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What Is Adrenal Diabetes

Benign Adrenal Tumors Linked To Diabetes Risk

Benign Adrenal Tumors Linked To Diabetes Risk

Benign Adrenal Tumors Linked to Diabetes Risk "Non-functional tumors may secrete small but problematic levels of glucocorticoids by Jeff Minerd Jeff Minerd, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today This article is a collaboration between MedPage Today and: Note that there is a significantly higher risk of diabetes or pre-diabetes in persons with so-called benign "non-functional" adrenal tumors (NFATs), according to a small retrospective observational study. A potential mechanism underlying this increased risk for diabetes may be glucocorticoid excess still within a range that is considered normal by accepted standards. So-called "non-functional" benign adrenal tumors may not be so benign after all, according to a small retrospective cohort study in the Annals of Internal Medicine . Compared to individuals without these tumors, those with them had nearly twice the risk of developing type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (adjusted risk ratio 1.87; 95% CI 1.7 to 2.98), reported Anand Vaidya, MD, of Harvard Medical School in Boston, and colleagues. Furthermore, in patients with these tumors, incident type 2 diabetes developed in nearly 30% of those whose cortisol levels were normal but in the highest quartile (38.5-50 nmol/L), compared with slightly more than 10% of those whose cortisol levels were in the lowest quartile (less than 22.2 nmol/L). The association was not statistically significant, but the number of incident cases was small (n=14) which limited the analysis, Vaidya and colleagues said. "Our findings substantially extend and potentially redefine the current paradigm of NFATs [non-functional adrenal tumors]: We observed that participants with apparent NFATs, as defined by current clinical guidelines, had approximately a 2-fold higher risk for incident diabetes than particip Continue reading >>

Addison Disease

Addison Disease

A medical condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol or, in some cases, aldosterone, causing such problems as weight loss, muscle weakness, fatigue, low blood pressure, and sometimes darkened patches of skin. It occurs somewhat more commonly in people with Type 1 diabetes than in the general population. Two of the most important hormones made by the adrenal glands, which are located just above each kidney, are cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol has multiple functions throughout the body, including creating the response to stress; helping to maintain blood pressure and cardiovascular function; slowing the immune system’s inflammatory response; raising blood glucose levels in response to stress or fasting; regulating the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and maintaining proper arousal and sense of well-being. The amount of cortisol in the body is precisely regulated by the pituitary gland and a region of the brain called the hypothalamus. Aldosterone helps the kidneys retain sodium and excrete potassium, which in turn helps maintain blood pressure as well as balance water and salt in the body. Most cases of Addison disease, which affects approximately 1 in 100,000 people, are due to gradual destruction of the adrenal cortex, the outer layer of the adrenal gland, by the body’s immune system in a misguided attack. As a result, cortisol levels, and in some cases aldosterone levels, become inadequate. Signs and symptoms of Addison disease, which usually begin gradually, include chronic fatigue that gets worse over time, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and weight loss. About half of people who have it experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Other symptoms include orthostatic hypotension (a drop in blood pressure when standing, Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia And Adrenal Fatigue | Dr. Wilson's Adrenalfatigue.org

Hypoglycemia And Adrenal Fatigue | Dr. Wilson's Adrenalfatigue.org

Both stress and adrenal fatigue can contribute to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) because of the key roles the adrenal hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol play in blood sugar regulation. Stress (and the anticipation of stress) signals the body to raise blood sugar (glucose) levels in order to generate energy to respond to the stress. If the body cannot meet this higher demand for blood glucose, hypoglycemia can result. Stress may also provoke blood sugar swings that can have a cumulative effect on the bodys ability to maintain blood sugar balance, and aggravate hypoglycemic symptoms. In fact, some of the symptoms of hypoglycemia, such as irritability and nervousness, may sometimes be the effects of high levels of stress hormones rather than of the low blood sugar itself. During adrenal fatigue, when adrenal hormone levels are lower, it becomes harder to maintain blood sugar balance, especially in response the increased demand from stress. It has been known for almost a century that people who are chronically hypoglycemic are often also experiencing adrenal fatigue, and that people going through adrenal fatigue almost always have some form of irregular blood sugar pattern. Hypoglycemia is the most common of these. Hypoglycemia commonly occurs during adrenal fatigue when low epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol are combined with the high insulin levels of stress. The low levels of adrenal hormones that can occur during adrenal fatigue may fail to raise blood glucose enough to meet the increased demand. As a result, the cells do not get the glucose and other nutrients they require, and the person may crave sugar as well as feel tired, shaky and weak. Circulating epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol help the liver convert glycogen (stored glucose) into Continue reading >>

Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease

Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease

Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease Adrenal insufficiency is an endocrine, or hormonal, disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of certain hormones. The adrenal glands are located just above the kidneys. Adrenal insufficiency can be primary or secondary. Addisons disease, the common term for primary adrenal insufficiency, occurs when the adrenal glands are damaged and cannot produce enough of the adrenal hormone cortisol. The adrenal hormone aldosterone may also be lacking. Addisons disease affects 110 to 144 of every 1 million people in developed countries.1 Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary glanda pea-sized gland at the base of the brainfails to produce enough adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce the hormone cortisol. If ACTH output is too low, cortisol production drops. Eventually, the adrenal glands can shrink due to lack of ACTH stimulation. Secondary adrenal insufficiency is much more common than Addisons disease. Adrenal hormones, such as cortisol and aldosterone, play key roles in the functioning of the human body, such as regulating blood pressure; metabolism, the way the body uses digested food for energy; and the bodys response to stress. In addition, the body uses the adrenal hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to make androgens and estrogens, the male and female sex hormones. Cortisol belongs to the class of hormones called glucocorticoids, which affect almost every organ and tissue in the body. Cortisols most important job is to help the body respond to stress. Among its many tasks, cortisol helps maintain blood pressure and heart and blood vessel function slow the immune systems inflammatory responsehow the b Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar And Adrenal Fatigue

Blood Sugar And Adrenal Fatigue

Adrenal fatigue and diabetes often go hand in hand, impacting the body’s ability to handle stress and maintain healthy blood sugar levels, among their many other regulatory functions. If you already have diabetes or think you might be headed there, it’s important to become aware of these glands, their role, and how they (and you) can become exhausted from outside stress, poor diet/nutrition and especially caffeine. The adrenals are two small glands located above each kidney that produce hormones such as norepinephrine (adrenaline), DHEA and cortisol to help you handle physical, emotional and psychological stress. Adrenaline is released to help you in stressful situations in which a burst of energy is required to help sustain you. DHEA gets converted into estrogen, testosterone and other steroid hormones, slowing in production as we age. Cortisol contributes to a strong immune system, balances blood sugar and regulates blood pressure. Low levels of DHEA and high levels of cortisol, brought on my stress, can contribute to a number of health problems such as heart disease, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and diabetes. Hormonal imbalances directly impact the body’s production and processing of insulin, ability to burn glucose and increase insulin resistance. They also contribute to weight gain and vulnerability to bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc. Although excessive stress is the ultimate cause of adrenal fatigue, a high sugar diet, caffeine and smoking can all contribute to their exhaustion. In relation to stimulants, the adrenal glands are forced to work harder to produce more adrenaline, putting the body into a "fight or flight" response, which over time can completely drain them and impair their ability to do their job. Some additional symptoms Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Adrenal Disease.

Diabetes And Adrenal Disease.

Abstract Disorders of the adrenal cortex and medulla can result in glucose intolerance or overt diabetes mellitus. Cushing's syndrome, characterized by excessive secretion of glucocorticoids, impairs glucose tolerance primarily by causing insulin resistance at the post-receptor level. On the other hand, phaeochromocytoma and hyperaldosteronism, via the respective actions of catecholamines and hypokalaemia on the pancreatic beta-cell, impair glucose tolerance primarily by inhibiting insulin release. The glucose intolerance associated with these adrenal disorders is usually only mild to moderate in severity. Marked hyperglycaemia, glycosuria, and polyuria are uncommon and ketosis is rare. Moreover, the late complications of diabetes mellitus are distinctly uncommon in patients with these disorders, and the prognosis for morbidity and death is usually that of the underlying disease and not that of diabetes mellitus. The impaired glucose tolerance induced by all three of these adrenal disorders usually returns to normal once the underlying aetiology has been cured. These factors must guide the clinician in treatment of these secondary forms of diabetes, and suggest that tight (near normal) blood glucose control may not be an appropriate goal in patients with these disorders. The relationship between adrenal androgens and glucose tolerance is more uncertain. Several studies in humans have demonstrated an acute decline in serum concentrations of the adrenal steroids DHEA and DHEA-sulfate in response to experimentally-induced hyperinsulinaemia, but the regulatory role of insulin on adrenal androgen metabolism in normal physiology or disease remains speculative. In several animal models DHEA appears to exert potent anti-obesity and anti-diabetogenic actions, but such effects ha Continue reading >>

Chronic Stress And Diabetes: A New Link

Chronic Stress And Diabetes: A New Link

As you might have seen on my 17 Reasons To Avoid Stress infographic, scientific research has connected a large number of diseases and conditions to chronic stress. Several previous studies have shown a link between chronic stress and diabetes, but now a new study has demonstrated this link even more clearly. Recently, the University of Gothenburg concluded a 35 year comprehensive study of 7,500 men who live in Gothenburg, Sweden. In this study, men who indicate incessant stress had a much higher risk of being diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes than men who said that they have no stress in their lives. A Clear Link Between Stress And Diabetes This large population-based study was originally started in the 1970s. Throughout the study, researchers closely monitored the health and well-being of men who were born between the 1915 and 1925 in Gothenburg. Because of this unique study and the sample size, medical researchers are now confident of showing that chronic stress can significantly increase a person’s risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Over the course of the study, a total of 6,828 men who had no prior history of diabetes, history of stroke or coronary artery disease were thoroughly analyzed. 899 of the participants had developed diabetes at the time of the follow up evaluation. Participants were asked to fill out a survey at the beginning of the study that asked them to grade the level of stress they experienced on a six-point scale. The researchers measured the amount of stress based on various factors such as anxiety, irritation, and difficulties sleeping, all of which may have been related to working or domestic conditions. Of the participants in the study, 15.5 percent of the men indicated incessant stress over a one year period or over a five year period. The 15.5 Continue reading >>

Addison’s Disease Causes

Addison’s Disease Causes

Adrenal insufficiency—when your adrenal glands don’t produce enough of the hormone cortisol—can be caused by a primary adrenal gland disorder (this is called Addison’s disease or primary adrenal insufficiency). Alternatively, adrenal insufficiency can be caused by a deficiency of the adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol, so if there’s too little ACTH, you may have low levels of cortisol (this is called secondary adrenal insufficiency). Much more rare—but still a possible cause of adrenal insufficiency—is an injury to the hypothalamus, a gland in the brain that produces releasing and inhibiting hormones (hormones that tell the other endocrine glands to start and stop production). A hypothalamic injury can lead to a corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) deficiency. CRH is what tells the pituitary gland to produce ACTH, which then stimulates cortisol production in the adrenal glands. A CRH deficiency can lead to an ACTH deficiency—and then to adrenal insufficiency. Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: Addison’s Disease The outer layer of the adrenal glands is called the adrenal cortex. If the cortex is damaged, it may not be able to produce enough cortisol. A common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency is an autoimmune disease that causes the immune system to attack healthy tissues. In the case of Addison’s disease, the immune system turns against the adrenal gland(s). There are some very rare syndromes (several diseases that occur together) that can cause autoimmune adrenal insufficiency. Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS) is a rare cause of Addison’s disease. Sometimes referred to as multiple endocrine deficiency syndrome, APS is further categorized as type 1 o Continue reading >>

Adrenal Glands And Diabetes

Adrenal Glands And Diabetes

The adrenal glands are endocrine, or hormone releasing, and are located on top of the kidneys. They release hormones that are essential to life such as the stress hormone cortisol, which is a corticosteroid, and catecholamines such as adrenaline. Cortisol is a hormone that helps the body respond to stressful situations such as surgery or infection. It also increases blood sugar by stimulating the liver to make glucose and by preventing movement of glucose into the cells. Video of the Day Diabetes is a condition in which a patient has high amounts of blood sugar. This occurs either because the body cannot produce sufficient amounts of insulin, a hormone that transfers glucose from the bloodstream to the cells, or as a result of ineffective usage of insulin by the body, also called insulin resistance. Some common symptoms of diabetes are polyuria, or the need to urinate frequently; polydipsia, or increased thirst; and polyphagia which refers to excessive hunger. Diabetes can occur as a result of various conditions. Causes of Diabetes Diabetes is classified as type 1 or type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the cells that produce insulin are destroyed. This can happen when the antibodies in the body attack and destroy these cells. Development of type 2 diabetes is linked to inactivity, obesity and a family history of the disease. Diabetes can also be caused by pregnancy, diseases such as hemochromatosis and by certain medications. Hormonal imbalance in the adrenal glands can also lead to high blood sugar levels and diabetes. Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder of the adrenal glands. It happens when the adrenal glands produce too much cortisol. Under normal circumstances, cortisol stimulates the body to produce sugar. When the adrenal glands produce Continue reading >>

Adrenal Insufficiency

Adrenal Insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones , primarily cortisol ; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid ), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention. [1] [2] Craving for salt or salty foods due to the urinary losses of sodium is common. [3] Addison's disease and congenital adrenal hyperplasia can manifest as adrenal insufficiency. If not treated, adrenal insufficiency may result in severe abdominal pains, vomiting, profound muscle weakness and fatigue, depression , extremely low blood pressure ( hypotension ), weight loss, kidney failure, changes in mood and personality, and shock (adrenal crisis). [4] An adrenal crisis often occurs if the body is subjected to stress, such as an accident, injury, surgery, or severe infection; death may quickly follow. [4] Adrenal insufficiency can also occur when the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland does not make adequate amounts of the hormones that assist in regulating adrenal function. [1] [5] [6] This is called secondary or tertiary adrenal insufficiency and is caused by lack of production of ACTH in the pituitary or lack of CRH in the hypothalamus, respectively. [7] There are three major types of adrenal insufficiency. Primary adrenal insufficiency is due to impairment of the adrenal glands. 80% are due to an autoimmune disease called Addison's disease or autoimmune adrenalitis . One subtype is called idiopathic , meaning of unknown cause. Other cases are due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia or an adenoma (tumor) of the adrenal gland. Secondary adrenal insufficiency is caused by impairment of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus . [8] Its principal causes include pituitary adenoma Continue reading >>

Stress And Fatigue

Stress And Fatigue

We know that blood sugar has a lot to do with diabetes fatigue. High blood glucose levels make blood sludgy; low levels deprive cells of fuel. But stress is also a major factor — it can throw your blood sugar off and make you tired a dozen other ways. Stress is a body’s response to a threat or challenge. Anytime we need to change something, stress kicks in. Historically, a major threat has been physical attack. The stress response, sometimes called the “fight-or-flight” response, enables our bodies to fight or run away from danger. Stress does this by raising our blood sugar levels (to provide fuel to the muscles) and increasing insulin resistance (so the other cells won’t use up the glucose the muscles need). It also raises our heart rate and blood pressure so we can run faster, and increases blood clotting in case we are injured. By increasing insulin resistance, stress can make us extremely tired. Under stress, only the muscles and nerves being used for fight or flight will open to insulin and the glucose it’s carrying. All the other cells are supposed to take a nap. But if the stress goes on a long time, our bodies and brains will not have enough fuel, so they want to just keep napping. The long-term effect of stress can be worse. According to the book Overcoming Adrenal Fatigue, by Kathryn Simpson, MS, stress puts pressure on the adrenal glands. Those glands produce adrenaline, cortisol, DHEA, and other chemicals that make up the stress response. If they have to keep producing at high levels — because stress is at high levels — they start to wear out. Sort of like beta cells are thought to wear out if they have to produce too much insulin. When the adrenals wear down, cortisol levels will drop. That’s when fatigue really sets in. Cortisol helps us Continue reading >>

How Blood Sugar Affects The Adrenals & Endocrine System

How Blood Sugar Affects The Adrenals & Endocrine System

If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to my RSS feed. Thanks for visiting! Let’s discuss why correcting blood sugar imbalances first is critical to successfully managing any adrenal or endocrine issues. There seem to be a lot of women that have not yet understood how important getting their blood sugar regulated is to their overall hormonal health. Obviously, other factors come into play such as digestion/microbial balance, environment/toxins, heredity and so on. However, addressing blood sugar can be a first and foremost hurdle to overcome in order to begin to set the endocrine system up for recovery and balance. The adrenal glands play a role in blood sugar regulation via the glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are hormones released by the adrenal glands used in glucose metabolism. For the adrenals to take part in blood sugar it’s because of an emergency. In the presence of stress, your adrenal glands will release cortisol. Cortisol stimulates several processes that all work together to increase and maintain normal blood sugar levels, to meet your body’s demands for energy. When the adrenals trigger due to stress, this is when the catecholamines kick in. Such as, adrenaline (epinephrine) which stimulates the liver to convert glycogen back to glucose for release into the bloodstream. Nordrenalin (norepinephrine) shuttles blood away from the deep organs and to the muscles and heart for action. When you have fatigued adrenal glands, cortisol levels drop and make it difficult to maintain normal blood sugar levels. People with adrenal fatigue tend to have low blood sugar. Low blood sugar is another stressful situation that can further tax your adrenal glands. The common scenario of eating excess sugars/starches, even if they are healthier options, is that the bl Continue reading >>

Schmidt Syndrome

Schmidt Syndrome

Schmidt syndrome refers to the combination of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease) with autoimmune hypothyroidism and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and is part of a larger syndrome known as autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II or polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II (PAS II). The term Schmidt syndrome is sometimes used interchangeably with PAS II. PAS II is a polygenic disorder which may include autoimmune thyroid disease (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism), T1DM, Addison’s disease, primary hypogonadism, and less commonly hypoparathyroidism or hypopituitarism. More common than other polyglandular autoimmune disorders[2]. Associated non-endocrine autoimmune conditions may be present including vitiligo, celiac disease, alopecia, pernicious anemia, myasthenia gravis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Sjogren’s syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis. Schmidt Syndrome: 1:20,000 prevalence in general population with 3:1 ratio of females to males affected[7] Peak incidence: 3rd - 4th decade of life Familial clustering with multiple family members often affected Autosomal dominant inheritance with variable penetrance. Associated with certain HLA antigens HLA-DR3, HLA-DR4, non HLA gene M-ICA and CTLA-4[2][8]. Among patients with T1DM, < 1% of patients have Addison’s disease, whereas 2-5% have autoimmune thyroid disease (mainly hypothyroidism) and up to 5% have celiac disease[7]. Up to 33% may have thyroid autoantibodies and 12% have transglutaminase autoantibodies[5] Type 1 diabetes patients who developed autoimmune thyroid disease had an interval of 13.3 +/- 11.8 years between first and second endocrinopathies with variable interval seen in development of other autoimmune conditions[6]. Diagnosis of component disorders of PAS II is the sam Continue reading >>

The Adrenal Glands | Precision Nutrition

The Adrenal Glands | Precision Nutrition

Bandwagons. Youve got to love them. But bandwagons are a dime a dozen. Every industry has one and far too many people end up getting hurt when they try to jump on them. The problem with bandwagons is that they tend to offer overly simplistic solutions to a complex problem. Vitamin D is a recent example of a health industry bandwagon. Every week there is a new study demonstrating the importance of Vitamin D in everything from depression to diabetes to cancer. And supposedly supplementing with Vitamin D will fix all of this. Maybe it will, but I doubt it. Answers are usually a little more complex than that. The adrenal glands could also be considered a bandwagon of sorts because practitioners quickly assume theyre the cause of virtually every disease imaginable. But is focusing on the adrenal glands a legitimate approach when pursuing health, or a crude explanation for a much more complicated issue? Well yes and yes. The adrenal glands are small, triangular shaped glands that sit atop your kidneys, hence their other name suprarenal glands (from the Latin supra, or above). The adrenal glands regulate our bodys response to stress in a number of ways. There are two main sections of the adrenal glands: the outer adrenal cortex and the inner adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex is further divided into three layers. Zona glomerulosa the site of mineralcorticoid production (i.e. aldosterone), which helps to regulate sodium/potassium balance in the body Zona fasciculata the site of glucocorticoid production (i.e. cortisol), which helps regulate blood sugar balance Zona reticularis the site of sex hormone production (i.e. DHEA, androstenedione) (In medical school, one way we learned to remember these three layers is: Salt, sugar, sex the deeper it goes, the sweeter it gets. Not im Continue reading >>

Adrenal Tumors

Adrenal Tumors

Alternative names: Adrenocortical Carcinoma, Adrenal Adenoma, Pheochromocytoma What are adrenal tumors? What are the signs of adrenal tumors? What causes adrenal tumors? How does my doctor tell if I have adrenal tumors? How are adrenal tumors treated? What are adrenal tumors? The adrenal glands are located on the top of your kidneys, and produce adrenaline, cortisol, aldosterone, and other steroid hormones that enable the body to respond to stress. Adrenal tumors are abnormal growths on the adrenal glands. Most are benign (non-cancerous), and are called adenomas. Malignant adrenal growths (cancers) are rare. What are the signs of adrenal tumors? Most people with adrenal adenomas have no symptoms, and discover these growths only during a CT scan or MRI done for other reasons. Nonfunctioning adenomas don't affect the production of steroid hormones. Adrenal adenomas that increase hormone production are called functioning tumors. These tumors can create different symptoms: An aldosterone tumor makes excess aldosterone, and causes Conn's syndrome. Symptoms of this syndrome include high blood pressure and low potassium levels. An adrenal tumor making excess cortisol causes Cushing's syndrome. Symptoms of this syndrome include high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. A virilizing adrenal tumor creates excessive androgens, and can cause hair growth, increased muscle mass, acne, and abnormal menstrual periods in women A feminizing adrenal tumor makes extra estrogens, and can create breast growth and impotence in men An adrenal tumor that creates extra adrenaline is a pheochromocytoma. This kind of tumor is located in the inner part of the adrenal gland. It can cause high blood pressure, headaches, panic attacks, and heart palpitations. Cancer of the adrenal glands can cause t Continue reading >>

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