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What Is A Normal A1c Level Non Diabetic Child

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Doctors at Hassenfeld Children’s Hospital at NYU Langone have extensive experience diagnosing type 2 diabetes in children. This chronic condition is characterized by excess blood sugar. After you eat, the body breaks down sugars and starches into glucose, the main source of energy for cells. When glucose enters the bloodstream, the pancreas releases a hormone called insulin, which signals the liver, muscles, and fat cells to remove the glucose from the blood and store it until the body needs energy. If the body becomes less responsive to the effects of insulin—a condition known as insulin resistance—the pancreas compensates and produces more insulin. With insulin resistance, the body has difficulty absorbing sugar from the bloodstream, leading to an increase in blood sugar levels, a condition known as prediabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body stops responding to the insulin signal and the pancreas can no longer make enough insulin to compensate for rising blood sugar levels. Causes and Risk Factors Once referred to as adult-onset diabetes, type 2 diabetes has become increasingly common during childhood and adolescence. This trend appears to be linked to an increase in obesity and sedentary habits among children and teens. Although the exact cause of insulin resistance is not completely understood, evidence suggests that being overweight plays an important role. This is because fat cells—especially those found in the abdomen—produce hormones and other substances that increase inflammation in the body, which can lead to insulin resistance. Being inactive, which can contribute to weight gain and lower muscle mass, may be another cause of insulin resistance. Girls with a hormone condition called polycystic ovary syndrome—which can cause facial hair and t Continue reading >>

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

Understanding blood sugar target ranges to better manage your diabetes As a person with diabetes, you may or may not know what your target ranges should be for your blood sugars first thing in the morning, before meals, after meals, or at bedtime. You may or may not understand what blood sugar ranges are for people without diabetes. You may or may not understand how your A1C correlates with your target ranges. How do you get a clear picture of what is going on with your blood sugar, and how it could be affecting your health? In this article, we will look at what recommended blood sugar target ranges are for people without diabetes. We will look at target ranges for different times of the day for people with diabetes. We will look at target ranges for Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes. Is there a difference? We will also look at what blood sugars should be during pregnancy for those with gestational diabetes. We will look at other factors when determining blood sugar targets, such as: Age Other health conditions How long you’ve had diabetes for Stress Illness Lifestyle habits and activity levels We will see how these factors impact target ranges for your blood sugars when you have diabetes. We will learn that target ranges can be individualized based on the factors above. We will learn how target ranges help to predict the A1C levels. We will see how if you are in your target range, you can be pretty sure that your A1C will also be in target. We will see how you can document your blood sugar patterns in a notebook or in an “app,” and manage your blood sugars to get them in your target ranges. First, let’s look at the units by which blood sugars are measured… How is blood sugar measured? In the United States, blood sugar is measured in milligrams per deciliter (by w Continue reading >>

Understanding Your A1c

Understanding Your A1c

The A1C is a blood test that helps determine if your diabetes management plan is working well. (Both Type 1 and Type 2 take this test.) It’s done every 2-3 months to find out what your average blood sugar has been. (You may also hear this test called glycosylated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c, and HbA1c.) A1c is the most common name for it though. How the test works Essentially, the test can tell how much sugar is in the blood stream by looking for proteins (hemoglobins). When glucose (sugar) enters the blood, it binds to the protein in the red blood cells. This binding creates “glycated hemoglobin”. The more sugar in the blood, the more glycated hemoglobin. It’s important to test your blood sugar levels (BGLs) throughout the day; however, an A1C test gives you a bigger picture with a long-term average of those blood sugar levels. What do these numbers mean? The A1c is an average of what your blood sugar levels have been over the 3-month period. In general, the higher your A1C number, the higher your likelihood of diabetes complications. (You don’t want a high A1C; it means there is too much sugar in your blood and your body isn’t absorbing it.) A1C number 4.6 – 6.0 Normal (does not have diabetes) 5.7 – 6.4 Pre-diabetes (warning that someone may develop Type 2 or have the beginning onset of Type 1) 6.7+ Diabetes (someone diagnosed with diabetes) <7.0 – 7.5 Target range (for adults diagnosed with diabetes – children diagnosed with diabetes) This target range varies between individuals, some people naturally run a little higher, some lower. It is important to note that especially in children a higher A1C (of 7.5) is recommended. The A1C number will help you and your doctor determine though if your diabetes management plan is working well. Continue reading >>

Utility Of Hemoglobin A1c For Diagnosing Prediabetes And Diabetes In Obese Children And Adolescents

Utility Of Hemoglobin A1c For Diagnosing Prediabetes And Diabetes In Obese Children And Adolescents

Utility of Hemoglobin A1c for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes in Obese Children and Adolescents 1Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 2Division of Pediatrics, Department for Clinical Science Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden 3Childhood Obesity Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Skne University Hospital, Malm, Sweden 1Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 4Yale Center for Clinical Investigation of Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 1Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 2Division of Pediatrics, Department for Clinical Science Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden 3Childhood Obesity Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Skne University Hospital, Malm, Sweden 4Yale Center for Clinical Investigation of Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut Corresponding author: Sonia Caprio, [email protected] . Received 2010 Oct 19; Accepted 2011 Mar 26. Copyright 2011 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) has emerged as a recommended diagnostic tool for identifying diabetes and subjects at risk for the disease. This recommendation is based on data in adults showing the relationship between A1C with future development of diabetes and microvascular complications. However, studies in the pediatric population are lacking. We studied a multiethnic cohort of 1,156 obese children and adolescents without a diagnosis of Continue reading >>

What Are The Normal A1c Levels For Children?

What Are The Normal A1c Levels For Children?

The A1c blood test is one of the laboratory tests used to diagnose diabetes and an important measure of average blood sugar levels in someone who has diabetes. This test determines the amount of glucose or sugar that has attached to the blood's hemoglobin -- the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells -- during the 3-month lifespan of these cells. Target A1c levels have been established to help healthcare providers, as well as children with diabetes and their families, understand the blood sugar goals needed to reduce the risk of the long-term complications of diabetes. While there are some situations where the A1c result may not be reliable, as a rule this test is accurate and an essential part of a child's diabetes management program. Video of the Day Normal A1c Levels Diagnostic criteria for children is similar to the guidelines used in adults, and the A1c is one of the tests used to diagnose diabetes. A1c levels are reported as a percentage, and often the estimated average glucose (eAG) -- a number calculated from the A1c reading -- is also included with the results. Using the same units as a blood glucose meter, the eAG makes understanding the A1c result a bit easier by comparing the A1c to average blood sugar levels. A normal, nondiabetic A1c level is below 5.7 percent, which reflects an eAG below 117 mg/dL. The level used to diagnose diabetes is 6.5 percent and above, which reflects an eAG of 140 mg/dL or higher. A1c levels above normal but below the diabetes range fit into a prediabetes range. Target A1c Levels Along with its role in diagnosing diabetes, the A1c test is performed between 2 and 4 times per year to estimate average blood sugar levels over the previous 3 months. This test is used to monitor the effectiveness of diabetes treatment and to determin Continue reading >>

Distribution Of Hba1c Levels For Children And Young Adults In The U.s.

Distribution Of Hba1c Levels For Children And Young Adults In The U.s.

Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Abstract OBJECTIVE—To describe the distribution of HbA1c levels among children and young adults in the U.S. and to evaluate the effects of age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parental history of diabetes, overweight, and serum glucose on HbA1c levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We analyzed HbA1c data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994, for 7,968 participants aged 5–24 years who had not been treated for diabetes. After adjusting for the complex sample design, we compared the distributions of HbA1c in subgroups and developed multiple linear regression models to examine factors associated with HbA1c. RESULTS—Mean HbA1c level was 4.99% (SD 0.50%) and varied from 4.93% (95% CI ±0.04) in non-Hispanic whites to 5.05% (±0.02) in Mexican-Americans to 5.17% (±0.02) in non-Hispanic blacks. There were very small differences among subgroups. Within each age- group, among men and women, among overweight and nonoverweight subjects, and at any level of education, mean HbA1c levels were higher in non-Hispanic blacks than in non-Hispanic whites. After adjusting for confounders, HbA1c levels for non-Hispanic blacks (5.15%, 95% CI ±0.04) and Mexican-Americans (5.01%, ±0.04) were higher than those for non-Hispanic whites (4.93%, ±0.04). CONCLUSIONS—These data provide national reference levels for HbA1c distributions among Americans aged 5–24 years and show statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in HbA1c levels that are not completely explained by demographic and health-related variables. Concentration of HbA1c is an indicator of average blood glucose concentration over the preceding 2–3 months. HbA1c is currently considered the best index of metaboli Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c definition and facts Hemoglobin A1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells that sugar molecules stick to, usually for the life of the red blood cell (about three months). The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the higher the level of hemoglobin A1c is detectable on red blood cells. Hemoglobin A1c levels correlate with average levels of glucose in the blood over an approximately three-month time period. Normal ranges for hemoglobin A1c in people without diabetes is about 4% to 5.9%. People with diabetes with poor glucose control have hemoglobin A1c levels above 7%. Hemoglobin A1c levels are routinely used to determine blood sugar control over time in people with diabetes. Decreasing hemoglobin A1c levels by 1% may decrease the risk of microvascular complications (for example, diabetic eye, nerve, or kidney disease) by 10%. Hemoglobin A1c levels should be checked, according to the American Diabetic Association, every six months in individuals with stable blood sugar control, and every three months if the person is trying to establish stable blood sugar control. Hemoglobin A1c has many other names such as glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HbA1c. To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks to things, and when it has been stuck to something for a long time it's harder to the get sugar (glucose) off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die. When sugar (glucose) sticks to these red blood cells by binding to hemoglobin A1c, it gives us an idea of how much glucose has been around in the blood for the preceding three months. Hemoglobin A1c is a minor component of hemoglobin to which gl Continue reading >>

A1c Not Accurate For Children! Thanks Ada 2

A1c Not Accurate For Children! Thanks Ada 2

Do you have a child that has diabetes symptoms? Have they had high blood sugars (hyperglycemia)? … but were tested for diabetes using an Hemoglobin A1c test? If so, I would urge you to read this post and consider other options, an article below states the tests are inaccurate for children. I’ll also discuss an article that suggests A1cs are inaccurate for many. The Study From the study’s author… Wow!!! … Really??? … if it’s not reliable for children … who would promote it’s usage?? … ‘In 2009, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended that Hemoglobin A1c be exclusively used for the diagnosis of diabetes in children.’ “In fact, it failed to diagnose two out of three children participating in the study who truly did have diabetes.” It failed to diagnose … two out of three … who HAD DIABETES???? Are YOU kidding me? … that means there are kids right now, walking around with diabetes …and they think they are safe. When I read the statements above … I knew I was going to go on the mountain top (my blog) and scream this as loud as I could … for two reasons… 1) To possibly help save some children from the damaging affects of high blood sugars. 2) To point out that the American Diabetes Association … or as I call them American Diabetes Ass…. is NOT infallible. They are not ‘gods’ when it comes to diabetes care. In fact they are VERY fallible and are in fact biased by their large corporate donors. Click here for a listing of past donors… What other possible explanation could there be for pushing a grain based, high carb meal plan to diabetics? Back to the Study So if the A1c is too inaccurate… what should parents do? The study suggests the Glucose Challenge Test is more accurate. What does that test involve? Essentia Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Print Diagnosis There are several blood tests for type 1 diabetes in children: Random blood sugar test. This is the primary screening test for type 1 diabetes. A blood sample is taken at a random time. Regardless of when your child last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L), or higher suggests diabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This test indicates your child's average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample is taken after your child fasts overnight. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 1 diabetes. Additional tests Your doctor will likely recommend additional tests to confirm the type of diabetes that your child has. It's important to distinguish between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes because treatment strategies differ. These additional tests include: Blood tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes Urine tests to check for the presence of ketones, which also suggests type 1 diabetes rather than type 2 After the diagnosis Your child will need regular follow-up appointments to ensure good diabetes management and to check his or her A1C levels. The American Diabetes Association recommends an A1C of 7.5 or lower for all children. Your doctor also will periodically use blood and urine tests to check your child's: Cholesterol levels Thyroid function Kidney function In addition, your doctor will regularly: Assess your child's blood pressure and growth Check the sites Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Levels In Children And Adolescents With Diabetes Mellitus.

Hemoglobin A1c Levels In Children And Adolescents With Diabetes Mellitus.

Abstract Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was measured as an indicator of glucose control in 180 children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus who received two daily injections of insulin as part of a highly structured treatment program. A total of 426 HbA1c determinations was made in the group of 180 patients. HbA1c values were elevated in most patients despite the aggressive treatment. The HbA1c level was very elevated at diagnosis, fell to near normal after 60-90 days of insulin therapy, increased gradually, and reached a plateau after approximately 4 yr duration (at about twice the level in normal subjects) (mean +/- SEM, 10.0 +/- 0.2% and 5.34 +/- 0.07%, respectively). Mean insulin dose (U/kg/24 h) paralleled both HbA1c and duration of diabetes. The relationship between endogenous insulin secretion and glucose control was examined in those patients with diabetes for longer than 5 yr. Patients were separated into three groups based on HbA1c levels: those with HbA1c less than 9% (N = 22), between 9 and 11% (N = 26), and greater than 11% (N = 28). Serum C-peptide and glucose concentrations were measured 2 h after a standard breakfast in those patients in the "low" and "high" HbA1c groups (mean HbA1c values 8.2% and 12.7%, respectively). C-peptide was detectable in all patients and the mean C-peptide levels did not differ significantly in the two groups, although postprandial glucose concentrations were significantly lower in the "low" HbA1c group (means +/- SEM, 96 +/- 11 and 211 +/- 21 mg/dl, respectively; P less than 0.001). Continue reading >>

A1c Of 5.8 Percent In Children A Better Diagnostic Target To Diagnose Diabetes

A1c Of 5.8 Percent In Children A Better Diagnostic Target To Diagnose Diabetes

Utility of A1c of 6.5% for diagnosing pre–diabetes and diabetes in obese, questioned.… Hemoglobin A1c has emerged as a recommended diagnostic tool for identifying diabetes and subjects at risk for the disease. This recommendation is based on data in adults showing the relationship between A1c with future development of diabetes and microvascular complications. However, studies in the pediatric population are lacking. Researchers studied a multiethnic cohort of 1,156 obese children and adolescents without a diagnosis of diabetes (male, 40%/female, 60%). All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and A1c measurement. These tests were repeated after a follow-up time of 2 years in 218 subjects. At baseline, subjects were stratfied according to A1c categories: 77% with normal glucose tolerance (A1c ,5.7%), 21% at risk for diabetes (A1c 5.7–6.4%), and 1% with diabetes (A1c .6.5%). In the at-risk-for-diabetes category, 47% were classfied with pre-diabetes or diabetes, and in the diabetes category, 62% were classified with Type 2 diabetes by the OGTT. The area under the curve receiver operating characteristic for A1c was 0.81 (95% CI 0.70-0.92). The threshold for identifying Type 2 diabetes was 5.8%, with 78% specificity and 68% sensitivity. In the subgroup with repeated measures, a multivariate analysis showed that the strongest predictors of 2-h glucose at follow-up were baseline A1c and 2-h glucose, independently of age, ethnicity, sex, fasting glucose, and follow-up time. In a large clinic based multiethnic cohort of obese children and adolescents, regardless of age and sex, an A1c of 6.5% had relatively low sensitivity and specificity for classifying Type 2 diabetes. There was poor agreement between A1c and OGTT criteria in classifying subjects with Continue reading >>

What Is A Normal A1c For Type 2 Children?

What Is A Normal A1c For Type 2 Children?

According to the ADA and AACE, a normal A1c result is from 4-6%. Yet we know the closer you get to 6% means your average blood glucose is getting higher and increases your risk for pre-diabetes and diabetes. We should be more aggressive especially with children who are at risk for diabetes; if not they may not live as long as their parents. So a study was done with 400 healthy, non-diabetic children to measure their A1c result. The object was to establish the normal distribution for glycohemoglobin (A1c) in sixth and seventh grade children and to assess the practicality of a school-based fingerstick screening program. Fingerstick capillary whole blood was collected from 400 children aged 11 to 13 years and the percent A1c was determined on-site. The results showed that, among the boys, the A1c was significantly higher among the minorities (4.88±0.37%, mean±S.D.) than among the non-hispanic whites (4.73±0.41%, P<0.01), but was similar in the two groups of girls (4.74±0.41 and 4.75±0.34, respectively, P=0.88). None of the students had abnormal glucose tolerance by the standards published for adults. From the results it was concluded that s: A1c in boys was higher among minorities than among the non-hispanic whites, even at this young age of 11–13 years. This may be an early sign of predisposition to Type 2 diabetes among the groups known to be at higher risk for Type 2 diabetes. However, this difference was not seen among girls. Reasons for the discrepancy between boys and girls is unexplained. A school-based fingerstick screening program proved to be practical. As the risk of obesity-related diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus, increases among youth, the classroom may become an important location for screening. .============================== Continue reading >>

Hba1c In Nondiabetic Dutch Infants Aged 812 Months

Hba1c In Nondiabetic Dutch Infants Aged 812 Months

HbA1c in Nondiabetic Dutch Infants Aged 812 Months We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. HbA1c in Nondiabetic Dutch Infants Aged 812 Months Hanneke Jansen, MD, Haika G. Huiting, MD, [...], and Ronald P. Stolk, MD, PHD An international committee of experts recommended using HbA1c for diagnostic testing for diabetes. Little is known about normal values of HbA1c in infants. The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of HbA1c in 8- to 12-month-old nondiabetic infants. HbA1c was measured in 86 infants participating in the Groningen Expert Center for Kids with Obesity (GECKO)-Drenthe birth cohort study. Anthropometric measurements were performed at Well Baby Clinics. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively using questionnaires. HbA1c was normally distributed with a mean (SD) HbA1c level of 5.38% (0.24), range 4.86.0% or 35.29 mmol/mol (2.65), range 29.142.1 mmol/mol. Age, sex, birth weight, duration of breastfeeding, anthropometric measurements, and maternal BMI were not associated with HbA1c. We found a normal distribution of HbA1c with a relatively high mean HbA1c of 5.38%. No significant association between risk factors for type 2 diabetes and HbA1c levels was found. An international committee of experts recommended using HbA1c as an indicator for diagnosing diabetes, and, with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes rising, an increase in use of HbA1c can be expected ( 1 ). Accordingly, reference l Continue reading >>

5.7 Fasting A1c In A 3 Year Old

5.7 Fasting A1c In A 3 Year Old

Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please,join our community todayto contribute and support the site. This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies. HI All! My name is Crys(sounds like Chris), and want to give a little back story on my son Levi. He's 3 1/2 and has a fraternal twin brother Cooper. =) When he was 3 months old he had 1/4 of his intestines removed due to a condition called Meckel's Diverticulum-a pouch on his intestine that got stuck to his belly button and it obstructed food/blood to go through. We eneded up having emergency surgery to have it removed. Well that resulted in him having short gut syndrome. So he has chronic diarrhea because of that. Well lately he has been going more frequently and is begging for something to drink. I'll give him an 8 oz cup of watered down juice, and then he ask for me, I give him another 8 oz of water, and then wants more right away. So this in turn is making him go to the bathroom more, and him getting up in the middle of the night. Well we were at a sick visit a little over a month ago and I asked the Pediatrician what she thought it could be, well she said to ask the GI doc since we were going to see him at the beginning of October. She wasn't sure if it was due to the short gut or not. So we had our appointment on October 1st and he wanted to check his A1C levels to make sure everything was okay, so we took them and got a phone call back to say they were high( I unfortunately don't have the number for that) and we needed to do a fasting draw in a couple weeks. So we had our fasting draw on Saturday the 25th, and got a call back from the GI doc saying that his tests were still high, and we needed to call the Pediatrician and get something set up with an Endocrinologist, it said it was 5.7 Continue reading >>

The Normal A1c Level

The Normal A1c Level

You want to control your diabetes as much as possible. You wouldn’t be reading this if you didn’t. So you regularly check your A1C level. This is the best measurement of our blood glucose control that we have now. It tells us what percentage of our hemoglobin – the protein in our red blood cells that carry oxygen – has glucose sticking to it. The less glucose that remains in our bloodstream rather than going to work in the cells that need it the better we feel now and the better our health will continue to be. Less glucose in the bloodstream over time leads to lower A1C values. As we are able to control our diabetes better and better, the reasonable goal is to bring our A1C levels down to normal – the A1C level that people who don’t have diabetes have. But before we can even set that goal, we have to know what the target is. The trouble with setting that target is that different experts tell us that quite different A1C levels are “normal.” They tell us that different levels are normal – but I have never heard of actual studies of normal A1C levels among people without diabetes – until now. The major laboratories that test our levels often say that the normal range is 4.0 to 6.0. They base that range on an old standard chemistry text, Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial or DCCT, one of the two largest and most important studies of people with diabetes, said that 6.0 was a normal level. But the other key study, the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study or UKPDS, which compared conventional and intensive therapy in more than 5,000 newly diagnosed people with type 2 diabetes, said that 6.2 is the normal level. Those levels, while unsubstantiated, are close. But then comes along one of my heroes, Dr. Continue reading >>

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