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What Is Hba1c Level?

Controlling Blood Sugar In Diabetes: How Low Should You Go?

Controlling Blood Sugar In Diabetes: How Low Should You Go?

Diabetes is an ancient disease, but the first effective drug therapy was not available until 1922, when insulin revolutionized the management of the disorder. Insulin is administered by injection, but treatment took another great leap forward in 1956, when the first oral diabetic drug was introduced. Since then, dozens of new medications have been developed, but scientists are still learning how best to use them. And new studies are prompting doctors to re-examine a fundamental therapeutic question: what level of blood sugar is best? Normal metabolism To understand diabetes, you should first understand how your body handles glucose, the sugar that fuels your metabolism. After you eat, your digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars that are small enough to be absorbed into your bloodstream. Glucose is far and away the most important of these sugars, and it's an indispensable source of energy for your body's cells. But to provide that energy, it must travel from your blood into your cells. Insulin is the hormone that unlocks the door to your cells. When your blood glucose levels rise after a meal, the beta cells of your pancreas spring into action, pouring insulin into your blood. If you produce enough insulin and your cells respond normally, your blood sugar level drops as glucose enters the cells, where it is burned for energy or stored for future use in your liver as glycogen. Insulin also helps your body turn amino acids into proteins and fatty acids into body fat. The net effect is to allow your body to turn food into energy and to store excess energy to keep your engine running if fuel becomes scarce in the future. A diabetes primer Diabetes is a single name for a group of disorders. All forms of the disease develop when the pancreas is unable to Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c, often abbreviated HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin (a blood pigment that carries oxygen) that is bound to glucose. The blood test for HbA1c level is routinely performed in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood HbA1c levels are reflective of how well diabetes is controlled. The normal range for level for hemoglobin A1c is less than 6%. HbA1c also is known as glycosylated, or glycated hemoglobin. HbA1c levels are reflective of blood glucose levels over the past six to eight weeks and do not reflect daily ups and downs of blood glucose. High HbA1c levels indicate poorer control of diabetes than levels in the normal range. HbA1c is typically measured to determine how well a type 1 or type 2 diabetes treatment plan (including medications, exercise, or dietary changes) is working. How Is Hemoglobin A1c Measured? The test for hemoglobin A1c depends on the chemical (electrical) charge on the molecule of HbA1c, which differs from the charges on the other components of hemoglobin. The molecule of HbA1c also differs in size from the other components. HbA1c may be separated by charge and size from the other hemoglobin A components in blood by a procedure called high pressure (or performance) liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC separates mixtures (for example, blood) into its various components by adding the mixtures to special liquids and passing them under pressure through columns filled with a material that separates the mixture into its different component molecules. HbA1c testing is done on a blood sample. Because HbA1c is not affected by short-term fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations, for example, due to meals, blood can be drawn for HbA1c testing without regard to when food was eaten. Fasting for the blood test is not necessary. What Are Continue reading >>

Understanding The New Hba1c Units For The Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding The New Hba1c Units For The Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

In the absence of overt symptoms of hyperglycaemia, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on plasma glucose concentrations that are associated with an increased risk of its specific microvascular complications, in particular retinopathy.1,2 The precise criteria have always been determined by consensus among experts and are based principally on several large observational cohort studies. The criteria have been repeatedly modified over time as more high quality data have become available. Most recently many international diabetes societies have adopted the measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) as a legitimate diagnostic test for the diagnosis of diabetes using a “cut point” for the diagnosis of ≥6.5%.3–5 Recently there has been a change in the reporting units for HbA1c from percent to mmol/mol that has been driven by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) and is linked to the standardisation of routine assays for HbA1c to a new reference method.6 The validity of the process has been accepted by many international diabetes societies (American Diabetes Association, Canadian Diabetes Society, European Association for the Study of Diabetes and International Diabetes Federation) as well as by the New Zealand Society for the Study of Diabetes (NZSSD).7 A NZSSD Working Party, made up of members representing clinicians, academics, laboratory staff, general practitioners and population health experts, has developed and now published a new position statement for the diagnosis of diabetes.7 This article explains the changes in use of HbA1c recommended in that statement and expands on the evidence behind these modifications. New units All methods used to measure HbA1c in New Zealand are now standardised through traceability to the IFCC reference me Continue reading >>

What Is Hba1c And A Normal Hba1c Range? Explained In Plain English

What Is Hba1c And A Normal Hba1c Range? Explained In Plain English

Those with type 1 or type 2 diabetes may have seen it before, but what is a normal HbA1c range? This article explores what your HbA1c reading should be and how you can improve it. What is HbA1c (Hemoglobin A1c)? HbA1c is a marker that can determine your average blood sugar (glucose) levels over the previous 3-months (1). That means it can be used to assess the quality of your diabetes management, as well as to diagnose pre-diabetes and diabetes. Sometimes HbA1c is also called glycated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c or just A1c. The ‘Hb’ refers to hemoglobin, a part of red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout your body. ‘A1c’ refers to a minor part of hemoglobin that sugar molecules attach to. The amount of sugar attached is directly proportional to the amount of sugar in your blood at a given time, so this reading is used to accurately reflect average blood sugar levels. If you’ve had high blood sugar levels in the past month or so, your HbA1c levels will be higher too. Summary: HbA1c is a marker that reflects your average blood sugar levels in the previous 3 months. It’s also called glycated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c or just A1c. Normal HbA1c Range The HbA1c test is measured as either a percentage or in mmol/mol. Below I’ve listed what is considered a normal HbA1c range, and what values would be considered outside of normal (pre-diabetic or diabetic): HbA1c range for normal (non-diabetic) adults: Below 6.0%, or below 42 mmol/mol HbA1c range for pre-diabetes: 6.0% to 6.4%, or 42 to 47 mmol/mol HbA1c range for diabetes: 6.5% or above, or 48 mmol/mol or above. Target ranges are also shown below in this table: HbA1c % mmol/mol Normal Below 6.0% Below 42 mmol/mol Pre-diabetes 6.0% to 6.4% 42 to 47 mmol/mol Diabetes 6.5% or above 48 mmol/mol or above Normal Hb Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood Glucose Monitoring

One of the main aims of diabetes treatment is to keep blood glucose levels within a specified target range. The key is balancing your food with your activity, lifestyle and diabetes medicines. Blood glucose monitoring can help you understand the link between blood glucose, food, exercise and insulin. Over time your readings will provide you and your health professionals with the information required to determine the best management strategy for your diabetes. Maintaining good blood glucose control is your best defence to reduce the chances of developing complications from diabetes. Self-blood glucose monitoring allows you to check your blood glucose levels as often as you need to or as recommended by your doctor or Credentialled Diabetes Educator. To test blood glucose levels, you need: A blood glucose meter A lancet device with lancets Test strips. Blood glucose meters are usually sold as kits giving you all the equipment you need to start. There are many different types, offering different features and at different prices to meet individual needs. Most of these are available from Diabetes Australia in your state or territory, pharmacies and some diabetes centres. Your doctor or Credentialled Diabetes Educator can help you choose the meter that’s best for you, and your Credentialled Diabetes Educator or pharmacist can show you how to use your meter to get accurate results. To test your blood glucose levels, you prick your finger with the lancet and add a small drop of blood onto a testing strip. This strip is then inserted into the meter, which reads the strip and displays a number – your blood glucose level. When and how often you should test your blood glucose levels varies depending on each individual, the type of diabetes and the tablets and/or insulin being us Continue reading >>

A Change In Reporting Your Hba1c Results: Information For People With Diabetes

A Change In Reporting Your Hba1c Results: Information For People With Diabetes

Change to reporting of HbA1c From 1 June 2009, the way in which HbA1c results are reported in the UK is changing. This leaflet explains why and how this will happen. What is HbA1c? Glucose in the blood sticks to haemoglobin in red blood cells, making glycated haemoglobin, called haemoglobin A1c or HbA1c. The more glucose in your blood, the more HbA1c will be present, so the level reported will be higher. The HbA1c gives a measure of what your average blood glucose level has been in the previous 2–3 months. What does it tell us? The better your blood glucose control the less chance there is of you developing diabetes complications such as eye, kidney or nerve damage, heart disease or stroke. Red blood cells live for about 8–12 weeks before being replaced so the HbA1c test tells you what your blood glucose has been over the past few months and whether you are on target to keep your risk of complications as low as possible. Why measure it? Because blood glucose levels vary throughout the day and from day to day, HbA1c is usually measured every 2–6 months. The results of HbA1c show if your average blood glucose control has altered in response to changes in your diet, physical activity or medication. What are the current HbA1c results and targets? The HbA1c results are currently given as a percentage. For most people with diabetes, the current HbA1c target is below 6.5%. However, you should have agreed your own individual target with your healthcare team, as sometimes a different target might be more appropriate. For example, if you have had a lot of problems with low blood glucose levels (hypos), a higher target might be appropriate. What is changing? Laboratories in the UK are about to change the way in which the HbA1c results are reported. The Interna Continue reading >>

Guide To Hba1c

Guide To Hba1c

Tweet HbA1c is a term commonly used in relation to diabetes. This guide explains what HbA1c is, how it differs from blood glucose levels and how it's used for diagnosing diabetes. What is HbA1c? The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. It develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming 'glycated'. By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months. For people with diabetes this is important as the higher the HbA1c, the greater the risk of developing diabetes-related complications. HbA1c is also referred to as haemoglobin A1c or simply A1c. HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin (A1c), which identifies average plasma glucose concentration. How does HBA1c return an accurate average measurement of average blood glucose? When the body processes sugar, glucose in the bloodstream naturally attaches to haemoglobin. The amount of glucose that combines with this protein is directly proportional to the total amount of sugar that is in your system at that time. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why peop Continue reading >>

Hba1c

Hba1c

At a glance Also known as Haemoglobin A1c; glycated haemoglobin; glycosylated haemoglobin Why get tested? To diagnose diabetes, to monitor a person's diabetes and to aid in treatment decisions When to get tested? When first diagnosed with diabetes and every 3-6 months Sample required? A blood sample drawn from a vein in the arm or from a fingerstick Test preparation needed? None What is being tested? As glucose circulates in your blood, some of it spontaneously binds to haemoglobin (the protein that carries oxygen in your red blood cells). This combination is called haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The amount of HbA1c formed is directly related to the amount of glucose in your blood. If your diabetes is not well controlled, your blood glucose levels are high, causing higher HbA1c levels. HbA1c levels do not change quickly since red blood cells live for 3-4 months. Because of this, the amount of HbA1c in your blood reflects the average amount of glucose in your blood during the last few months. How is the sample collected for testing? Your blood may be drawn from a vein in your arm or, in some cases, a drop of blood from a finger-prick may be used. Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample? No test preparation is needed. How is it used? The test for HbA1c can be used to diagnose diabetes and also indicates how well your diabetes has been controlled over the last few months. Even though you may have some very high or very low blood glucose values, HbA1c will give you a picture of the average amount of glucose in your blood over that time period. The result can help you and your doctor know if the measures you are taking to control your diabetes are working. When your doctor suspects that you might have diabetes. After diabetes has been diagnosed Diabetes Continue reading >>

Hba1c Blood Glucose Test For Diabetes

Hba1c Blood Glucose Test For Diabetes

HbA1c is an important average measure of how well a person's diabetes is being controlled over the previous 2 to 3 months. HbA1c (haemoglobin A1c blood test) is also known as the glycated haemoglobin test or glycohaemoglobin. A sample of blood is taken from the arm at a clinic or GP surgery and sent off to a lab for analysis. The results typically take a day or so to come back. The results will show how stable your glucose levels have been and how well a treatment plan is working. After the results are back, doctors may suggest changes in diabetes medication or dosage. This test is arranged at least once a year and is recommended in addition to home blood glucose monitoring. Haemoglobin is a substance within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body. When your diabetes is not controlled, which means that your blood sugar is too high, sugar builds up in your blood and combines with your haemoglobin to become "glycated". The average amount of sugar in your blood can be determined by measuring your HbA1c level. If your glucose levels have been high over recent weeks, your HbA1c test will be higher. What is a normal HbA1c test? A diabetes team will set an individual HbA1c target for each patient. HbA1c targets are often set below 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) to help reduce the risk of complications, including nerve damage, eye problems, kidney disease and heart disease. People who are at risk of severe hypoglycaemia may be set a target of less than 59 mmol/mol (7.5%). The HbA1c test can be affected by conditions affecting haemoglobin, such as anaemia. Results can also be affected by supplements such as vitamins C and E and high cholesterol levels. Kidney disease and liver disease may also affect the result of an HbA1c test. Continue reading >>

H-b-a-1-c

H-b-a-1-c

(What It Is and Why It Matters) You’ve pulled out your logbook and are taking off your jacket to bare your upper arm for the blood pressure cuff, when the nurse walks in and asks you to hold out a finger. “Does it matter that I had breakfast this morning?” you ask, trying to remember if you were supposed to fast before coming in, as she pricks your finger and collects a blood sample. “No, it doesn’t,” she says. “There; all done. The doctor will be in shortly to discuss your result.” And, indeed, several minutes later, your doctor walks in and says with a smile, “Looks like things are coming together for you. You’re at 6.8%.” For some people, the doctor’s words would be enough for them to realize that the fingerstick in the imaginary scenario above was for a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test. What is Hba1c? The HbA1c test gives an indication of your blood glucose control over the previous 2–3 months and is an important part of your diabetes-care regimen. This article discusses what the test is, why it’s important, and how it’s used to help better blood glucose control. What is HbA1c? The ABCs Figuring out how the HbA1c test can help with your blood glucose control starts with understanding a bit about the test and what it measures. Hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a molecule found in great quantities in each of the body’s red blood cells. As red blood cells travel through the circulatory system, the hemoglobin molecules join with oxygen from the lungs for delivery to the peripheral tissues, where they exchange it for some of the carbon dioxide destined for release to the lungs. The hemoglobin molecule is made up of two pairs of protein chains (two alpha chains and two beta chains) and four heme groups (iron-containing structures that act as th Continue reading >>

Hba1c

Hba1c

HbA1c is a term often used in relation to diabetes and this guide explains what HbA1c is, how it's used for diabetes diagnosis and how it differs from blood glucose levels. What is HbA1c? HbA1c occurs when haemoglobin joins with glucose in the blood. Haemoglobin molecules make up the red blood cells in the blood stream. When glucose sticks to these molecules it forms a glycoslated haemoglobin molecule, also known as A1c and HbA1c. The more glucose found in the blood the more glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) will be present. How does HBA1c return an accurate average measurement? Due to the fact that red blood cells survive for 8-12 weeks before renewal, by measuring HbA1c, an average blood glucose reading can be returned. For non-diabetics, the usual reading is 4-5.9%. For people with diabetes, an HbA1c level of 6.5% is considered good control, although some people may prefer their numbers to be closer to that of non-diabetics. People at greater risk of hypoglycemia may be given a target HbA1c of 7.5% This prevents too many low blood sugars from occurring. When should HbA1c level be tested? How often HbA1c levels should be taken depends on the person with diabetes and their history of control and treatment objections. Generally, the following are considered best practice in HbA1c regularity. Once per 3 months if trying to get better control. Once per 6 months if good control achieved and maintained. There is little point in having HbA1c checked regularly if you are not making efforts to control your diabetes. Although HbA1c level alone does not predict diabetes complications, good control is known to lower the risk of complications. How does an HbA1c show poorly controlled diabetes? In well-controlled diabetes without a high level of glucose in the blood, a lower level of gl Continue reading >>

Glycated Hemoglobin

Glycated Hemoglobin

Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration. The test is limited to a three-month average because the lifespan of a red blood cell is four months (120 days). However, since RBCs do not all undergo lysis at the same time, HbA1C is taken as a limited measure of 3 months. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. HbA1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl component of hemoglobin.[1] The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin type A being separated on cation exchange chromatography. The first fraction to separate, probably considered to be pure Hemoglobin A, was designated HbA0, the following fractions were designated HbA1a, HbA1b, and HbA1c, respective of their order of elution. There have subsequently been many more sub fractions as separation techniques have improved.[2] Normal levels of glucose produce a normal amount of glycated hemoglobin. As the average amount of plasma glucose increases, the fraction of glycated hemoglobin increases in a predictable way. This serves as a marker for average blood glucose levels over the previous three months before the measurement as this is the lifespan of red blood cells. In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. A trial on a group of patients with Type 1 diabetes found that monitoring by caregivers of HbA1c led to changes in diabetes treatment and improvement of metabolic control compared to monitoring only of blood or urine glu Continue reading >>

Hba1c (hemoglobin A1c) Test For Diabetes Diagnosis

Hba1c (hemoglobin A1c) Test For Diabetes Diagnosis

Hemoglobin is the substance inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells of the body. Glucose molecules in the blood normally attached to the hemoglobin molecules (hemoglobin thus become glycosylated) also referred as hemoglobin A1C or HbA1c. Hemoglobin becomes glycosylated as a person’s blood sugar increases. The glucose remains attached to the hemoglobin for the life of the red blood cell which is about 2 to 3 months. What is HbA1c test? Hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c test is a blood test that measures the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin in the blood which shows the person’s average blood glucose level for the past 2 to 3 months before the test. This test helps in diagnosis of diabetes and its management. HbA1c/Fasting Blood Sugar(FBS) Doctors use fasting blood sugar levels for managing diabetes. Eating raises blood sugar levels and sugar sticks to the surface of cells which cannot be removed. Further, this sugar is converted into poison called sorbitol that damages the cell and causes heart attacks, kidney damage, blindness and nerve damage. Fasting blood sugar doesn’t indicate cell damage but hemoglobin A1C measures how much sugar sticks to cells. HBA1C levels Note that the HbA1c value, which is measured in mmol/mol, should not be confused with a blood glucose level which is measured in mmol/l. Normal – Below 42mmol/mol – Below 5.7% Pre Diabetes – 42 to 47mmol/mol – 5.7% to 6.4% Diabetes – 48mmol/mol or over – 6.5% greater Tips to reduce blood glucose levels What is Insulin Resistance? Insulin resistance is a condition in which multiple tissues in the human body become resistant to the effects of insulin. Symptoms When the cells of the body become very weak to gain optimum glucose level, it results in some symptoms like Feeling more thirst th Continue reading >>

A1c Test

A1c Test

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Hba1c Test

Hba1c Test

Introduction Hemoglobin A1c test (HbA1c, A1c, or Hb1c) is used to determine the average concentration of glucose in the blood plasma. Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. HbA1c is formed when glucose combines with the hemoglobin in red blood cells to form glycated hemoglobin. Test Purposes This test is important: To diagnose diabetes To monitor a person’s diabetes and to aid in treatment decisions To help identify those at an increased risk of developing diabetes Diabetes mellitus is a condition characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) resulting from the inability to use blood glucose for energy. In diabetes type one, the pancreas does not produce or does not secrete insulin. The blood glucose cannot be stored and processed for use by certain cells in the body. In diabetes type two, either the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the cells cannot use insulin properly. Diabetic complications involving the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels of the heart, brain and extremities is normal for both forms of the disease diabetes. The level of HbA1c is proportional to the concentration of glucose in the blood plasma and red blood cell life span in the life cycle, usually covering a period of 120 days (three months). If high levels of glucose, hemoglobin A1c test will also be high. Therefore, the HbA1c test provides precise measurements of blood glucose in three to four months back. Thus, for patients who have been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, HbA1c testing will be done two to three months to assess the effectiveness of treatment for these patients. Figure 1: Formation of glycated haemoglobin Method of Test Nowadays, there are various different methods used to conduct the HbA1c test. Generally, these tes Continue reading >>

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