Pancreas Radiology Notes
Pancreas HU/echogenicity = liver, but with age/fat infiltration becomes echogenic/hypodense. Fatty lesions include diffuse/focal fatty infiltration or lipoma. Fatty infiltraiton from aging, obesity, pancreatic atrophy (CF, chronic pancreatitis). May have focal fatty sparing (esp head, uncinate process) mimicing a mass. The exocrine pancreas consists of acini, forming ducts. Ductal cells produce bicarbonate to neutralise stomach chyme (semifluid partly digested food expelled from the stomach with pH~2), stimulated by the hormone secretin (made by S cells in the duodenum). Acinar cells are stimulated by cholecystokinin (CCK, produced by duodenum), inhibited by somatostatin. Acini synthesize and secrete proteases (trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen), peptidases (carboxypeptidase), elastases, pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase, phospholipase, nucleases, and pancreatic amylase. Apart from amylase and lipase, these are all inactive proenymes, requiring activtion by trypsin in the duodenal lumen. The endocrine pancreas consists of islets of Langerhans, with (insulin), (glucagon), (somatostatin, suppresses insulin and glucagon release), PP (pancreatic polypeptide, self-regulates pancreatic secretion, hepatic glycogen levels and GI secretions), D1 (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide VIP, induces glycogenlysis, stimulates GI secretion), and enterochromaffin (serotonin) cells. Band-like ring of pacreatic tissue encircling D2. Some ectopic pancreatic tissue in 2% of the population; including stomach, duodenum, jejunum, Meckel diverticulum, ileum. May cause pain or rarely mucosal bleeding. 2% of islet cell neoplasms arise this ectopic tissue. 3-10% of population, failed fusion of foetal dorsal and ventral pancreatic primordia. Body, tail and most of head drain via duct of Santorini Continue reading >>
What Does Fatty Atrophy Of The Pancreas Mean?
What does fatty atrophy of the pancreas mean? what does fatty atrophy of the pancreas mean? Experience: U.S. Surgeon / Neurological Surgery This simply means that your pancreas appears to be smaller than normal (atrophy), and that the actual pancreas seems to have been infiltrated with fat cells. So, you have a smaller than normal pancreas that has some fat in it. These are changes in the pancreas that can be seen in people with long-standing diabetes, and with long-standing atherosclerosis (high cholesterol affecting blood vessels). Experience: U.S. Surgeon / Neurological Surgery Dr. Mark and 87 other Medical Specialists are ready to help you Experience: U.S. Surgeon / Neurological Surgery A new question is answered every 9 seconds Ask an ExpertExperts are full of valuable knowledge and are ready to help with any question. Credentials confirmed by a Fortune 500 verification firm. Get a Professional AnswerVia email, text message, or notification as you wait on our site. Ask follow up questions if you need to. 100% Satisfaction GuaranteeRate the answer you receive. Ask-a-doc Web sites: If you've got a quick question, you can try to get an answer from sites that say they have various specialists on hand to give quick answers... Justanswer.com. JustAnswer.com...has seen a spike since October in legal questions from readers about layoffs, unemployment and severance. Traffic on JustAnswer rose 14 percent...and had nearly 400,000 page views in 30 days...inquiries related to stress, high blood pressure, drinking and heart pain jumped 33 percent. Tory Johnson, GMA Workplace Contributor, discusses work-from-home jobs, such as JustAnswer in which verified Experts answer peoples questions. I will tell you that...the things you have to go through to be an Expert are quite rigorous Continue reading >>
What Is Fatty Atrophy Of The Pancreas?
Please visit the new WebMD Message Boards to find answers and get support. I had an MRI recently: MRI ABDOMEN WO/W CONTRAST: MRI OF THE KIDNEYS (RENAL MASS PROTOCOL). On the MRI results one of the findings stated: Pancreas: Fatty atrophy of the pancreas-I would like to know more about this & what it means. Important: The opinions expressed in WebMD User-generated content areas like communities, reviews, ratings, blogs, or WebMD Answers are solely those of the User, who may or may not have medical or scientific training. These opinions do not represent the opinions of WebMD. User-generated content areas are not reviewed by a WebMD physician or any member of the WebMD editorial staff for accuracy, balance, objectivity, or any other reason except for compliance with our Terms and Conditions. Some of these opinions may contain information about treatments or uses of drug products that have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. WebMD does not endorse any specific product, service, or treatment. Do not consider WebMD User-generated content as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. WebMD understands that reading individual, real-life experiences can be a helpful resource, but it is never a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified health care provider. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or dial 911 immediately. Continue reading >>
Pancreas Atrophic And Largely Fatty Replaced
Pancreas Atrophic and largely fatty replaced I recently had a checkup and mentioned to the doctor that I occasionally have had a pain in my side below my ribs (right side) and sometimes back pain for about a year off and on. He had me do blood work and a CT scan the blood work came back all normal but the CT scan showed that the Pancreas is Atrophic and largely fatty replaced. The doctor seemed to be in a bit of a hurry explained it to me then had me sign a something. He told me not to drink and dont eat fatty foods. I cant seem to find any information about largely fatty replacement. Has anyone else had this diagnostic? I am not over weight; I dont smoke (although I did when younger) and dont drink often. I also am not diabetic and have had no pain for the last two months. I am very concerned about the state of my Pancreas and if it will get worse. Should the CT scan have showed the percentage of damage? hello doc- i am a 54 yr old white askenazi jewish background post galbladder gone for 19 yrs now. had high lipase and CA-19 =38, doc did a scope on me was neg for biopsy in dodenum/stomach, but found on ct scan/ w barium and iv contrast: 2.0 cm diverticulim in the 3rd portion of my duodenum. also found pancreatic head was atrophied half what it should be, body/tail seemed normal. also, findings were small infiltrate within the anterior basal segment of the lower left lobe of lung, no pancreatic cysts or pseduo cysts, i have a small hiatal herina. some collaterlization of vessels to the medial aspect of the spleen. lost some 50 pounds within 9 months w/o even trying. back is constantly itchy, i mean to point i could scratch it all day long and still not feel better. not jaundiced no diaherra. but can not digest ANY canned foods, fatty foods, whatosever. mother had celi Continue reading >>
Pancreatic Lipomatosis: An Extensive Pictorial Review
Pancreatic Lipomatosis: An Extensive Pictorial Review Pancreatic lipomatosis also commonly called fat replacement represents the most frequent benign pathologic condition of the adult pancreas. Most cases remain asymptomatic, and only some rare extreme degrees of lipomatosis or fat replacement may lead to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The precise etiology of the entity remains unclear, and the condition has been found associated with several diseases comprising diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, acquired or hereditary pancreatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, cystic fibrosis and condition comprising increasing age, body mass index, or more precisely visceral fat index, and use of steroid therapy. Numerous cases are also associated with condition compromising the permeability of the pancreas ductal system, such as intraductal calculus, pancreatic tumors, and congenital or experimental stenosis. Uneven lipomatosis and fat replacement are also common presentations and responsible for the great diversity of imaging features. The reasons for uneven presentations are controversial and probably interweave embryologic or ductal hypotheses. Lipomatous pseudohypertrophy of the pancreas represents the most extreme situation of pancreatic lipomatosis and is considered, probably in a contestable way, as a rare, specific, and distinct entity. We hereby present an extensive pictorial review of the broad spectrum of imaging features of this entity. The images are extracted from a compilation of cases collected in our department over more than a decade. We review and discuss the embryologic and ductal hypothesis, the differential diagnosis. Finally, we illustrate some unusual presentations and evolutions. The pancreas is both an endocrine and an exocrine gland. The exocrine component Continue reading >>
What Is Fatty Infiltration Of The Pancreas? | Zocdoc Answers
Medical questions & health advice by board certified doctors "What is fatty infiltration of the pancreas?" Zocdoc Answers What is fatty infiltration of the pancreas? I recently had an ultrasound of my pancrease to try to determine the cause of some mystery symptoms I've been having. The doctor found a 'fatty infiltration of the pancreas'. Can you describe to be what kind of problem this is and what it will do to me? Fatty infiltration of the pancreas is a rare condition that can be found on ultrasound or with other imaging techniques. In and off it self, fatty infiltration of the pancreas is a benign condition; it simply means that fat tissue has been laid down inside the pancreas. This fat tissue does not inhibit the other pancreatic tissue, and it does not in and of itself predispose to cancer or other serious complications. Although most cases of fatty infiltration of the pancreas are probably just normal variants, they may be more prevalent in obesity, where fat gets laid down in all of the internal organs. Again, in this setting it is the obesity that is the overall health risk and not the fat in the pancreas per se. Sometimes, fatty pancreas is associated with chronic conditions that damage the pancreas. This is because, as the normal pancreas tissue dies off, it is replaced by fat. Chronic pancreatitis, which is usually related to alcoholism, is a common cause of this; certain medications and gall stones can also cause chronic pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis is another condition which damages the pancreas, leading to fat accumulation. The best first step is to identify with your primary care doctor if there is an underlying condition that has damaged the pancreas. If not, then the fat in the pancreas is of no concern. Continue reading >>
Atrophy Of The Pancreas But All My Blood Work Normal
Atrophy of the Pancreas but all my blood work normal I have been feeling stomach pain since mid July 2016. I had blood work drawn for pancreatitis, an ultrasound performed and both came back normal. I then went to a GI doctor who performed an endoscopy and that too came back normal. I kept telling my doctor "I know my body, I KNOW there's something wrong" (I have a history of adhesions, so I thought maybe something in my stomach was adhered). My doctor ordered a CT Enterography and the results stated "atrophy of the pancreas" I don't understand how ALL my blood work can be normal and then apparently I have chronic pancreatitis. I don't drink, I don't eat fatty foods (actually I hardly eat at all anymore because of the pain, nausea and on a good day after I take a couple bites of food I feel full). Since all this started I have lost 30 pounds or more. I had an abdominal surgery back in June 2014 because my intestines were adhered together and I have been bedridden ever since due to a nerve disease I have. I would like to know if anyone has atrophy of their pancreas and what has helped for you please? Wow, I'm so sorry cannot help but can be a support, I myself am finding a lot of results are coming up negative but my liver tests ast. And alt are over 400 normal is 45 I just went to re cause all the sudden last weekend migraine w dizziness so bad. I also have back problems which keep me pretty much homebound it's very hard I'm alone. You ever need to just chat I'm here! Suzy528 Thank you Suzy528 for your support. I can relate to the back pain as well. I have two herniated discs in my lower back and one in the mid back. I have had at least one surgery every year since 2002 and some years multiple surgeries except for last year that was my first year without a surgery. I'm Continue reading >>
Possible Involvement Of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration In Pancreatic Carcinogenesis
Possible Involvement of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis Mika Hori1, Michihiro Mutoh2,3, Toshio Imai4, Hitoshi Nakagama3 and Mami Takahashi4* 1Department of Molecular Innovation in Lipidology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565, Japan 2Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, Japan 3Division of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention, Japan 4Central Animal Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan National Cancer Center Research Institute Received: November 20th, 2015 Accepted: December 30th, 2015 Visit for more related articles at JOP. Journal of the Pancreas Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose in its early stage and is one of the most lethal human cancers. Thus, it is important to clarify its major risk factors, predictive factors and etiology. Here, we focus on fatty infiltration of the pancreas and suggest that it could be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Fatty infiltration of the pancreas is observed as ectopic adipocytes infiltrating the pancreatic tissue and is positively correlated with obesity and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which are risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, whether fatty infiltration is a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer has not been established. Recent clinical studies show there is a positive correlation between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas. Animal experimental studies also show an association between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Syrian golden hamsters, which are sen Continue reading >>
What's To Know About Chronic Pancreatitis?
Chronic pancreatitis is a long-term progressive inflammatory disease of the pancreas that leads to permanent breakdown of the structure and function of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland organ that is located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and below the ribcage. It specializes in producing important enzymes and hormones that help break down and digest foods. It also makes insulin to moderate the levels of sugar in the blood. The most common cause is long-term alcohol abuse - it is thought to account for between 70 and 80 percent of all cases. Chronic pancreatitis results in over 122,000 visits to a doctor and 56,000 hospitalizations annually in the United States. Significantly more men than women are affected. Treatment The following treatments are commonly recommended for chronic pancreatitis. Lifestyle changes People with chronic pancreatitis will need to undergo some lifestyle changes. These will include: Stopping alcohol consumption: Giving up drinking will help prevent further damage to the pancreas. It will also contribute significantly towards relieving the pain. Some people may need professional help to quit alcohol. Stopping tobacco use: Smoking is not a cause of pancreatitis, but it can accelerate the progression of the disease. Pain management Treatment should not only focus on helping ease the pain symptoms, but also depression which is a common consequence of long-term pain. Doctors will usually use a step-by-step approach, in which mild painkillers are prescribed, gradually becoming stronger until pain becomes manageable. Insulin The pancreas may stop producing insulin if the damage is extensive. The individual is likely to have developed diabetes type 1. Regular insulin treatment will become part of the treatment for the rest of the person's life. Continue reading >>
Is Atrophy Of The Pancreas Something To Be Concerned About?
Is atrophy of the pancreas something to be concerned about? CT scan showed atrophy of the body and tail of the pancreas. A previous CT scan years ago showed that the tail of the pancreas was small. My family doctor and my gastroenterologist don't seem to think this is something to worry about. I have pain and burning in my upper abdomen and back, can't eat much more than saltines and drink gingerale because of nausea, very tired all the time, belching and passing gas more than usual, changes in stools and urine. My gastro even suggested that it was "psychological" and asked if I had ever been sexually abused! Time for a new doctor? Jennifer Serafin, N.P. is a registered nurse and geriatric nurse practitioner at the Jewish Homes for the Aged in San Francisco. Your CT scan shows some atrophy of the pancreas. The most common causes of atrophy of the pancreas are obesity and chronic diabetes. Diabetics can develop gastroparesis, which causes the digestion to slow. This can cause nausea, belching, and constipation, which could explain the symptoms you describe. I hope that your gastroenterologist ruled out pancreatic enzyme deficiencies to explain your symptoms. If not, this could be another possibility. What I recommend for you is to get another gastroenterologist to see you for a second opinion. If no physical cause for your digestive issues can be found, then of course a depression or anxiety can certainly cause abdominal issues when not properly treated or recognized. Certain antidepressants have been shown to help reduce chronic abdominal pain and improve overall well being. I would definitely recommend that this is something you should look into if your 2nd opinion doesn't turn up anything.Good luck! The answer you received from Jennifer could not have been more helpf Continue reading >>
Pancreatic Atrophy | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org
Pancreatic atrophy is non-specific and is common in elderly patients, although in younger patients it can be a hallmark of pathology. Most commonly it is associated with aging, obesity and end-stage chronic pancreatitis . It occurs principally with fatty replacement of the pancreas (pancreatic lipomatosis), and the aetiology overlaps considerably. Lobular (lubulocentric)atrophy may be seen in pancreatic malignancies including adenocarcinoma , pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN)and IPMN 4,5,6. 1. Shanbhogue AK, Fasih N, Surabhi VR et-al. A clinical and radiologic review of uncommon types and causes of pancreatitis. Radiographics. 2009;29 (4): 1003-26. Radiographics (full text) - doi:10.1148/rg.294085748 - Pubmed citation 2. Stratton A, Murphy T, Laczek J. Atrophic-appearing pancreas on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography as initial presentation of cystic fibrosis. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2012;71 (6): 151-4. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation 3. Schmidt G. Differential diagnosis in ultrasound. Thieme. ISBN:1588901793. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon 4. Meckler KA, Brentnall TA, Haggitt RC et-al. Familial fibrocystic pancreatic atrophy with endocrine cell hyperplasia and pancreatic carcinoma. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2001;25 (8): 1047-53. Pubmed citation 5. Del Chiaro M, Segersvrd R, Lohr M et-al. Early detection and prevention of pancreatic cancer: is it really possible today?. World J. Gastroenterol. 2014;20 (34): 12118-31. doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i34.12118 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation 6. Hruban RH, Maitra A, Goggins M. Update on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2010;1 (4): 306-16. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation Continue reading >>
Total Pancreatic Lipomatosis With Malabsorption Syndrome
Total pancreatic lipomatosis with malabsorption syndrome Rama Anand ,1 Mahender K. Narula ,1 Vikas Chaudhary ,1,2 and Rohini Agrawal 1 1Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Smt. Sucheta Kriplani and Kalawati Hospitals, New Delhi-110 001, India 1Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Smt. Sucheta Kriplani and Kalawati Hospitals, New Delhi-110 001, India 1Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Smt. Sucheta Kriplani and Kalawati Hospitals, New Delhi-110 001, India 2ESIC Model Hospital, Gurgaon-122 001, Haryana, India 1Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Smt. Sucheta Kriplani and Kalawati Hospitals, New Delhi-110 001, India 1Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Smt. Sucheta Kriplani and Kalawati Hospitals, New Delhi-110 001, India 2ESIC Model Hospital, Gurgaon-122 001, Haryana, India Corresponding Author: Dr. Vikas Chaudhary, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Employee's State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Model Hospital, Gurgaon-122001, Haryana, India. E-mail: [email protected]_rd Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer Copyright : Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Total fat replacement of the pancreas is rare. Focal fatty replacement is the most common degenerative lesion of pancreas. Focal fatty deposits have no major clinical significance; h Continue reading >>
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How Healthy Is Your Pancreas?
Its not just diabetics who need to look after this vital organ. The pancreas is an organ that lies horizontally across the back of the upper abdomen behind the stomach. The pancreas manufactures the bodys supply of insulin, which controls blood sugar levels and fat metabolism. Insulin is released from the pancreas directly into the blood stream. Insulin blood levels rise after a meal, especially if it contains a lot of carbohydrate. If the insulin producing cells in the pancreas fail, diabetes will occur and insulin injections are required. The pancreas also manufactures enzymes and secretes them into the pancreatic duct which empties into the small intestine to enable digestion of food. The enzymes produced by the pancreas include lipases that digest fat, proteases which digest proteins, and amylases which digest starch molecules. People with pancreatic problems often find they suffer with digestive problems such as bloating and indigestion. The term pancreatitis refers to inflammation of the pancreas, and this may be sudden, severe and life threatening, or chronic and intermittent. Pancreatitis usually produces pain in the upper abdomen, which often spreads deeper into the back. The pain can vary from mild and grumbling, to sudden and excruciating, and is usually accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The possible causes of pancreatitis include: Gallstones which become trapped in the pancreatic duct where it joins with the bile duct to empty into the small intestines. If the pancreatic duct becomes blocked, the pancreatic enzymes cannot flow into the intestines. In such cases the enzymes build up in the pancreas and digest the pancreas. Some drug side effects, particularly drugs used for diabetes. Intestinal problems, particularly overgrowth of harmful gut bugs. Sometim Continue reading >>
What Are The Causes Of Pancreas Atrophy? - Quora
Answered Dec 4, 2014 Author has 6.3k answers and 10.2m answer views Obesity and hyperlipidemia might cause this. Or previous abdominal surgery in the area of the pancreas that caused scarring. But there is a small subcategory that is idiopathic (unknown cause). If you are healthy, there is a good possibility that the CT-scan was overread, and your pancreas is normal and just small. If all your lab work is normal and you are not symptomatic, and you have seen specialists who are not concerned, I would not worry about it and have it followed as necessary. Many lab tests are over diagnosed, and this is one reason many people are concerned they are overused and not cost effective. BTW, I am not one of them. 2.5k Views View Upvoters Not for Reproduction Is this answer still relevant and up to date? Answered Jan 29, 2018 Author has 947 answers and 163k answer views Atrophy is a general symptom. Atrophy of affected part/organ, is a specific symptom. According to the Single remedy system of Homeopathy, an infection creates all its symptoms in absence of the required remedy. Experience has shown that unless the indicted remedy is given, the infection keeps growing and develops a disease. The infection grows inner and deeper day-by-day and little-by-little producing more serious disease. These are my findings and have been tried by me many times on different humans and found to be correct. I have no hesitation is saying that the infection can be removed and expelled out of the body only by single remedy system of Homeopathy. No other system in the world can expel the infection out of the body. There are many other symptoms and the complete medical history has to be considered to select the right remedy. The remedy is called constitutional remedy for the case. These remedies offe Continue reading >>
Imaging Of The Pancreas: Part 1
By Keith Quencer, MD, Avinash Kambadakone, MD, FRCR, Dushyant Sahani, MD, and Alexander S. R. Guimaraes, MD, PhD The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ situated deep within theabdomen and not easily accessible by physical examination. Pancreaticpathologies have a variety of presentations, which make their diagnosischallenging to physicians.1 Imaging plays a critical role inthe evaluation of pancreatic diseases and provides valuable informationto clinicians, thereby dictating crucial management decisions.Technological advancements in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coupled with innovations in3-dimensional(3D) imaging capabilities, have revolutionized the role ofimaging in managing patients with pancreatic disorders. Imaging is mostoften performed to manage patients with pancreatitis and suspectedpancreatic mass lesions. In Part 2 of this article, available on www.appliedradiology.com,the discussion continues regarding imaging manifestations of variousabnormalities affecting the pancreas as they relate to specific types ofpancreatitis, pancreatic neoplasms, and tumors. Thepancreas is a retroperitoneal organ located in the anterior pararenalspace posterior to the stomach and bounded by the c-loop of duodenum onthe right side. The pancreas is divided into the head, uncinate process,neck, body, and tail. The head is situated within the duodenal c-loop,while the tail lies in the splenic hilum slightly superior to the head.Since the pancreas is unencapsulated, there is uninhibited spread oftumor and inflammation to surrounding structures. The spleno-portal veinconfluence lies just posterior to the pancreatic neck and anterior tothe uncinate process. The splenic vein courses along the posterioraspect of the pancreatic body and tai Continue reading >>