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What Is Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

What is Diabetes insipidus? There are two types of diabetes in dogs. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is also called “sugar diabetes” and results from a disruption of pancreas function and abnormal regulation of blood sugar. The term, meaning “sweetened with honey,” originated from the fact that the urine of these patients was “sweet” due to high amounts of sugar excreted from the body. Diabetes insipidus (DI) gets its name from the fact that the urine of these patients is dilute enough to be “tasteless” or “insipid.” Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in dogs, and is characterized by excessive thirst/drinking and the production of enormous volumes of extremely dilute urine. Some dogs may produce so much urine that they become incontinent (incapable of controlling their urine outflow). The irony of this disease is that despite drinking large volumes of water, the dog can become dehydrated from urinating so much. My dog is drinking and urinating a lot. Is DI the likely cause? There are many causes of increased thirst (polydipsia) and increased urine production (polyuria), including diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, liver problems, and kidney disease, to name a few. It is essential that several diagnostic tests be performed to determine the cause of your dog’s problem. How is DI diagnosed? Part of diagnosing DI involves first eliminating other potential explanations for increased drinking and increased urinating. Typical laboratory testing will include a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry panel to evaluate liver and kidney parameters and blood sugar, and a urinalysis. The urine concentration (specific gravity) is quite low in these dogs. A more advanced test involves calculating normal daily water intake, measuring how much the dog is truly drinking Continue reading >>

Canine Diabetes Insipidus

Canine Diabetes Insipidus

Site Navigation Signs And Symptoms Cataracts And Treatment Prescription Food Diabetes Mellitus Gestational Diabetes Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes Diets Canine Diabetes Guide Special Offers First-Aid Handbook The main symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus are an abnormal increase in urine output, fluid intake and often thirst. It causes your pet to urinate frequently because the urine output is not as concentrated as normal and instead of being a yellow color, the urine is pale, colorless or watery in appearance and the measured concentration (osmolality or specific gravity) is low. Canine Diabetes Insipidus resembles Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs because the symptoms of both diseases are similar, increased urination and thirst. However, in every other respect, including the causes and treatment, the diseases are completely unrelated. Sometimes diabetes insipidus is referred to as "water" diabetes to distinguish it from the more common Diabetes Mellitus or "sugar" diabetes and comes in two flavors; Treatment: Diabetes Insipidus is treated using desmopressin, also known as DDAVP. This medication can be given as eye drops, nose drops, or injected subcutaneously. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus is treated with prescribed medications such as thiazide diuretics, chlorothiazide, chloropropamide and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Salt is also restricted. Canine Diabetes Management Guide When a well-loved pet is first diagnosed, we often allow our hearts to rule our thinking, without realizing the full implications of our decision. Having a family pet destroyed is not an option for many of us yet it can take several years before the full implication of commitment to treatment becomes apparent. The Canine Diabetes Management Guide walks you through the process, from the symptoms and fir Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Back DIABETES INSIPIDUS Note for Pet Owners: This information is provided by Provet for educational purposes only. You should seek the advice of your veterinarian if your pet is ill as only he or she can correctly advise on the diagnosis and recommend the treatment that is most appropriate for your pet. Topics on this Page: Description Cause Breed Occurrence Signs Complications Diagnosis Treatment Prognosis Long-term problems Description Diabetes insipidus is much less common in dogs and cats than Diabetes mellitus . There are two forms of diabetes insipidus : a) Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) b) Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) - which can be i) Primary (familial) or ii) Secondary (acquired) Both result in the kidneys being unable to retain water, resulting in excessive losses of dilute urine (polyuria) and a compensatory increase in thirst (polydipsia) a) CDI - caused by damage (eg trauma, tumours or congenital deformities) to the neurohypophyseal system, resulting in insufficient secretion of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the suproptic and paraventricular nuclei in the hypothalamus of the brain. AVP is important in the regulation of water loss as urine and without it the animal is unable to concentrate it's urine. b) NDI- caused by insensitivity of AVP receptors in the kidney to the presence of AVP and so the animal is unable to concentrate it's urine. Breed Occurrence a) Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) can occur at any age and in any breed or sex. Onset can be any age - in dogs from 7 weeks to 14 years, in cats 8 weeks to 6 years. In one report it was suggested that it might be an inherited disorder in 2 Afghan puppies, and an affected litter has also been reported in German Shorthaired Pointers. b) Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) Primary c Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs: Symptoms, Treatment & Life Expectancy

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs: Symptoms, Treatment & Life Expectancy

This lesson teaches you about a disorder dogs can experience, called diabetes insipidus. You'll learn its definition, causes, signs, symptoms, treatment options, as well as some prognoses. What Is Diabetes Insipidus? Imagine that all day and every day you have extreme thirst followed up by an urge to urinate large volumes of urine on a frequent basis. This can happen with a condition called diabetes insipidus, in both humans and dogs. This uncommon disorder occurs when the brain either secretes an insufficient amount of a hormone called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or the kidneys don't respond to it. ADH tells the kidneys to stop making urine and to start preserving water within the body. Let's learn about the signs, treatments, and life expectancy surrounding this condition in dogs. Signs & Symptoms If the brain doesn't make enough ADH or the kidneys pay no attention to it, the kidneys will make a lot of urine and deplete the body of lots of water as a result. And what happens when you are dehydrated? You drink a lot! Thus, it should be no surprise that diabetes insipidus in the dog will lead to: Polydipsia 'Poly-' means many or much and '-dipsia' refers to a condition of thirst. Thus, the dog will feel extremely thirsty and, as a result, polydipsia will also manifest itself via the consumption of large amounts of liquids over and over again. Polyuria, where '-uria' refers to a condition of the urine. Polyuria manifests itself as an abnormally excessive passage of urine (volume-wise). The dog may also have to go to the bathroom more frequently as well. Inappropriate urination within the home, if the dog is not walked frequently enough. Disorientation, extreme lethargy and/or lack of mobility, ataxia (stumbling around as if drunk), seizures, and death can occur if a dog's Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Symptoms Of Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

The symptoms of diabetes insipidus are similar to the symptoms of diabetes mellitus and should be reported to the vet. Diabetes insipidus, also known as the other diabetes, is a condition that involves the impaired production of anti diuretic hormones. There are 2 types of DI and both will display the same symptoms. Diabetes Insipidus in Dogs Diabetes insipidus is a life threatening condition that may affect dogs of any breed, age or gender. There are 2 types of diabetes insipidus: Central diabetes insipidus, which is described as a deficiency of anti diuretic hormones in the body. The dog will be dehydrated and produce urine that is not concentrated Nephrogenic diabetes is a condition that is due to a lack of response of the kidneys to the anti diuretic hormones. Even if the dog is producing a sufficient amount of hormones, these will not be recognized by the kidneys Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus The symptoms of diabetes insipidus may be more subtle and at times, difficult to recognize. However, you should notice that your dog is dehydrated. Dehydration is seen in all dogs with diabetes insipidus that don’t get treatment. Both types of diabetes insipidus manifest through similar symptoms, which include: Polyuria, which means that the dog will urinate more frequently. This is due to the fact that the dog’s body is unable to produce concentrated urine Polydipsia or an increased thirst. You will notice that your dog drinks more than the usual half a liter of liquids per day. The thirst is due to the fact that the dog urinates more frequently and is dehydrated. Your dog will drink water wherever he finds it, after finishing the fluids from his water bowl. This may be dangerous, as the dog may drink from an infested pond and this will lead to a secondary infection Imba Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus (water Diabetes) In Cats And Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus (water Diabetes) In Cats And Dogs

Overview of diabetes insipidus Most everyone is familiar with the term “diabetes;” it is a common human disease. But our four-legged friends can get diabetes, too. There are different types of diabetes, one being diabetes insipidus—an uncommon disorder that affects our pet’s ability to conserve water. Because of this disease, your dog or cat urinates and drinks water excessively in an attempt to keep up with the loss of water through the urine. There are two types of diabetes insipidus. One is due to the insufficient production of a hormone called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) that regulates the body’s ability to absorb water from the kidneys. The other form of diabetes insipidus is caused by the kidneys’ inability to respond to ADH. The kidneys are responsible for regulating the water in your pet’s body. So, without this hormone or the kidney’s response to it, your dog or cat can’t conserve water. Access to water is critical for pets with diabetes insipidus—without it, a dog or cat can become dehydrated in as little as 4–6 hours. Generally, diabetes insipidus is considered idiopathic, which means the ultimate cause is unknown. Possible causes include congenital issues, trauma, metabolic conditions, kidney disease, adverse reactions to certain medications, or tumors of the pituitary gland. Despite the underlying cause of diabetes insipidus, the symptoms are the same. They include: Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam and take a detailed history of your pet’s health. The symptoms of diabetes insipidus are very similar to other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (“sugar diabetes”), Cushing’s syndrome, liver or kidney disease, Addison’s disease, and hypo-/hyperthyroidism. Your veterinarian may Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is a metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in the production of or response to arginine vasopressin (AVP). The lack of, or inability to appropriately respond to, AVP results in a lack of tubular reabsorption of water and in urine of low specific gravity. Two main categories of diabetes insipidus are recognized in veterinary medicine: central and nephrogenic. Diabetes insipidus is a metabolic disorder caused by decreased production of or inadequate response to arginine vasopressin (AVP).1 A deficiency of AVP, or an inability of the distal tubule or collecting ducts to respond to AVP appropriately, results in a lack of tubular reabsorption of water and urine of low specific gravity.2 The main categories of diabetes insipidus recognized in veterinary medicine are central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). CDI is defined as decreased secretion or production of AVP, whereas NDI is defined by an inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to AVP. Dogs and cats with diabetes insipidus usually present with polyuria and polydipsia (PU/PD). However, these clinical signs are also present in animals with several more common diseases. In dogs, the most common causes of PU/PD include renal failure, hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus, and pyometra; in cats, they include renal failure, diabetes mellitus, and hyperthyroidism.3 Primary or psychogenic polydipsia is another diagnostic differential to consider in a patient with suspected diabetes insipidus. This disease is characterized as compulsive consumption of more water than the kidneys can normally excrete. Primary polydipsia caused by a dysfunction of the thirst center has not been reported in dogs or cats. Psychogenic polydipsia has been reported in dogs, with no spe Continue reading >>

A Primer On Diabetes Insipidus

A Primer On Diabetes Insipidus

Mention the word diabetes, and one thinks of insulin injections and blood sugar levels. This is because diabetes mellitus (aka, sugar diabetes) is so darned prevalent in people, dogs, and cats. But did you know that there is another version of diabetes, one that has absolutely no impact on blood sugar levels? It is called diabetes insipidus (DI). This form of diabetes is far less common, but as it happens, I diagnosed two patients (one dog and one cat) with DI within the last week. Go figure! As things tend to happen in “threes” I expect my third patient with DI will walk through the door next week! Diabetes insipudus occurs when the kidneys are unable to conserve water. Under normal circumstances, the kidneys retain some of the water within the bloodstream for use within the body while eliminating the rest within the urine. This nifty little water conservation system is controlled by a hormone called vasopressin (aka, ADH or antidiuretic hormone). Vasopressin is produced within the brain’s hypothalamus. It is then stored and released from the pituitary gland, also within the brain. Now here’s the really cool part. There are sensors in the body that control exactly how much vasopressin is released into the blood stream after detecting exactly how much water the body needs. For example, if you are hiking in Death Valley and it is 110 degrees, your pituitary gland will release lots of vasopressin so that you produce minimal urine. Likewise, if you’ve just chugged a gallon of water, vasopressin release will be turned off thereby allowing your kidneys to “turn on the faucets.” Diabetes insipidus occurs when vasopression is no longer released from the pituitary gland. Affected dogs and cats produce copious volumes of urine, and all that water loss results in pr Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus Types Signs Diagnosis Treatment Personal Stories Ziggy, Puff, & Simone the cats Sonny the Samoyed Ferris Resources References What is Diabetes Insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disorder of water balance. The animal is unable to concentrate urine, so the urine volume is very high and the urine is dilute. "Insipid" means tasteless -- referring to the dilute urine. This disease is rare in both dogs and cats. The condition is usually permanent, and the prognosis is good. Without treatment, dehydration leads to stupor, coma, and death. This is a completely different disease from Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a disorder of sugar metabolism involving the hormone insulin. We include the information here because people are often looking for resources and we had some owners of pets with DM who also have experience with DI. Types of diabetes insipidus Central Diabetes Insipidus - caused when the pituitary gland does not secrete enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) [also called vasopressin]. This type of DI may be the caused by a congenital defect, trauma, a tumor on the pituitary gland, or unknown causes. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus - caused when the kidneys do not respond to the ADH that is produced by the pituitary gland. This type of DI may be caused by a congenital defect, drugs, or caused by other metabolic disorders polyuria (excessive urination) polydipsia (excessive drinking) Diagnosis includes ruling out other diseases such as hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's disease), diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism (in cats), renal failure, liver disease, pyometra (infection of the uterus), and other disorders. Images of the pituitary gland may be taken to determine if there is a tumor. A water deprivation test or an ADH trial with DDAVP may be done. These tests det Continue reading >>

Water Diabetes In Dogs

Water Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus, also called Water Diabetes, is a disease affecting dogs, cats, rats, and occasionally other animals. In this disease, a hormone called ADH is either not secreted in sufficient amounts by the brain, or is not properly recognized by specific cells in the kidneys. This results in extreme thirst and frequent evacuation of very diluted urine. Essentially, the animal’s body is trying to rid itself of more water than is needed for normal urination. This condition is not usually life-threatening, but is inconvenient for the owner and stressful for the animal. However, primary kidney disease, a much more serious condition, may display these same symptoms, and so extreme thirst paired with frequent, lengthy urination is cause for a visit to the veterinarian. Diabetes Insipidus is a disease of the urinary system, where either insufficient amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, or target cells in the kidneys have lost the ability to respond to normal levels of ADH. This lack of communication between the brain and the kidneys results in polyuria with hypotonic urine and extreme thirst. Owners noting frequent urination above what is normal for their pet should monitor the amount of water the animal consumes and the color of their urine. If this pattern of drinking and urination persists, make an appointment with your veterinarian, as the much more serious primary kidney disease could be occurring. The veterinarian will first rule out primary kidney disease, and then evaluate your pet’s ability to concentrate urine with a water deprivation test. This is done by waiting for the pet to empty their bladder, then withholding food and water for 3-8 hours, which often stimulates ADH to be produced. The animal should be carefully monitor Continue reading >>

Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus

1. What are the causes of central diabetes insipidus? Central diabetes insipidus is a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion by the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland or a deficiency of ADH production by the hypothalamus. The reported causes of deficiency in dogs include neoplasia, trauma, and congenital abnormalities. 2. What clinical signs are caused by diabetes insipidus? The primary and only clinical signs of diabetes insipidus in most cases are polyuria and polydipsia (PU/PD), which typically are severe. Urinary incontinence is another common complaint and is the result of the marked polyuria induced by diabetes insipidus. Dogs with neoplasia or trauma may have clinical signs related to damage of surrounding structures in the brain. Progression of neurologic abnormalities often occurs in dogs with pituitary neoplasia. 3. How is a diagnosis of diabetes insipidus established? It is important to thoroughly evaluate a dog with suspected diabetes insipidus for other diseases that could cause PU/PD. Persistent isosthenuria or hyposthenuria confirms the presence of polyuria, while finding a urine specific gravity above 1.030 rules out persistent PU/PD. Hyposthenuria is most frequently found in dogs with central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, primary polydipsia, and hyperadrenocorticism. With the possible exception of evidence of dehydration, the complete blood count (CBC) and serum chemistry values of dogs with diabetes insipidus should be normal. A water deprivation test may be performed for confirmation of the diagnosis. 4. What is the protocol for performing a water deprivation test? For the results of a water deprivation test to be valid, causes of PU/PD other than central diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and primary (psychogenic Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes insipidus (DI)comes in two forms. One is an aberration of the central nervous system (CNS) which results in poor body control of water balance. The other is caused by the kidneys’ inability to respond to the hormone produced by the CNS, resulting in identical clinical signs. The former condition is more common. Diabetes insipidus is seen more commonly in dogs than cats and also occurs in humans. Patients present with a complaint of constant thirst and excessive urination. Dogs will repeatedly ask to go outside, or even have accidents indoors. Cats will fill a litterbox with urine in short order. Knowledgeable clients may ask whether their pets might be diabetic, suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) or “sugar diabetes.” The similarity of signs has led some to refer to diabetes insipidus as “the other diabetes.” TERMINOLOGY “Insipid” means “dull, flat, lacking in qualities that interest, tasteless.” Taste might seem like an odd way to refer to a disease that involves urine, but diabetes mellitus is so-named because the earliest health-care workers in ancient Greece, China and Egypt discovered that those patients’ urine tasted sweet. Therefore, the contrast of “dull” or “tasteless” urine follows naturally. As stated above, DI and DM patients drink and urinate a lot. Drinking and urinating in large volumes describes a condition called polyuria/polydipsia, or pu/pd. Poly is a Latin prefix meaning “many.” Dipsia is a Latin root meaning “thirst.” Therefore, the polydipsic patient drinks often, or in large quantities, resulting in a 24-hour intake being higher than normal. Of course, if intake is excessive, output, in the form of urine, will also be excessive, resulting in polyuria. TESTING AND DIAGNOSIS Routine screening tests, com Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Cats

Diabetes Insipidus In Cats

Diabetes insipidus is a relatively rare variation of diabetes that is not related to the hormone, insulin. It causes cats to drink large amounts of water and urinate often, and it’s caused by the body’s inability to produce or use a hormone called vasopressin, which is an antidiuretic. The condition is not preventable — if a cat’s going to get it, a cat’s going to get it. But hormone treatment is available and with some lifestyle adjustments even an untreated cat can live a long and relatively normal life. Overview When most of us think about diabetes, we think of a condition called diabetes mellitus. This is a disease in which the body either doesn’t make an adequate amount of the hormone insulin or is unable to use its available insulin effectively. The result is an inability to regulate the body’s blood sugar level. Diabetes insipidusoccurs when the body is unable to produce an adequate amount of the hormone vasopressin (also called antidiuretic hormone [ADH]) or when the available vasopressin is not being used properly. Normally, ADH is produced by the brain, enters the bloodstream, and affects several areas of the body, particularly the kidneys. ADH helps the kidneys retain water, which is necessary for keeping the body adequately hydrated. Diabetes insipidus occurs when the body doesn’t have enough ADH or when the kidneys can’t use it properly. The result is fluid loss by the body which ultimately leads to dehydration. Because ADH is produced in the brain, medical conditions such as brain injury, brain inflammation, and brain tumors can sometimes interfere with the brain’s ability to produce a normal amount of the hormone. Conditions that can reduce the kidney’s ability to use ADH properly in cats include uterine and kidney infections. Sympto Continue reading >>

The Other Diabetes

The Other Diabetes

Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that many people have never heard of may be indirectly causing canine deaths. Not only is the disease dangerous in itself, but the primary symptoms include a behavior that could be perceived, or misinterpreted by owners, trainers and veterinarians, as purposefully destructive, and which figures prominently in the statistics of animals turned over to dog pounds and to veterinarians for euthanasia. The behavior we are referring to is the need for frequent urination. Seldom do owners and veterinarians search for potential medical problems that might contribute to house soiling behaviors. And, if they do, seldom are those searches for medical causes of inappropriate elimination practices complete. At least a quarter of all dogs euthanized or turned into shelters are given up because of behavior related issues. Near the top of the list of reasons for euthanasia and being turned into shelters is house soiling. Therefore, whenever an inappropriate elimination behavior develops, look first for an underlying medical condition before starting training or behavior modification exercises. While diabetes insipidus (DI) is less common than its better-known form, diabetes mellitus, it is probably an under-reported disease as it shares symptoms with other more common diseases including diabetes mellitus. The disease can also go unnoticed if the dog has a constant supply of water and has access to an outdoor run or a doggy door so that his excessive elimination needs do not require human intervention. Nonetheless, the disease is dangerous, and severe dehydration can occur very rapidly (4-6 hours). Leaving a DI dog unattended without water for several hours or overnight may result in severe hyperosmolality, coma, and death. Dr. Marie Monaco whose female Samo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus And Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs: Symptoms & Treatments

Diabetes Insipidus And Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs: Symptoms & Treatments

Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus are two different types of diabetes in dogs, and both can be serious if left untreated. Diabetes insipidus is also known as “water diabetes” and is the more rare form. It affects water metabolism and prevents the body from conserving water, which results in increased urination and diluted, almost clear urine. It is not related to diabetes mellitus in canines, which is also known as “sugar diabetes.” Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas that affects the body’s ability to convert food into fuel. Here is what you should know about the symptoms and treatments for diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. Symptoms Of Diabetes In Dogs Diabetes insipidus comes in two forms in canines, and both are related to the pituitary gland and result in similar symptoms. Central diabetes insipidus happens when the pituitary doesn’t release enough of a hormone called vassopressin, an anti-diuretic. This can be caused by birth defect, head injury, or tumor. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is the other form. It happens when the kidneys don’t respond to the vassopressin that the pituitary produces. It can be caused by birth defect, exposure to drugs, metabolic disorders, or renal failure. Both types will result in the following symptoms in dogs. Excessive urination Excessive drinking and thirst Weight loss Decreased urination due to dehydration Poor coat health Accidents in the house Diabetes mellitus is a pancreatic condition that also comes in two forms in canines. Insulin-deficiency diabetes mellitus is when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin, a hormone that tells the body’s cells to take glucose, a type of sugar, from the bloodstream to use as fuel. Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus happens when the body produces e Continue reading >>

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