicine to relieve the frequent urination accompanying the disease that is today known as diabetes mellitus. The plant was also given as a medicine in plague epidemics to promote perspiration of the affected individuals, and has been widely used to stimulate lactation in cows. Still, the plant was too toxic for widespread agricultural usage. Traditional herbal remedies were poorly understood at the beginning of 20th century. Although Galega officinalis successfully lowered blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients, the quest for an active ingredient was slow in the early days of the last century. The main reasons were mild effects from the plant and the introduction of potent insulin, which was effective for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The active ingredient in the French lilac that produced the lowering of blood glucose was shown to Continue reading >>

What Is Metformin?

What Is Metformin?

MORE Metformin is a prescription drug used primarily in the treatment of Type II diabetes. It can be used on its own or combined with other medications. In the United States, it is sold under the brand names Fortamet, Glucophage, Glumetza and Riomet. "Metformin is very often prescribed as the first step in a diabetic's regime," said Ken Sternfeld, a New York-based pharmacist. How it works "When you're diabetic you lose the ability to use the insulin you need to offset the food," Sternfeld explained. "If you eat a carb or sugar that can't be metabolized or offset by the insulin you produce, your sugar levels will be higher. Metformin and drugs in that category will help your body better metabolize that food so that insulin levels will be able to stay more in line." Metformin aims to decrease glucose production in the liver, consequently lowering the levels of glucose in the bloodstream. It also changes the way that your blood cells react to insulin. "It makes them more sensitive to insulin," said Dr. Stephen Neabore, a primary care doctor at the Barnard Medical Center in Washington, D.C. "It makes the same amount of insulin work better. It transports the insulin to the cells in a more effective way." Metformin may have a preventive health role, as well. New research presented at the American Diabetes Association 2017 Scientific Sessions showed that long-term use of metformin is particularly useful in preventing the onset of type II diabetes in women who have suffered from gestational diabetes. Because metformin changes the way the body uses insulin, it is not used to treat Type I diabetes, a condition in which the body does not produce insulin at all. Metformin & PCOS Metformin is sometimes prescribed to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), according to Neabore. "I Continue reading >>

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