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What Is Hba1c Level?

Hba1c And Diabetes – Glycated Hemoglobin (a1c) Explained

Hba1c And Diabetes – Glycated Hemoglobin (a1c) Explained

Diabetes and its complications remain a major cause of early disease and death worldwide. The diagnosis of diabetes is to a large extent based on detecting elevated levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a laboratory measure frequently used for this purpose. The test is also useful to monitor treatment in patients with established diabetes. Approximately 8 percent of the US populations suffer from type 2 diabetes, with as many as 40 percent of those undiagnosed (1). Worldwide, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated at 6.4 percent in adults but varies somewhat among countries with the rate of undetected diabetes as high as 50 percent in some areas (2). The term diabetes describes several disorders of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism that are characterized by high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). Diabetes is associated with a relative or absolute impairment in insulin secretion, along with varying degrees of peripheral resistance to the action of insulin (3). The Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes The prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes continues to increase worldwide, with type 2 diabetes much more common and accounting for over 90 percent of patients with diabetes. Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile onset or insulin-dependent diabetes because it often presents in childhood and it is characterized by the inability of the pancreas to produce the insulin. Insulin is necessary for the cells of the body to be able to utilize glucose for energy production. Without insulin, glucose accumulates in the blood leading to hyperglycemia. Due to the absence of insulin, most patients with type 1 diabetes need to be treated with insulin. Conversely, type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset or non-insulin-depend Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Levels

Blood Glucose Levels

What is the blood sugar level? The blood sugar level is the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It is also known as plasma glucose level. It is expressed as millimoles per litre (mmol/l). Normally blood glucose levels stay within narrow limits throughout the day: 4 to 8mmol/l. But they are higher after meals and usually lowest in the morning. In diabetes the blood sugar level moves outside these limits until treated. Even with good control of diabetes, the blood sugar level will still at times drift outside this normal range. Why control blood sugar levels? When very high levels of blood glucose are present for years, it leads to damage of the small blood vessels. This in turn increases your risk of developing late-stage diabetes complications including: With type 1 diabetes, these complications may start to appear 10 to 15 years after diagnosis. They frequently appear less than 10 years after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, because this type of diabetes is often present for years before it is recognised. By keeping the blood sugar level stable, you significantly reduce your risk of these complications. How can I measure blood sugar levels? Home testing kits come in a variety of shapes and sizes. A pharmacist or the diabetes clinic nurse can advise you about the best model. You can usually obtain a blood glucose meter at little or no cost via the diabetes clinic. Testing strips are available on NHS prescription. You can learn to measure blood sugar levels simply and quickly with a home blood glucose level testing kit. All kits have at least two things: a measuring device (a 'meter') and a strip. To check your blood sugar level, put a small amount of blood on the strip. Now place the strip into the device. Within 30 seconds it will display the blood glucose level. The Continue reading >>

Hba1c: A Test Every Diabetic Should Know About

Hba1c: A Test Every Diabetic Should Know About

Home Magazine Diabetes HbA1c: A Test Every Diabetic Should Know About HbA1c: A Test Every Diabetic Should Know About Expert-reviewed byAshwini S.Kanade, Registered Dietician and Certified Diabetes Educator with 17 years of experience HbA1c stands for Haemoglobin A1c, and it is a laboratory blood test that is conducted at intervals of minimum 3 months upon the recommendation of your doctor. Apart from your fasting and post-meal blood sugar levels. And it is considered more reliable because it shows the blood sugar control over time, whereas your other tests may be affected by what you eat before doing the tests. You mustve heard about haemoglobin in association with your iron levels and anaemia So, how is it connected to diabetes? When blood sugar levels increase in your blood, the glucose attaches itself to the haemoglobin to form something called glycated haemoglobin. The HbA1c test, which is also known as the glycated haemoglobin test, measures the amount of this glucose-bound haemoglobin. A sample of blood extracted from your veins, as opposed to a finger prick, is used for the test. How is it different from a regular blood sugar test? HbA1c testing is conducted to detect the average blood glucose levels over the previous 3 months by checking the amount of glycated haemoglobin present in the blood. SMBG tells you the blood glucose levels at the time of the test. In addition, HbA1c testing can be done at any time of the day without any prior diet restrictions, as opposed to regular tests like fasting blood sugar (FBS) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), which require pre-test dietary restrictions. Read more about how often you should be checking your blood sugar levels if you have diabetes. The HbA1c test result is a good indicator of how ones blood sugar has ran Continue reading >>

What Is Hba1c Test ? Test Procedure, Normal Ranges

What Is Hba1c Test ? Test Procedure, Normal Ranges

What is HbA1c ? Hemoglobin A1c, often abbreviated HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin (a blood pigment that carries oxygen) that is bound to glucose. The blood test for HbA1c level is routinely performed in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood HbA1c test levels are reflective of how well diabetes is controlled. The normal range for level for hemoglobin A1c is less than 6%. HbA1c also is known as glycosylated, or glycated hemoglobin. HbA1c levels are reflective of blood glucose levels over the past six to eight weeks and do not reflect daily ups and downs of blood glucose. High HbA1c test levels indicate poorer control of diabetes than levels in the normal range. HbA1c is typically measured to determine how well a type 1 or type 2 diabetes treatment plan (including medications, exercise, or dietary changes) is working. Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying pigment that gives blood its red color and is also the predominant protein in red blood cells. About 90% of hemoglobin is hemoglobin A (the “A” stands for adult type). Although one chemical component accounts for 92% of hemoglobin A, approximately 8% of hemoglobin A is made up of minor components that are chemically slightly different. These minor components include hemoglobin A1c, A1b, A1a1, and A1a2. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a minor component of hemoglobin to which glucose is bound. HbA1c also is sometimes referred to as glycated, glycosylated hemoglobin, or glycohemoglobin. How Is Hemoglobin A1c Measured or what is the Procedure? The test for hemoglobin A1c depends on the chemical (electrical) charge on the molecule of HbA1c, which differs from the charges on the other components of hemoglobin. The molecule of HbA1c also differs in size from the other components. HbA1c may be separated by charge and si Continue reading >>

Have Diabetes? It Depends On What Country You're In

Have Diabetes? It Depends On What Country You're In

Open this photo in gallery: "So, Dr. Q, do I have it or not?" asked Michael, a 47-year-old man who had just returned from Michigan. His wife, my patient, had brought him in to see me to clarify his diagnosis. He had undergone blood tests in Detroit and was told by his doctor there that he had diabetes. Upset and disbelieving, he refused to take medications. Once in Canada, he went to see his own family doctor. After doing blood tests here, his Canadian physician told him he was fine - and that he did not have diabetes. "Well, yes and no," I had to reply. It was an unusual situation based on different diabetes-testing criteria in the United States and Canada. The same patient with the same results can be told that he either has or does not have the condition. "Michael, both your doctors are right. In Michigan, you have diabetes. In Toronto, you don't." That didn't seem to help his peace of mind. Doctors are supposed to be without borders, and the diagnosis of common conditions should not change between countries that share so much. But American physicians are diagnosing diabetes even more aggressively than their Canadian counterparts. In January, 2010, the American Diabetes Association essentially made it easier for patients to be diagnosed with diabetes by adding the important Hemoglobin A1C test to the diagnostic list. Now, in the United States, a HbA1C level greater than 6.5 per cent means you have diabetes. Previously, the U.S. gold standard test for diabetes was an overnight fasting sugar (glucose) level of 7.0 millimoles per litre of blood or higher. That still holds for Canada. In fact, Canadian doctors are not even supposed to do the HbA1C test until a person has been fully diagnosed with diabetes by the usual fasting glucose tests. The HbA1C test is used only to Continue reading >>

A Change In Reporting Your Hba1c Results: Information For People With Diabetes

A Change In Reporting Your Hba1c Results: Information For People With Diabetes

Change to reporting of HbA1c From 1 June 2009, the way in which HbA1c results are reported in the UK is changing. This leaflet explains why and how this will happen. What is HbA1c? Glucose in the blood sticks to haemoglobin in red blood cells, making glycated haemoglobin, called haemoglobin A1c or HbA1c. The more glucose in your blood, the more HbA1c will be present, so the level reported will be higher. The HbA1c gives a measure of what your average blood glucose level has been in the previous 2–3 months. What does it tell us? The better your blood glucose control the less chance there is of you developing diabetes complications such as eye, kidney or nerve damage, heart disease or stroke. Red blood cells live for about 8–12 weeks before being replaced so the HbA1c test tells you what your blood glucose has been over the past few months and whether you are on target to keep your risk of complications as low as possible. Why measure it? Because blood glucose levels vary throughout the day and from day to day, HbA1c is usually measured every 2–6 months. The results of HbA1c show if your average blood glucose control has altered in response to changes in your diet, physical activity or medication. What are the current HbA1c results and targets? The HbA1c results are currently given as a percentage. For most people with diabetes, the current HbA1c target is below 6.5%. However, you should have agreed your own individual target with your healthcare team, as sometimes a different target might be more appropriate. For example, if you have had a lot of problems with low blood glucose levels (hypos), a higher target might be appropriate. What is changing? Laboratories in the UK are about to change the way in which the HbA1c results are reported. The Interna Continue reading >>

What Are The Normal A1c Levels For Children?

What Are The Normal A1c Levels For Children?

The A1c blood test is one of the laboratory tests used to diagnose diabetes and an important measure of average blood sugar levels in someone who has diabetes. This test determines the amount of glucose or sugar that has attached to the blood's hemoglobin -- the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells -- during the 3-month lifespan of these cells. Target A1c levels have been established to help healthcare providers, as well as children with diabetes and their families, understand the blood sugar goals needed to reduce the risk of the long-term complications of diabetes. While there are some situations where the A1c result may not be reliable, as a rule this test is accurate and an essential part of a child's diabetes management program. Video of the Day Normal A1c Levels Diagnostic criteria for children is similar to the guidelines used in adults, and the A1c is one of the tests used to diagnose diabetes. A1c levels are reported as a percentage, and often the estimated average glucose (eAG) -- a number calculated from the A1c reading -- is also included with the results. Using the same units as a blood glucose meter, the eAG makes understanding the A1c result a bit easier by comparing the A1c to average blood sugar levels. A normal, nondiabetic A1c level is below 5.7 percent, which reflects an eAG below 117 mg/dL. The level used to diagnose diabetes is 6.5 percent and above, which reflects an eAG of 140 mg/dL or higher. A1c levels above normal but below the diabetes range fit into a prediabetes range. Target A1c Levels Along with its role in diagnosing diabetes, the A1c test is performed between 2 and 4 times per year to estimate average blood sugar levels over the previous 3 months. This test is used to monitor the effectiveness of diabetes treatment and to determin Continue reading >>

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

According to the latest American Heart Association's Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, about 8 million people 18 years and older in the United States have type 2 diabetes and do not know it. Often type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed until symptoms become severe and hospitalization is required. Left untreated, diabetes can cause a number of health complications. That's why it's so important to both know what warning signs to look for and to see a health care provider regularly for routine wellness screenings. Symptoms In incidences of prediabetes, there are no symptoms. People may not be aware that they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes because they have no symptoms or because the symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed for quite some time. However, some individuals do experience warning signs, so it's important to be familiar with them. Prediabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes No symptoms Increased or extreme thirst Increased thirst Increased appetite Increased appetite Increased fatigue Fatigue Increased or frequent urination Increased urination, especially at night Unusual weight loss Weight loss Blurred vision Blurred vision Fruity odor or breath Sores that do not heal In some cases, no symptoms In some cases, no symptoms If you have any of these symptoms, see your health care provider right away. Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your healthcare provider. Who should be tested for prediabetes and diabetes? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are: If your blood glucose levels are in normal range, testing should be done about every three years. If you have prediabetes, you should be checked for diabetes every one to two years after diagnosis. Tests for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes There are three ty Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood Glucose Monitoring

One of the main aims of diabetes treatment is to keep blood glucose levels within a specified target range. The key is balancing your food with your activity, lifestyle and diabetes medicines. Blood glucose monitoring can help you understand the link between blood glucose, food, exercise and insulin. Over time your readings will provide you and your health professionals with the information required to determine the best management strategy for your diabetes. Maintaining good blood glucose control is your best defence to reduce the chances of developing complications from diabetes. Self-blood glucose monitoring allows you to check your blood glucose levels as often as you need to or as recommended by your doctor or Credentialled Diabetes Educator. To test blood glucose levels, you need: A blood glucose meter A lancet device with lancets Test strips. Blood glucose meters are usually sold as kits giving you all the equipment you need to start. There are many different types, offering different features and at different prices to meet individual needs. Most of these are available from Diabetes Australia in your state or territory, pharmacies and some diabetes centres. Your doctor or Credentialled Diabetes Educator can help you choose the meter that’s best for you, and your Credentialled Diabetes Educator or pharmacist can show you how to use your meter to get accurate results. To test your blood glucose levels, you prick your finger with the lancet and add a small drop of blood onto a testing strip. This strip is then inserted into the meter, which reads the strip and displays a number – your blood glucose level. When and how often you should test your blood glucose levels varies depending on each individual, the type of diabetes and the tablets and/or insulin being us Continue reading >>

H-b-a-1-c

H-b-a-1-c

(What It Is and Why It Matters) You’ve pulled out your logbook and are taking off your jacket to bare your upper arm for the blood pressure cuff, when the nurse walks in and asks you to hold out a finger. “Does it matter that I had breakfast this morning?” you ask, trying to remember if you were supposed to fast before coming in, as she pricks your finger and collects a blood sample. “No, it doesn’t,” she says. “There; all done. The doctor will be in shortly to discuss your result.” And, indeed, several minutes later, your doctor walks in and says with a smile, “Looks like things are coming together for you. You’re at 6.8%.” For some people, the doctor’s words would be enough for them to realize that the fingerstick in the imaginary scenario above was for a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test. What is Hba1c? The HbA1c test gives an indication of your blood glucose control over the previous 2–3 months and is an important part of your diabetes-care regimen. This article discusses what the test is, why it’s important, and how it’s used to help better blood glucose control. What is HbA1c? The ABCs Figuring out how the HbA1c test can help with your blood glucose control starts with understanding a bit about the test and what it measures. Hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a molecule found in great quantities in each of the body’s red blood cells. As red blood cells travel through the circulatory system, the hemoglobin molecules join with oxygen from the lungs for delivery to the peripheral tissues, where they exchange it for some of the carbon dioxide destined for release to the lungs. The hemoglobin molecule is made up of two pairs of protein chains (two alpha chains and two beta chains) and four heme groups (iron-containing structures that act as th Continue reading >>

What Is The Hba1c?

What Is The Hba1c?

In the blood stream are the red blood cells, which are made of a molecule, haemoglobin. Glucose sticks to the haemoglobin to make a 'glycosylated haemoglobin' molecule, called haemoglobin A1C or HbA1C. The more glucose in the blood, the more haemoglobin A1C or HbA1C will be present in the blood. Red cells live for 8 - 12 weeks before they are replaced. By measuring the HbA1C it can tell you how high your blood glucose has been on average over the last 8-12 weeks. A normal non-diabetic HbA1C is <36mmol/mol (5.5%). In diabetes about 48mmol/mol (6.5%) is good. The HbA1C test is currently one of the best ways to check diabetes is under control; it is the blood test that gets sent to the laboratory, and it is done on the spot in some hospital clinics. Remember, the HbA1C is not the same as the glucose level. Coincidentally the glucose/HbA1C numbers for good control are rather similar though in the UK and Europe: glucose levels averaging 6.5 mmols/l before meals is equivalent to 60mmol/mol (7%). HbA1C (glucose levels are higher after meals) (see below). Two examples Below are two examples of people who have their HbA1c measured. One is poorly controlled, one well controlled. When should the HbA1C be measured? Measure HbA1c every 3 months if trying to improve every 6 months if very stable If your diabetes is controlled (basically an HbA1C lower than 53mmol/mol ( 7% ), every 3-6 months. But if the last reading is above 53mmol/mol (7%) and you are in reasonable health, you will need to achieve a lower level if possible, and the next reading should be sooner. This assumes you will make changes to improve your control. There is no point in having your HbA1c measured if you are not trying to achieve good control of your diabetes, although the level does predict the likelihood of co Continue reading >>

Hba1c Test: Procedure, Results & Levels Explained

Hba1c Test: Procedure, Results & Levels Explained

What is HbA1C? HbA1C (or glycated haemoglobin) is haemoglobin (red blood cells) that becomes bound with glucose, or 'glycated', and is used to measure and monitor the blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. What is a HbA1C test? A HbA1C test gives diabetics a relatively good idea of how strict blood sugar control has been over the previous three months, the life-span of an average red blood cell. Increased levels of blood sugar over a sustained period of time cause compounds related to sugar to be attached to the haemoglobin protein in red blood cells. How is a HbA1C test performed? HbA1C is measure via a blood test. A few millilitres of blood from a vein are required. HbA1C test results explained High HbA1C A high level of HbA1C suggests poor blood-sugar control over the previous weeks. Low HbA1C A low level of HbA1C is a 'pat on the back' for a diabetic patient because it reflects strict control over the previous weeks. Blood Test (venesection) Also known as HbA1C Glycosylated haemoglobin 3-month test Links This article is for informational purposes only and should not be taken as medical advice. If in doubt, HealthEngine recommends consulting with a registered health practitioner. Continue reading >>

Controlling Diabetes: What Is The Significance Of The Hba1c Level? With Docvadis<sup></sup>.

Controlling Diabetes: What Is The Significance Of The Hba1c Level? With Docvadis.

Controlling Diabetes: What is the significance of the HbA1c level? The HbA1c level represents the average of your blood sugar levels over the past 2 to 3 months. It allows you evaluate your overall diabetic control and to make changes if necessary. It is the level of glycated haemoglobin. In the normal 120-day life span of the red blood cell , glucose molecules join hemoglobin, forming glycated hemoglobin. Once a hemoglobin molecule is glycated, it remains that way. A buildup of glycated hemoglobin within the red blood cell reflects the average level of glucose to which the cell has been exposed during its life cycle . The higher the average blood sugar, the higher the HbA1c will be. If the blood sugar level is reduced with treatment, the HbA1c level will return to a normal value. A simple non fasting blood test is enough to determine this value. Diabetics should have this test performed every 3 4 months. . Since the HbA1c represents your blood sugar average over the past 3 months, the value can be used to help you better control your diabetes and avoid complications It has been shown that every time your HbA1c level drops by 1%, the risk of complications from diabetes is reduced by 10 to 30%. The HbA1c level should be lower than 6.5%. How does HbA1c measurement (%) correspond to blood sugar level? Any increase of 1% corresponds to average glycaemia increase of 1.94 mmol/L. Continue reading >>

Understanding The New Hba1c Units For The Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding The New Hba1c Units For The Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

In the absence of overt symptoms of hyperglycaemia, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on plasma glucose concentrations that are associated with an increased risk of its specific microvascular complications, in particular retinopathy.1,2 The precise criteria have always been determined by consensus among experts and are based principally on several large observational cohort studies. The criteria have been repeatedly modified over time as more high quality data have become available. Most recently many international diabetes societies have adopted the measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) as a legitimate diagnostic test for the diagnosis of diabetes using a “cut point” for the diagnosis of ≥6.5%.3–5 Recently there has been a change in the reporting units for HbA1c from percent to mmol/mol that has been driven by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) and is linked to the standardisation of routine assays for HbA1c to a new reference method.6 The validity of the process has been accepted by many international diabetes societies (American Diabetes Association, Canadian Diabetes Society, European Association for the Study of Diabetes and International Diabetes Federation) as well as by the New Zealand Society for the Study of Diabetes (NZSSD).7 A NZSSD Working Party, made up of members representing clinicians, academics, laboratory staff, general practitioners and population health experts, has developed and now published a new position statement for the diagnosis of diabetes.7 This article explains the changes in use of HbA1c recommended in that statement and expands on the evidence behind these modifications. New units All methods used to measure HbA1c in New Zealand are now standardised through traceability to the IFCC reference me Continue reading >>

What's The Optimal Hba1c Level In Elders?

What's The Optimal Hba1c Level In Elders?

In an observational study, glycosylated hemoglobin between 8% and 9% was best. Experienced clinicians have long recognized that tight glycemic control can be perilous in frail older patients with type 2 diabetes. Now, an observational study addresses that concern. Researchers in San Francisco studied 367 community-dwelling, older patients (mean age, 80) with diabetes who participated in a comprehensive adult day-care program and were unable to live independently. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured at baseline, and functional decline and death were tracked during 2 years of follow-up (during which, average HbA1c levels didn't change much). Analyses were adjusted for potentially confounding variables. Compared with patients in the reference category (HbA1c levels, 7%–8%), patients whose HbA1c levels were between 8% and 9% had a significantly lower incidence of functional decline or death (relative risk, 0.88), and those with HbA1c levels <7% had a nearly significant higher incidence of functional decline or death. Overall, the relation between HbA1c level and functional decline or death was somewhat U-shaped, with the best outcomes among patients in the 8% to 9% range. These basic patterns were noted both among patients who took only oral antidiabetic drugs and those who took insulin. This observational study is subject to residual confounding, but it suggests that an HbA1c target in the 8% to 9% range is reasonable for older patients with diabetes who are unable to live independently. The findings support a recent guideline in which less-tight glycemic control is acceptable in older adults with long-standing diabetes (JW Gen Med Jul 24 2012). Citation(s): Yau CK et al. Glycosylated hemoglobin and functional decline in community-dwelling nursing home Continue reading >>

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