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What Is Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is an endocrine disease characterized by vasopressin dysregulation[1], excessive polyuria, polydipsia, and the absence of hyperglycemia and glucosuria. Diabetes insipidus is entirely different to diabetes mellitus and has two presentations: Central diabetes insipidus - due to hypothalamic-pituitary trauma[2], post-transsphenoidal surgery for correction of hyperadrenocorticism[3], dorsally expanding cysts, inflammatory granuloma, lymphocytic hypophysitis[4], congenital malformation and neoplasms such as craniopharyngioma, pituitary chromophobe adenoma[5], pituitary chromophobe adenocarcinoma[6] and metastatic tumors such as metastatic mammary carcinoma, lymphoma[7], malignant melanoma and pancreatic carcinoma - results in lack of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) production Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus - due to nephron impairment as a result of genetic or acquired disease - results in lack of vasopressin sensitivity by nephrons Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) results in absolute or partial loss of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone; ADH) production by the central nervous system, causing persistent hyposthenuria (urine specific gravities ≤ 1.006) and severe diuresis, even with severe dehydration. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which may be primary (familial; X-linked in humans[8]) or secondary (acquired), results from impaired responsiveness of the nephron to the actions of vasopressin. Plasma vasopressin concentrations are normal or increased in animals with this disorder. Primary NDI is a rare congenital disorder of dogs resulting from a congenital defect involving the cellular mechanisms responsible for insertion of aquaporin-2 water channels into the luminal cell membrane. Acquired secondary NDI includes a variety of renal and metabolic Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

What is Diabetes insipidus? There are two forms of diabetes in dogs: diabetes insipidus ("weak or watery diabetes") and diabetes mellitus ("sugar diabetes"). Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in dogs and is only definitively diagnosed after extensive blood and urine tests. My dog is drinking and urinating a lot. Is diabetes insipidus the likely cause? "There are many causes of increased thirst (polydipsia) and increased urine production (polyuria), including diabetes, liver problems and kidney disease." There are many causes of increased thirst (polydipsia) and increased urine production (polyuria), including diabetes, liver problems and kidney disease, to name a few. It is essential that several diagnostic tests be performed to determine the cause of your pet's problem. What causes diabetes insipidus? Part of the job of the kidneys is to continually filter the blood that passes through them and to maintain the balance of the body's water by excreting or reabsorbing fluid as required. Efficient re-absorption requires an adequate level of a hormone known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin which is produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland in the brain. If this hormone is not produced in sufficient quantities or if the kidney fails to respond to it, diabetes insipidus can occur. What diagnostic tests are required for the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus? There are three basic causes for DI: a defect in ADH (antidiuretic hormone, a hormone that is normally produced in the pituitary gland and that controls water balance in the body); a defect in the kidney's response to ADH; or excessive water intake (called psychogenic polydipsia or compulsive water drinking). The diagnosis of diabetes insipidus can be challenging and may require extensive and complicate Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Symptoms Of Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

The symptoms of diabetes insipidus are similar to the symptoms of diabetes mellitus and should be reported to the vet. Diabetes insipidus, also known as the other diabetes, is a condition that involves the impaired production of anti diuretic hormones. There are 2 types of DI and both will display the same symptoms. Diabetes Insipidus in Dogs Diabetes insipidus is a life threatening condition that may affect dogs of any breed, age or gender. There are 2 types of diabetes insipidus: Central diabetes insipidus, which is described as a deficiency of anti diuretic hormones in the body. The dog will be dehydrated and produce urine that is not concentrated Nephrogenic diabetes is a condition that is due to a lack of response of the kidneys to the anti diuretic hormones. Even if the dog is producing a sufficient amount of hormones, these will not be recognized by the kidneys Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus The symptoms of diabetes insipidus may be more subtle and at times, difficult to recognize. However, you should notice that your dog is dehydrated. Dehydration is seen in all dogs with diabetes insipidus that don’t get treatment. Both types of diabetes insipidus manifest through similar symptoms, which include: Polyuria, which means that the dog will urinate more frequently. This is due to the fact that the dog’s body is unable to produce concentrated urine Polydipsia or an increased thirst. You will notice that your dog drinks more than the usual half a liter of liquids per day. The thirst is due to the fact that the dog urinates more frequently and is dehydrated. Your dog will drink water wherever he finds it, after finishing the fluids from his water bowl. This may be dangerous, as the dog may drink from an infested pond and this will lead to a secondary infection Imba Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs: Signs, Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs: Signs, Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

What is diabetes insipidus in dogs? Diabetes insipidus (DI) in dogs is a rare medical condition that is characterized by increased thirst and urination. Because of increased thirst, dogs with DI will drink large amounts of fluids. If dogs with DI do not drink enough fluids to compensate for the lost fluids via urine, they can become dehydrated. Despite sharing the same name, diabetes insipidus is not related in any way to diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels because the body cannot produce enough insulin or use it properly. Insulin is a natural hormone, which helps process glucose to be used by the body’s cells for energy. DI, however, is a result of problems with water metabolism, not sugar. Therefore, dogs that are diagnosed with DI can still have normal blood sugar levels. DI in dogs occurs when the antidiuretic or ADH hormone is not secreted in sufficient amounts by the brain. It also sometimes occurs if kidney cells do not properly respond to these hormones. This results in excretion of dilute urine and increased thirst in dogs. Usually, the kidney works by removing excess fluids from the bloodstream. The fluids are then temporarily stored in the bladder in the form of urine. When the fluid regulation system is working properly, the kidneys will store fluids and excrete small amounts of insulin when the dog is dehydrated or thirsty. This normal regulation of body fluids in dogs is achieved by the release of the ADH hormone. The antidiuretic hormone is normally released when the dog is dehydrated. This natural hormone works by triggering the kidney to release body fluids into the blood rather than excreting it as urine. However, in dogs with DI, the ADH hormone does not properly regulate the fluids in Continue reading >>

Water Diabetes In Dogs

Water Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus, also called Water Diabetes, is a disease affecting dogs, cats, rats, and occasionally other animals. In this disease, a hormone called ADH is either not secreted in sufficient amounts by the brain, or is not properly recognized by specific cells in the kidneys. This results in extreme thirst and frequent evacuation of very diluted urine. Essentially, the animal’s body is trying to rid itself of more water than is needed for normal urination. This condition is not usually life-threatening, but is inconvenient for the owner and stressful for the animal. However, primary kidney disease, a much more serious condition, may display these same symptoms, and so extreme thirst paired with frequent, lengthy urination is cause for a visit to the veterinarian. Diabetes Insipidus is a disease of the urinary system, where either insufficient amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, or target cells in the kidneys have lost the ability to respond to normal levels of ADH. This lack of communication between the brain and the kidneys results in polyuria with hypotonic urine and extreme thirst. Owners noting frequent urination above what is normal for their pet should monitor the amount of water the animal consumes and the color of their urine. If this pattern of drinking and urination persists, make an appointment with your veterinarian, as the much more serious primary kidney disease could be occurring. The veterinarian will first rule out primary kidney disease, and then evaluate your pet’s ability to concentrate urine with a water deprivation test. This is done by waiting for the pet to empty their bladder, then withholding food and water for 3-8 hours, which often stimulates ADH to be produced. The animal should be carefully monitor Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Insipidus (di)?

What Is Diabetes Insipidus (di)?

• Rare condition that prevents the body from conserving water … if the pet does not have water available at all times, it can dehydrate and die • It is NOT related to sugar diabetes • There are two types • Central (CDI) - the problem is in the brain • Nephrogenic (NDI) - the problem is in the kidneys • Causes can be • Genetic - it can be passed through the generations • Trauma - usually to the head • Tumor - usually brain • Unknown - also called idiopathic If the animal is born with the problem, no matter what its actual cause is, it is called a congenital condition. • Symptoms • PU/PD (polyuria - means pees a lot / polydipsia - means drinks a lot) No one measures urine output, but you can measure water intake • CAT - Daily intake in excess of 100 mL/kg for a cat is abnormal. This would be about 12 oz or 1.5 cup of water for an 8 pound cat. • DOG - Daily intake in excess of 90 mL/kg for a dog is abnormal. This is about 1.38 oz per pound … so if your dog weighs 23 pounds, consumption of more than a quart of water a day would be abnormal. • Urine has low specific gravity (SG): usually less than 1.012 and often less than 1.008 • May lose weight • May be a bit dehydrated with a scruffy, dry looking coat • May be incontinent or break house or litter training • Rarely, may have a fever of unknown origin Diabetes insipidus is a relatively rare and definitely rarely diagnosed disease that makes it impossible for your pet to "concentrate" his/her urine and conserve water. Normally, the hypothalamus (a gland in the brain) produces a hormone called ADH or anti-diuretic hormone. ADH is stored in and released from the pituitary (another gland in the brain.) When it is needed, this hormone travels through the bloodstream to receptors in the k Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus: The “other” Type Of Diabetes

Diabetes Insipidus: The “other” Type Of Diabetes

Download Interview Transcript Diabetes insipidus, often called the “other” type of diabetes, is different from the more common diabetes mellitus, though they share some symptoms. Diabetes insipidus, or DI, is a metabolic disorder in which the kidneys aren’t able to reabsorb normal amounts of water. That’s why one of the chief symptoms of DI is the production of large quantities of very dilute urine. There are two primary types of DI, central diabetes insipidus, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. There’s also a less common third type called psychogenic diabetes insipidus. Symptoms of DI besides excessive urination include extreme thirst with increased water intake, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, house soiling, weight loss, poor coat condition and disorientation. Treatment for a pet with DI will depend on its cause. Some forms of DI can be cured, while others will be with the animal for life. Caring for a pet with diabetes insipidus includes insuring the animal has access to fresh water at all times, as well as constant access to a potty spot. By Dr. Becker Diabetes insipidus, or DI, is also referred to as water diabetes. The more common form of diabetes, diabetes mellitus, is known as sugar diabetes. The two conditions are actually very different, though they have some symptoms in common. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of sugar metabolism involving the hormone insulin. Diabetes insipidus is a metabolic disorder in which the kidneys aren’t able to reabsorb normal amounts of water, so the dog or cat eliminates large quantities of very dilute urine. The word “insipid” describes this colorless, tasteless characteristic of the dilute urine. DI is also called the “other type of diabetes.” There are two forms of DI: central diabetes insipidus and neph Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

What is Diabetes insipidus? There are two types of diabetes in dogs. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is also called “sugar diabetes” and results from a disruption of pancreas function and abnormal regulation of blood sugar. The term, meaning “sweetened with honey,” originated from the fact that the urine of these patients was “sweet” due to high amounts of sugar excreted from the body. Diabetes insipidus (DI) gets its name from the fact that the urine of these patients is dilute enough to be “tasteless” or “insipid.” Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in dogs, and is characterized by excessive thirst/drinking and the production of enormous volumes of extremely dilute urine. Some dogs may produce so much urine that they become incontinent (incapable of controlling their urine outflow). The irony of this disease is that despite drinking large volumes of water, the dog can become dehydrated from urinating so much. My dog is drinking and urinating a lot. Is DI the likely cause? There are many causes of increased thirst (polydipsia) and increased urine production (polyuria), including diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, liver problems, and kidney disease, to name a few. It is essential that several diagnostic tests be performed to determine the cause of your dog’s problem. How is DI diagnosed? Part of diagnosing DI involves first eliminating other potential explanations for increased drinking and increased urinating. Typical laboratory testing will include a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry panel to evaluate liver and kidney parameters and blood sugar, and a urinalysis. The urine concentration (specific gravity) is quite low in these dogs. A more advanced test involves calculating normal daily water intake, measuring how much the dog is truly drinking Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

If you were asked to give the full correct name for diabetes, you’d probably return the answer of “diabetes mellitus,” if you were even aware that “diabetes” alone was not the full name in the first place! However, diabetes mellitus is just one of several variants of diabetes, which itself comes in two formats (type one and type two) but there are other forms of diabetes as well, such as gestational diabetes, and diabetes insipidus. While diabetes mellitus is by far the most common type of diabetes to affect dogs, diabetes insipidus can also affect dogs too, although at a lower rate of occurrence. Diabetes insipidus is not insulin-related, and is a very different disease to diabetes mellitus, despite the fact that they share similar names! In this article, we will look at diabetes insipidus in dogs in more detail, including identifying the risk factors for the condition, the symptoms that it causes, and what can be done about it. Read on to learn more. What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is also sometimes known as “water diabetes,” and the signatures of the condition include a severe thirst that is virtually impossible to quench, accompanied by a related high level of urination, which will be very dilute, due to the dog’s excessive water intake. Diabetes insipidus in dogs comes in two different forms: The first is neurogenic, or central diabetes insipidus, which is caused by a deficiency of a hormone called vasopressin, which is responsible for the regulation of water intake and water retention. The second type is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which occurs when the body does not naturally produce enough of the necessary anti-diuretic hormones, which help the body to retain the necessary amount of water for healthy functionality. What causes Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In A Dog

Diabetes Insipidus In A Dog

A 21-month-old, male, neutered cross-breed (Figure 1) presented to the practice having been adopted from Greece two-and-a-half weeks previously. He had been a stray and living in a foster home. The owner reported that, while Lolan seemed fine, he was polydipsic and polyuric. He had endured two episodes of nocturia. However, if the owner left him during the daytime, he frequently suffered from urinary incontinence. A clinical exam did not reveal any abnormalities. Lolan weighed 12.9kg and was set a target weight of 11kg. A free-flow urine sample revealed very dilute urine of 1.005. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Types of diabetes insipidus Diabetes insipidus can be divided into four different types that are caused by any one of four fundamentally different defects (Fig. 5.1): 1. pituitary, central, neurogenic, or neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, the most common type, results from a deficiency in the production of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP); 2. renal or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by renal insensitivity to the antidiuretic effects of AVP, for example, due to impairment of the renal vasopressin V2 receptor or aquaporin-2 water channel; 3. primary polydipsia is due to suppression of AVP secretion as a result of excessive fluid intake. Depending on whether the excessive fluid intake is due to abnormal thirst or due to a psychological disorder, primary polydipsia is subdivided into, respectively, dipsogenic diabetes insipidus11,12 psychogenic diabetes insipidus,13,14 and 4. gestational diabetes insipidus,15–18 which is primarily due to increased metabolism of AVP by circulating vassopressinase produced by the placenta in the pregnant woman but may also involve renal resistance and/or subclinical deficiency in AVP production. Complete diabetes insipidus is defined by persistently low urine osmolality (<300 mosmol/kg) during a fluid deprivation test providing plasma osmolality rises above 295 mosmol/kg. Partial diabetes insipidus is defined by a subnormal increase in urine osmolality (300–600 mosmol/kg) during a fluid deprivation test with the same rise in plasma osmolality.4 Definition Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by polyuria and polydipsia caused either due to a lack of secretion of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) from posterior pituitary, its physiological suppression following excessive water in Continue reading >>

Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus

1. What are the causes of central diabetes insipidus? Central diabetes insipidus is a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion by the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland or a deficiency of ADH production by the hypothalamus. The reported causes of deficiency in dogs include neoplasia, trauma, and congenital abnormalities. 2. What clinical signs are caused by diabetes insipidus? The primary and only clinical signs of diabetes insipidus in most cases are polyuria and polydipsia (PU/PD), which typically are severe. Urinary incontinence is another common complaint and is the result of the marked polyuria induced by diabetes insipidus. Dogs with neoplasia or trauma may have clinical signs related to damage of surrounding structures in the brain. Progression of neurologic abnormalities often occurs in dogs with pituitary neoplasia. 3. How is a diagnosis of diabetes insipidus established? It is important to thoroughly evaluate a dog with suspected diabetes insipidus for other diseases that could cause PU/PD. Persistent isosthenuria or hyposthenuria confirms the presence of polyuria, while finding a urine specific gravity above 1.030 rules out persistent PU/PD. Hyposthenuria is most frequently found in dogs with central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, primary polydipsia, and hyperadrenocorticism. With the possible exception of evidence of dehydration, the complete blood count (CBC) and serum chemistry values of dogs with diabetes insipidus should be normal. A water deprivation test may be performed for confirmation of the diagnosis. 4. What is the protocol for performing a water deprivation test? For the results of a water deprivation test to be valid, causes of PU/PD other than central diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and primary (psychogenic Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in dogs and is distinct from diabetes mellitus (DM). There are 2 types of DI and both are related to the pituitary gland. Your dog will most likely present with issues with urination frequency and amount of water intake. Other diagnoses may have to be ruled out due to their similar symptoms, some of those include diabetes mellitus, Cushing’s disease, renal failure, liver disease and infection of the uterus amongst others. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an issue with your dog’s ability to control his water intake and urine output. This is a pituitary gland disorder that is rare in dogs and causes your dog’s urine to become diluted due to his inability to concentrate his urine and can lead to dehydration in your dog if left alone. Symptoms are quite simple to identify, however once again they are similar to other disorders and cannot be used solely to diagnose. Excessive urination (polyuria) Excessive drinking (polydipsia) It may appear that your dog has incontinence problems, however, it is probably the excessive urination he is experiencing Weight loss Failure to thrive Types There are two types of diabetes insipidus and both are directly related to the pituitary gland and how it interacts with the body. Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) Caused by the pituitary gland not releasing enough of the hormone called vasopressin which is an antidiuretic hormone May be due to birth defect, trauma, tumor on the pituitary gland, or possible unknown cause Found in any breed, gender and age of dog Can begin anywhere from 7 weeks to 14 years of age Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) Caused by your dog’s kidneys not responding to vasopressin that the pituitary gland produces May be due to birth defect, drugs, other metabolic disorders Found more of Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs – Symptoms And Treatments

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs – Symptoms And Treatments

Diabetes insipidus in dogs is a condition that affects water balance in your dog’s body. This condition is rare in pets but if not recognized it can lead to severe dehydration, lethargy, coma and even death. Diabetes insipidus in dogs results when your dog is not producing the right amount of a hormone called anitdiuretic hormone (ADH). A dog of any age or breed can acquire this disease. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is not the same as diabetes mellitus, which is a condition that involves insulin and sugar metabolism. There are two types of diabetes insipidus in dog: Central diabetes insipidus - caused by a defect that affects the hypothalamus gland (where ADH is made) or the pituitary gland (where ADH is stored and released). This defect prevents the proper secretion of ADH and may be due to a congenital defect, head trauma, a tumor or unknown causes. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus – "caused when the kidneys do not respond to the ADH that is produced by the pituitary gland. This type of DI may be caused by a congenital defect, drugs, or caused by other metabolic disorders"(1). Symptoms of diabetes insipidus in dogs As a dog owner you will first become aware that your dog is excessively thirsty and may seem obsessed with water. Your pet will also have to urinate more frequently and you may notice large amounts of urine produced. Accidents may begin in dogs who had previously been house broken. Treatments of diabetes insipidus in dogs If you notice the symptoms of diabetes insipidus, take your dog to the veterinarian as soon as possible. Your vet will conduct tests to see if the condition is present and also to determine which type of diabetes insipidus is present. Treatment will depend on the type present: Central DI is treated with a synthetic medication called desmopres Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Central diabetes insipidus is caused by reduced secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). When target cells in the kidney lack the biochemical machinery necessary to respond to the secretion of normal or increased circulating levels of ADH, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus results. It occurs infrequently in dogs, cats, and laboratory rats, and rarely in other animals. Etiology: The hypophyseal form develops as a result of compression and destruction of the pars nervosa, infundibular stalk, or supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus. The lesions responsible for the disruption of ADH synthesis or secretion in hypophyseal diabetes insipidus include large pituitary neoplasms (endocrinologically active or inactive), a dorsally expanding cyst or inflammatory granuloma, and traumatic injury to the skull with hemorrhage and glial proliferation in the neurohypophyseal system. Clinical Findings: Affected animals excrete large volumes of hypotonic urine and drink equally large amounts of water. Urine osmolality is decreased below normal plasma osmolality (~300 mOsm/kg) in both hypophyseal and nephrogenic forms, even if the animal is deprived of water. The increase of urine osmolality above that of plasma in response to exogenous ADH in the hypophyseal form, but not in the nephrogenic form, is useful in the clinical differentiation of the two forms of the disease. Lesions: The posterior lobe, infundibular stalk, and hypothalamus are compressed or disrupted by neoplastic cells. This interrupts the nonmyelinated axons that transport ADH from its site of production (hypothalamus) to its site of release (pars nervosa). Diagnosis: This is based on chronic polyuria that does not respond to dehydration and is not due to primary renal disease. To evaluate the ability to concentrate urine, a wa Continue reading >>

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