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What Is Diabetic Dementia?

Managing Diabetes In People With Dementia

Managing Diabetes In People With Dementia

The number of patients with both type 2 diabetes and dementia is rising, which poses new challenges in blood glucose monitoring and medicines administration. Continue reading >>

What Is Type 3 Diabetes?

What Is Type 3 Diabetes?

At first blush, it may be hard to imagine a connection between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia. But it’s real—and it’s so strong that some experts are now referring to it as type 3 diabetes or brain diabetes. By any name, it’s the progression from type 2 diabetes to Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia marked by memory deficits and a dramatic decline in cognitive function. While all people with diabetes have a 60 percent increased risk of developing any type of dementia, including Alzheimer’s, recent research suggests that women with type 2 diabetes have a 19 percent greater risk of a certain type, known as vascular dementia (which is caused by problems with blood supply to the brain) than men do. Overall, older adults with type 2 diabetes suffer from greater declines in working memory and executive functioning (a set of mental processes that involve planning, organization, controlling attention, and flexible thinking) than their peers do. Granted, not everyone who has type 2 diabetes will develop Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, or any other form of dementia, and there are many people who have Alzheimer’s or another form of dementia who don’t have diabetes, notes Gary Small, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at the UCLA Semel Institute and author of The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program. But the reality is, “these risk factors tend to add up: If you have diabetes, that doubles the risk of developing Alzheimer’s. If you have a first-degree relative—a parent or sibling, for example—with Alzheimer’s, that doubles your risk.” And if you have poorly controlled blood pressure, abdominal (a.k.a., central) obesity, or sleep apnea, your risk of developing dementia is increased even more. Surprisin Continue reading >>

Dementia And Diabetes Are A Dangerous Combination

Dementia And Diabetes Are A Dangerous Combination

A chronic illness alone may seem like too much to cope with, but unfortunately, one chronic condition can often compound the effects of another. Diabetes is one such disease that increases a patient's risk of developing a whole slew of other conditions, especially cardiovascular disease. On its own, diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It seems that among older adults with diabetes, there is also an association between low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and dementia, say researchers at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) in a new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. This can create a dangerous spiral, in which a hypoglycemic event caused by diabetes can lead to mental deterioration and vice versa. “The brain uses glucose as a primary source of energy. Cognitive function becomes impaired when blood glucose drops to low levels, and severe hypoglycemia may cause neuronal damage,” the study authors wrote. Diabetes is a set of chronic conditions that affect the production and regulation of the hormone insulin. Insulin helps blood cells take up glucose, which means that for diabetics, getting glucose to the brain is a difficult task. If the brain is starved of energy, it’s possible that neurological problems like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are more likely to develop. The UCSF researchers found that the relationship between dementia, Alzheimer’s, diabetes, and hypoglycemia is mutual. “We found that clinically significant hypoglycemia was associated with a two-fold increased risk for developing dementia…similarly, participants with dementia were more likely to experience a severe hypoglycemic event,” the study authors wrote. B Continue reading >>

Diabetes Drug May Help With Memory Loss In Dementia

Diabetes Drug May Help With Memory Loss In Dementia

Diabetes drug may help with memory loss in dementia Diabetes drug may help with memory loss in dementia "Diabetes drug significantly reverses memory loss in Alzheimer's patients," The Sun reports. What the headline failed to make clear is that the "patients" were in fact mice, which had been genetically engineered to develop Alzheimer's-like symptoms. This new mouse study investigated whether a new drug developed for the treatment of diabetes, known as a triple receptor agonist (TA), could also be used to improve symptoms of Alzheimer's, such as memory loss. Previous animal research has shown TA, which targets biologic pathways in the brain to regulate blood sugar levels, may also protect against Alzheimer's. They found that mice given the modified version of TA appeared to have reduced memory loss, which was assessed by way of a water maze test. Although an interesting study with promising results, this is just early-stage animal research. Further trials in the laboratory and then in humans would be needed to see whether this drug is a safe and effective treatment for Alzheimer's. For now, maintaining a healthy and balanced lifestyle is recommended through healthy eating and exercise . This can help lower both the risk of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. The study was carried out by a small team of researchers from Shanxi Medical University and Shaoyang University in China, and Lancaster University in England. It was funded by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, a Shanxi Scholarship Council of China and a grant from the Alzheimer's Society UK. The study was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal Brain Research. It is available on an open-access basis and is free to read online . Generally, aside from its misleading headline, The Sun's Continue reading >>

Your Brain Matters

Your Brain Matters

Type 2 diabetes in mid and late-life is associated with an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. All adults, especially once we reach middle age, should have their blood sugar regularly checked by their doctor. What’s the evidence that diabetes affects dementia risk? Research consistently shows that people who have type 2 diabetes are, on average, more likely to develop dementia compared to those without diabetes. Some people who don’t have diabetes have problems with the way their body deals with glucose and insulin. Impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance are also associated with an increased risk of dementia. Several studies have shown that the presence of type 2 diabetes in midlife is associated with increased risk of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and cognitive impairment. Longer duration and greater severity of diabetes may further increase the risk of dementia. A review of relevant studies found that diabetes was associated with a 47% increased risk of any dementia, a 39% increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease, and a 138% increased risk of vascular dementia (Lu F-P, et al. Diabetes and the risk of multi-system aging phenotypes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 2009, 4(1): e4144. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004144). Some studies have shown that people with diabetes who are treated with medications have better cognitive function and less cognitive decline over time compared to those who are not treated. More research is needed to be sure that effective treatment of diabetes can reduce dementia risk, but it seems likely that good glucose control would reduce the risk of long-term problems including dementia. Diabetes can be effectively managed. So to reduce your risk of d Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Dementia - Is There A Connection?

Diabetes And Dementia - Is There A Connection?

Diabetes and dementia - is there a connection? Diabetes and dementia - is there a connection? What do diabetes and dementia have in common? Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to make enough insulin or use the insulin it makes properly. Insulin is a hormone used by the body to control glucose levels, or the amount of sugar, in your blood. Glucose is one of the main sources of fuel for the body, providing energy the body needs to perform all necessary functions. There are two main types of diabetes type 1 and type 2. A third type, gestational diabetes, occurs temporarily during pregnancy.Studies have shown that type 2 diabetes can be a risk factor for Alzheimers disease, vascular dementia and other types of dementia because cardiovascular problems associated with diabetes are also associated with dementia. These include: Heart disease or family history of heart disease Research has also proved that, similar to diabetes, glucose is not used properly in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease. This may be caused by nerve cell death, which reduces the brains ability to interpret messages.In the case of vascular dementia, brain cells die due to lack of oxygen, preventing brain cells from communicating with each other. Beta amyloid plaques, which build up in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease, have also been shown to prevent insulin receptors in the brain from doing their job. This can impact insulin production and cause brain cells to become insensitive to insulin. Is Alzheimers disease type 3 diabetes? Recent studies suggest that the brains of people with Alzheimers disease are in a diabetic state, partly due to the decrease in or insensitivity to insulin.There are many similarities in the brains of people with diabetes and the brains of people with Alzh Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Dementia May Be Linked

Diabetes And Dementia May Be Linked

Feb. 20, 2015 -- People with mild cognitive impairment may be more likely to one day get dementia if they also have diabetes, depression, or low levels of the B vitamin folate, researchers say. They also found that people who eat a Mediterranean-style diet have lower risks. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a group of symptoms in which people struggle with their ability to think and remember what they know. They often find it tricky to remember day-to-day things, but their memory troubles aren't severe enough to cause serious problems with everyday living. Their decline in thinking and memory is greater than the typical slippage that happens with normal aging, although it's not as severe as with dementia. Dementia refers to a group of symptoms that include severe memory loss and problems with thinking, solving problems, and using language. These problems are significant enough to affect a person's everyday life. About 46% of people with MCI will get dementia within 3 years, compared to only 3% of people who have normal age-related thinking declines. Millions of Americans have some type of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, according to the Alzheimer’s Association. This number is expected to grow in coming years. The study, published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, reviewed 62 research studies to look for things that could indicate the risk of MCI worsening to dementia. Almost 16,000 people with MCI were included in these studies. The researchers, led by Prof. Gill Livingston of University College London, found that in people with MCI: Diabetes seems to make it more likely that MCI will progress to dementia. Those who also have depression were at risk of MCI progressing to dementia, but evidence was inconclusive. Those with lower folate levels we Continue reading >>

Alzheimer's Treatment: Diabetes Drug Holds Promise For Fighting Disease After 'significantly Reversing' Memory Loss

Alzheimer's Treatment: Diabetes Drug Holds Promise For Fighting Disease After 'significantly Reversing' Memory Loss

Alzheimer's treatment: Diabetes drug holds promise for fighting disease after 'significantly reversing' memory loss Trial in mice improved memory and lowered levels of defective molecules that form nerve killing plaques A drug developed for type 2 diabetes significantly reverses memory loss and could have potential as a new treatment for Alzheimers disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, scientists say. The study, by UK and Chinese universities, is the first to look at a new combined diabetes drug and foundimprovements in several characteristic symptoms of Alzheimers. Lead researcherProfessor ChristianHolscher,from Lancaster University, said these very promising outcomes show multi-action drugs developed for type 2 diabetes consistently showneurological protectiveeffects. Sharing the full story, not just the headlines Independent academics said a reduction in nerve-cell-killingprotein molecules was particularly interesting and this waslikelyto beanother avenue in the search for an elusive drug to combat dementia. He has previously reported optimistic findings from an olderdiabetes drug, liraglutide, and clinical trials in humans are currently under way. This latest study, published in the journal Brain Research,looked at a triple action treatment that combine three different drugs for type 2 diabetes,acting on biological pathways that could also have an impact on dementia. Type 2 diabetes is a known risk factor for Alzhemiers disease and impaired production of insulin the hormone that people with diabetes dont produce sufficiently to control their blood sugar is linked to brain degeneration. The identification of this link had a twofold benefit, according to charities. It opened up new research and drug development opportunities, such as this study. But it also m Continue reading >>

Testing The Effect Of The Diabetes Drug Liraglutide In Alzheimer's Disease

Testing The Effect Of The Diabetes Drug Liraglutide In Alzheimer's Disease

Testing the effect of the diabetes drug Liraglutide in Alzheimer's disease Testing the effect of the diabetes drug Liraglutide in Alzheimer's disease Research Project: Evaluating the effects of the novel GLP-1 analogue, Liraglutide, in patients with Alzheimer's disease (ELAD) study There is a connection between type 2 diabetes andAlzheimer's disease; people with type 2 diabetes are much more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than healthy people of the same age group. Recently, a drug used to treat type 2 diabetes, called liraglutide, has shown promise for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Inlaboratory studiesit improves symptoms of Alzheimer's and reduces the amount ofamyloidplaques in the brain, a hallmark of the disease. In this study, the researchers are going to test the effect of liraglutide in people with Alzheimer's disease, to see whether the drug has positive effects on brain function and cognition. Theclinical trialwill recruit participants from around the country who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and are still considered to be in theearly stages. Each participant will receive either liraglutide or a placebo treatment, via injection, for one year. Theirbrain will be scannedat the start of the experiment and after 12 months to look for changes in brain glucose, inflammation and brain volume, all indicators of Alzheimer's. Participants will also undergo cognitive tests to assess whether the drug has an effect on memory and thinking. This trial is aPhase 2b trialwhich means that in addition to patient benefits, it will test for side-effects of the drug in people with Alzheimer's disease. Update: During the trial, people receiving liraglutide reported a perceived change in theirsymptoms afterthey stopped taking the drug. Therefore, at the e Continue reading >>

The Association Of Diabetes And Dementia And Possible Implications For Nondiabetic Populations

The Association Of Diabetes And Dementia And Possible Implications For Nondiabetic Populations

Type 2 diabetes has consistently been shown to be associated with increased risk for cognitive decline [1], mild cognitive impairment (MCI) [2] and dementia [3–5]: both vascular dementia [6,7] and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) [6,7]. Such results have been demonstrated for diabetes both in midlife [3,5] and in old age [8,9]. Even prediabetes stages, namely, insulin resistance, have been shown to be associated with increased risk for cognitive decline and with increased rates of brain atrophy [10], both of which are associated with dementia. Similarly, impaired fasting glucose has been associated with cognitive impairment [11]. The results of studies on the association of diabetes with the rate of cognitive decline vary, with the majority showing a higher rate or risk for cognitive decline in diabetic subjects compared with nondiabetic subjects [12–16], some showing no association between the rate of cognitive deterioration and diabetes status [17–19] and others even showing a slower rate of decline in diabetic AD patients [20]. Differences between studies may be attributed to the cognitive status and age range of subjects included, as well as to the tools used to measure cognitive status and the definition of cognitive decline [16]. These differences may also reflect different roles for diabetes as a risk factor for dementia and in the rate of disease progression. The importance of these findings is that diabetes-related characteristics are modifiable, so that the degree of control of plasma glucose levels, prevention or treatment of insulin resistance and/or specific treatments in diabetic patients could potentially prevent dementia or delay its clinical onset. Since diabetes prevalence in the Western world is accelerating alarmingly, such treatments may affect a la Continue reading >>

Research Links Diabetes And Dementia

Research Links Diabetes And Dementia

The list of health risks for diabetics is already long, including kidney failure, nerve damage, heart disease, stroke, bladder control problems, and erectile dysfunction. Now, research from Japan has added another complication to that list: People with diabetes are at increased risk of getting Alzheimers or other types of dementia. Researchers from Kyushu University in Fukuoka, Japan had more than 1,000 adults take a glucose tolerance test in 1988 to see how well their bodies processed blood sugar. Then, the researchers followed up with them over the next 15 years. Over the course of the study, 232 people developed dementia. People who had been diagnosed with diabetes had a 74 percent greater risk of being diagnosed with some type of dementia than those who had normal glucose levels even after taking account of other risk factors, including age, body mass index, and several lifestyle choices. People who had impaired glucose tolerance were 35 percent more likely to develop dementia, the researchers found. The study is published in Neurology and the link has ominous implications. There are more than 25 million diabetics in the U.S. alone a number thats expected to skyrocket in coming years. Alzheimer's cases are also already projected to climb significantly in the next two decades as the population ages; increases in patients with diabetes may worsen that number. Researchers are still trying to sort out how and why diabetes would contribute to an increased risk of dementia. They have some possible explanations, but no concrete evidence. Several theories revolve around the idea that diabetes affects the ability of the brain and other body tissues to use sugar and respond to insulin. Insulin resistance may interfere with the bodys ability to break down a protein that forms Continue reading >>

Alzheimer's: 'triple-action' Diabetes Drug Shows Promise As Treatment

Alzheimer's: 'triple-action' Diabetes Drug Shows Promise As Treatment

Alzheimer's: 'Triple-action' diabetes drug shows promise as treatment Scientists in the United Kingdom and China find that a new drug for type 2 diabetes may protect the brain from damage caused by Alzheimer's disease, after testing it in mice. Could a diabetes drug help to treat Alzheimer's disease? In a new paper published in the journal Brain Research, the researchers explain how the "triple-action" drug resulted in a significant reversal of memory loss in mice that were genetically engineered to develop human-like Alzheimer's disease . The new drug "holds clear promise of being developed into a new treatment for chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease," says study leader Christian Hlscher, a professor in the Faculty of Health and Medicine at Lancaster University in the U.K. Alzheimer's is a brain-wasting disease that accounts for 5075 percent of cases of dementia , which is a condition wherein people gradually lose their ability to think, remember, make decisions, hold a conversation, and look after themselves. As the disease progresses, the brain undergoes biological and chemical changes, and particular areas shrink as nerve cells, or neurons, die. The exact causes of Alzheimer's are currently unknown, but microscopic examinations of affected brain tissue have revealed two hallmarks: abnormal accumulations of protein segments known as "plaques" and "tangles." Current treatments make no real difference The number of people with Alzheimer's disease is rising rapidly as the population ages. In 2015, there were an estimated 46.8 million people worldwide living with dementia, and this number is expected to reach more than 130 million in 2050. In the United States where Alzheimer's is currently the sixth leading cause of death there are an estima Continue reading >>

How Alzheimer’s Could Be Type 2 Diabetes

How Alzheimer’s Could Be Type 2 Diabetes

The link between Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes continues to grow stronger. A new study presented at the Society for Neuroscience shows that the disease may actually be the late stages of type 2 diabetes. Learn more about how Alzheimer’s could be type 2 diabetes. The Correlation Between Alzheimer’s and Type 2 Diabetes A new study done by researchers at Albany University in New York, shows that Alzheimer’s may be the late stages of type 2 diabetes. People who have type 2 diabetes produce extra insulin. That insulin can get into the brain, disrupting brain chemistry and leading toxic proteins that poison brain cells to form. The protein that forms in both Alzheimer’s patients and people with type 2 diabetes is the same protein. Researcher Edward McNay at Albany University, said: “People who develop diabetes have to realize this is about more than controlling their weight or diet. It’s also the first step on the road to cognitive decline. At first they won’t be able to keep up with their kids playing games, but in 30 years’ time they may not even recognize them.” Alzheimer’s, Brain Tangles and Diabetes In the past few years, the connection between the two diseases has grown stronger with each relevant study. People who develop type 2 diabetes often experience a sharp decline in cognitive function and almost 70% of them ultimately develop Alzheimer’s. A recent study published in the journal Neurology found that people with type 2 diabetes were more likely to develop the brain “tangles” commonly see in people with Alzheimer’s disease. They found that participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to have the brain tangles, even if they did not have dementia or memory loss. The study evaluated over 120 older adults with type 2 diabetes and Continue reading >>

Type 3 Diabetes Symptoms

Type 3 Diabetes Symptoms

Why is Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) sometimes called “Type 3 diabetes?” What are the symptoms, and how can it be prevented? Alzheimer’s is a progressive brain disease. People who have this condition gradually lose memory and mental focus. They may have emotional and behavioral changes that put a great load on their families. The course of Alzheimer’s disease varies dramatically. Some people become severely disabled and die from it. Others may experience only a mild slowing of brain function. What causes Type 3 diabetes? How might diabetes cause Alzheimer’s symptoms? Gary Small, MD, a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA and author of The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program said that high blood sugars cause inflammation throughout the body and brain. Chronic inflammation has been linked with two brain changes typical of Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s, clumps of protein called beta-amyloid plaques form between the brain cells and may block communication. Researchers have discovered that many people with Type 2 diabetes have beta-amyloid deposits in their pancreas like the ones found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s. Tau tangles are twisted-up proteins that form within nerve cells of people with Alzheimer’s, interfering with cell function. We don’t know what causes this nerve damage, but studies done at Brown University and the University of Pennsylvania indicate that insulin resistance, the core of Type 2 diabetes, is a big part of it. Insulin resistance may deprive brain cells of glucose they need to function, causing damage. On Verywell.com, health writer Esther Heerema, MSW, said, “The brains of those with Alzheimer’s disease who did not have diabetes showed many of the same abnormal Continue reading >>

Investigating The Relationship Between Diabetes And Dementia

Investigating The Relationship Between Diabetes And Dementia

Investigating the relationship between diabetes and dementia Investigating the relationship between diabetes and dementia Read about a research project we funded: Diabetes, Defective Nutrient Signalling and Dementia: an Epidemiological Neuropathology Approach. Lead Investigator: Professor Stephen Wharton Comments from members of our Research Network: 'This study could provide important information in identifying how diabetes contributes to cognitive decline and dementia. It could also lead to further important research' 'Diabetes and obesity are two ticking time bombs. Understanding their contribution to dementia is of immense importance' 'The project makes excellent use of a very important brain bank' Research has shown that diabetes can increase the risk of developing both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. This is thought to be because the mechanisms behind diabetes development can damage small blood vessels in the brain, which is likely to contribute towards vascular dementia. It is also thought that diabetes-related blood vessel damage could lead to a reduced blood flow to the brain, which may be a factor in Alzheimer's disease development. Professor Wharton believes that diabetes mechanisms may also directly cause damage to brain cells. He intends to use this project to further investigate the molecular reasons behind the apparent link between diabetes and dementia. The project will also determine whether a common condition called metabolic syndrome can influence dementia development. Metabolic syndrome encompasses a group of symptoms including obesity, high blood pressure, impaired blood glucose processing and impaired metabolic processes in cells. The project will look at several aspects of diabetes and metabolic syndrome and how these could link to dem Continue reading >>

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