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What Is A Diabetes Screening Test?

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy and usually disappears after giving birth. It can occur at any stage of pregnancy, but is more common in the second half. It occurs if your body cannot produce enough insulin – a hormone that helps control blood sugar levels – to meet the extra needs in pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can cause problems for you and your baby during and after birth. But the risk of these problems happening can be reduced if it's detected and well managed. Who's at risk of gestational diabetes Any woman can develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy, but you're at an increased risk if: your body mass index (BMI) is above 30 – use the healthy weight calculator to work out your BMI you previously had a baby who weighed 4.5kg (10lbs) or more at birth you had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy one of your parents or siblings has diabetes your family origins are south Asian, Chinese, African-Caribbean or Middle Eastern If any of these apply to you, you should be offered screening for gestational diabetes during your pregnancy. Symptoms of gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes doesn't usually cause any symptoms. Most cases are only picked up when your blood sugar level is tested during screening for gestational diabetes. Some women may develop symptoms if their blood sugar level gets too high (hyperglycaemia), such as: But some of these symptoms are common during pregnancy anyway and aren't necessarily a sign of a problem. Speak to your midwife or doctor if you're worried about any symptoms you're experiencing. How gestational diabetes can affect your pregnancy Most women with gestational diabetes have otherwise normal pregnancies with healthy babies. However, gestational diabetes can cause problems s Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes generally results in few symptoms;[2] however, it does increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, depression, and requiring a Caesarean section.[2] Babies born to mothers with poorly treated gestational diabetes are at increased risk of being too large, having low blood sugar after birth, and jaundice.[2] If untreated, it can also result in a stillbirth.[2] Long term, children are at higher risk of being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes.[2] Gestational diabetes is caused by not enough insulin in the setting of insulin resistance.[2] Risk factors include being overweight, previously having gestational diabetes, a family history of type 2 diabetes, and having polycystic ovarian syndrome.[2] Diagnosis is by blood tests.[2] For those at normal risk screening is recommended between 24 and 28 weeks gestation.[2][3] For those at high risk testing may occur at the first prenatal visit.[2] Prevention is by maintaining a healthy weight and exercising before pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes is a treated with a diabetic diet, exercise, and possibly insulin injections.[2] Most women are able to manage their blood sugar with a diet and exercise.[3] Blood sugar testing among those who are affected is often recommended four times a day.[3] Breastfeeding is recommended as soon as possible after birth.[2] Gestational diabetes affects 3–9% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied.[3] It is especially common during the last three months of pregnancy.[2] It affects 1% of those under the age of 20 and 13% of those over the age of 44.[3] A number of ethnic groups including Asians, American Indians, Indigenous Australians, and Pacific Continue reading >>

Screening Tests For Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review For The U.s. Preventive Services Task Force Free

Screening Tests For Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review For The U.s. Preventive Services Task Force Free

Abstract Background: A 50-g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) is a widely accepted screening method for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but other options are being considered. Purpose: To systematically review the test characteristics of various screening methods for GDM across a range of recommended diagnostic glucose thresholds. Data Sources: 15 electronic databases from 1995 to May 2012, reference lists, Web sites of relevant organizations, and gray literature. Study Selection: Two reviewers independently identified English-language prospective studies that compared any screening test for GDM with any reference standard. Data Extraction: One reviewer extracted and a second reviewer verified data from 51 cohort studies. Two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality. Data Synthesis: The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for the OGCT at a threshold of 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) were 70% to 88%, 69% to 89%, 2.6 to 6.5, and 0.16 to 0.33, respectively. At a threshold of 7.2 mmol/L (130 mg/dL), the test characteristics were 88% to 99%, 66% to 77%, 2.7 to 4.2, and 0.02 to 0.14, respectively. For a fasting plasma glucose threshold of 4.7 mmol/L (85 mg/dL), they were 87%, 52%, 1.8, and 0.25, respectively. Glycated hemoglobin level had poorer test characteristics than fasting plasma glucose level or the OGCT. No studies compared the OGCT with International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) diagnostic criteria. Limitations: The lack of a gold standard for confirming GDM limits comparisons. Few data exist for screening tests before 24 weeks’ gestation. Conclusion: A 50-g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) is the most widely accepted screening method for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in North Continue reading >>

Screening For Diabetes

Screening For Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form of the disease, is often asymptomatic in its early stages and can remain undiagnosed for many years. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term dysfunction, damage, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Individuals with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes are also at significantly higher risk for stroke, coronary heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease than the nondiabetic population. They also have a greater likelihood of having dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Because early detection and prompt treatment may reduce the burden of diabetes and its complications, screening for diabetes may be appropriate under certain circumstances. This position statement provides recommendations for diabetes screenings performed in physicians’ offices and in other health care settings. This position statement does not address screening for type 1 diabetes or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Because of the acute onset of symptoms, most cases of type 1 diabetes are detected soon after symptoms develop. Widespread clinical testing of asymptomatic individuals for the presence of autoantibodies related to type 1 diabetes cannot be recommended at this time as a means to identify persons at risk. Reasons for this include the following: 1) cutoff values for some of the immune marker assays have not been completely established in clinical settings; 2) there is no consensus as to what action should be taken when a positive autoantibody test result is obtained; and 3) because the incidence of type 1 diabetes is low Continue reading >>

Guidelines For Diabetes Screening

Guidelines For Diabetes Screening

It is estimated that one-third of people with diabetes are unaware of their condition. "Sometimes there can be virtually no symptoms, and patients can have diabetes and not know it," says Jay Cohen, MD, adult and pediatric endocrinologist and clinical assistant professor of the department of family medicine and the department of pharmacology at the University of Tennessee. If you have diabetes, screening for early diagnosis is essential. "The earlier that you diagnose diabetes, the better chance you can decrease the risk of developing diabetes complications, treating it appropriately, and helping [the person] stay healthy," says Dr. Cohen. This is why diabetes screening is so important, but who should get screened and how often is diabetes screening recommended? Diabetes Screening Recommendations Most diabetes screening recommendations focus on type 2 diabetes, since symptoms of type 1 diabetes often develop suddenly and the disease is usually diagnosed soon after symptoms appear. People with type 2 diabetes can go undiagnosed for three to four years or more, says Cohen, making screening an important tool for catching it. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults age 45 and older get screened for type 2 diabetes every three years by their health care provider. You may need earlier or more frequent diabetes screening if you are overweight and have one or more of the following risk factors: Family history of diabetes (a parent or sibling with the disease) Sedentary lifestyle African-American, Hispanic-American, Native-American, Asian-American, or Pacific Islander ancestry History of blood glucose problems History of gestational diabetes or a baby weighing over nine pounds High blood pressure Cholesterol problems Polycystic ovary syndrome History of va Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often appear suddenly and are often the reason for checking blood sugar levels. Because symptoms of other types of diabetes and prediabetes come on more gradually or may not be evident, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended screening guidelines. The ADA recommends that the following people be screened for diabetes: Anyone with a body mass index higher than 25, regardless of age, who has additional risk factors, such as high blood pressure, a sedentary lifestyle, a history of polycystic ovary syndrome, having delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds, a history of diabetes in pregnancy, high cholesterol levels, a history of heart disease, and having a close relative with diabetes. Anyone older than age 45 is advised to receive an initial blood sugar screening, and then, if the results are normal, to be screened every three years thereafter. Tests for type 1 and type 2 diabetes and prediabetes Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 percent indicates prediabetes. Below 5.7 is considered normal. If the A1C test results aren't consistent, the test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar Continue reading >>

Screening For Type 2 Diabetes

Screening For Type 2 Diabetes

CLINICAL DIABETES VOL. 18 NO. 2 Spring 2000 POSITION STATEMENT AMERICAN DIABETES ASSOCIATION Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form of the disease, is often asymptomatic in its early stages and can remain undiagnosed for many years. Approximately 5.4 million adults in the U.S. have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Individuals with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes are at significantly higher risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease than the nondiabetic population. They also have a greater likelihood of having dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Because early detection and prompt treatment may reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes and its complications, screening for diabetes may be appropriate under certain circumstances. This position statement provides recommendations for diabetes screenings performed in physicians' offices and community screening programs. This position statement does not address screening for type 1 diabetes or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Because of the acute onset of symptoms, most cases of type 1 diabetes are detected soon after symptoms develop. Widespread clinical testing of asymptomatic individuals for the presence of autoantibodies related to type 1 diabetes cannot be recommended at this time as the means to identify persons at risk. Reasons for this include the following: 1) cutoff values for some of the immune marker assays have not been completely established for clinical set Continue reading >>

Screening For Type 2 Diabetes

Screening For Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin (the hormone that converts food into energy). There are several types of diabetes, the most common of which is type 2. In fact, about 95% of people with diabetes have type 2. Diabetes is a chronic disease that has no cure and can cause many serious complications such as eye disease, kidney failure, and nerve damage that can lead to amputation. Having diabetes significantly increases your risk of stroke and heart disease. Blood Glucose screening for Type 2 Diabetes A quick and easy finger-stick screening that measures blood sugar levels following eight hours of fasting, our Blood Glucose test helps identify diabetes —a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke — as well as monitor blood sugar levels for those already diagnosed with the disease. Who should have a Blood Glucose screening? Anyone who has risk factors for diabetes People aged 45 and over Adults with high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels How often should I get a Blood Glucose screening? People aged 45 and over should get screened every three years *Recommended guidelines only. Consult with your physician. How do I prepare for a Blood Glucose screening? You must fast (no food or drink, other than water) for 12 hours before your glucose screening. Warning signs Most people with type 2 diabetes live with it for years without realizing that they have it. Many learn they have diabetes only after it causes one of its complications, such as heart disease, stroke, eye damage, nerve damage, and kidney disease. However, these are symptoms some people experience: Frequent urination Unusual thirst Extreme hunger Unusual weight loss Extreme fatigue Irritability Frequent infections Blurred vision Cuts or bruises that are slo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests

Diabetes Tests

Tweet Diabetes screening tests are a good preventative method for catching the development of diabetes at an early stage. Diabetes screening tests are becoming more commonly used, in the UK, as diabetes prevalence continues to grow. What should a diabetes screening test be used for? A results from a diabetes screening test can be used to seek further medical advice from a doctor or medical professional. The screening test is not intended as a diagnosis, and diabetes screening test are not always accurate. If, at any stage of the test, you are nervous or unsure, contact your doctor for further advice. Find out more about prediabetes tests What tests currently exist for diagnosing diabetes? The following tests are currently used to diagnose or distinguish between certain types of diabetes: Should I be screened for diabetes? If you are aged between 40 and 74, you are eligible to receive an NHS Health Check, which checks for the presence or risk of type 2 diabetes and other common long term health conditions. A screening test is advisable if you have any of the symptoms of diabetes, such as frequently needing to urinate, increased thirst or persistent lethargy. Diabetes screening tests are also advisable for people with a number of risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as being overweight or obese, having a close family member with type 2 diabetes or being of African-Caribbean, Middle Eastern or South Asian origin. Screening for gestational diabetes should either occur between weeks 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy or, if you have had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy, between 16 and 18 weeks and, if negative, followed by a second test at 28 weeks. NHS Health check If you are between 40 and 74 years old, the NHS Health Check is a great way to assess your risk for a n Continue reading >>

Prediabetes Screening: How And Why

Prediabetes Screening: How And Why

Screening involves the testing of asymptomatic, high-risk individuals to assess whether they meet the criteria for either prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Screening recommendations have been made by different groups, including the American Diabetes Association and the United States Preventive Services Task Force . Although these recommendations sometimes advise screening for slightly different groups of individuals, all of them advise the use of one or more blood tests to determine the degree of blood glucose elevation. Screening for prediabetes and diabetes is more frequently done in health care settings than community settings. The process used to target and test patients may include a team approach, employing various health care professionals such as medical assistants, nurses, physicians, diabetes educators, or others. Electronic health records can alert health care team members about patients who should be targeted for diabetes screening, either during or between visits to the clinic. Health care providers in a variety of practice settings can consider use of standard ordering protocols for glucose testing, which may be approved by physicians up front but carried out by other team members when at-risk patients are identified. In addition, provider teams can look for opportunities to screen for prediabetes while managing a patients other conditions. For example, when screening for hyperlipidemia, a fasting glucose may easily be added to a standard fasting lipid test panel. Continue reading >>

Screening Tests For Adults (ages 30-49)

Screening Tests For Adults (ages 30-49)

Screening tests are laboratory tests that help to identify people with increased risk for a condition or disease before they have symptoms or even realize they may be at risk so that preventive measures can be taken. They are an important part of preventive health care. Screening tests help detect disease in its earliest and most treatable stages. Therefore, they are most valuable when they are used to screen for diseases that are both serious and treatable, so that there is a benefit to detecting the disease before symptoms begin. They should be sensitive - that is, able to correctly identify those individuals who have a given disease. Many routine tests performed at regular health exams are screening tests. Cholesterol testing and Pap smears for women are examples. Newborns are screened for a variety of conditions at birth. A positive screening test often requires further testing with a more specific test. This is important in order to correctly exclude those individuals who do not have the given disease or to confirm a diagnosis. A diagnostic test may be used for screening purposes, but a diagnostic test is generally used to confirm a diagnosis in someone who has signs, symptoms, or other evidence of a particular disease. Screening tests are an important part of your preventive health care. For people between the ages of 30 and 49, these tests are used for early detection of some of the more common and potentially deadly diseasessuch as cancers , diabetes , and heart disease that begin to affect people in their middle years. These tests can help catch certain illnesses and conditions in their earliest and most curable stages, even before you notice symptoms. With information from screening tests, your healthcare provider can work with you to develop preventive measu Continue reading >>

Are People With Negative Diabetes Screening Tests Falsely Reassured? Parallel Group Cohort Study Embedded In The Addition (cambridge) Randomised Controlled Trial

Are People With Negative Diabetes Screening Tests Falsely Reassured? Parallel Group Cohort Study Embedded In The Addition (cambridge) Randomised Controlled Trial

Are people with negative diabetes screening tests falsely reassured? Parallel group cohort study embedded in the ADDITION (Cambridge) randomised controlled trial Are people with negative diabetes screening tests falsely reassured? Parallel group cohort study embedded in the ADDITION (Cambridge) randomised controlled trial BMJ 2009; 339 doi: (Published 30 November 2009) Cite this as: BMJ 2009;339:b4535 Charlotte A M Paddison, ESRC postdoctoral research fellow 1 , Helen C Eborall, lecturer in social science applied to health 2 , Stephen Sutton, professor of behavioural science 1 , David P French, professor of health psychology 3 , Joana Vasconcelos, reader in medical statistics 1 , A Toby Prevost, senior medical statistician 4 , Ann-Louise Kinmonth, professor of general practice 1 , Simon J Griffin, assistant unit director 5 1General Practice and Primary Care Research Unit, University of Cambridge, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge CB2 0SR 2Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH 3Applied Research Centre in Health and Lifestyle Interventions, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB 4Department of Public Health Sciences, Kings College London, London SE1 3QD 5MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ Correspondence to: C Paddison camp3{at}medschl.cam.ac.uk Objective To assess whether receiving a negative test result at primary care based stepwise diabetes screening results in false reassurance. Design Parallel group cohort study embedded in a randomised controlled trial. Setting 15 practices (10 screening, 5 control) in the ADDITION (Cambridge) trial. Participants 5334 adults (aged 40-69) in the top quarter for risk of having undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (964 controls and 4370 screenin Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Screening

Type 2 Diabetes Screening

Type 2 diabetes is a common and serious disease in the United States and worldwide. However, it’s thought that one-third of those with type 2 diabetes are unaware that they have this serious illness. Because often there are no symptoms with type 2 diabetes, early screening may help people avoid the more serious complications of this disease, including chronic hyperglycemia that’s associated with long-term damage of the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Persons with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes have a significantly higher risk for stroke, coronary heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Individuals with diabetes also have a greater likelihood of abnormal cholesterol, high blood pressure, and obesity. Who Should Be Screened for Diabetes? According to the American Diabetes Association, all patients should be screened for diabetes at three-year intervals beginning at age 45, especially people who are overweight or obese. If multiple risk factors are present, screening should be done at an earlier age and more frequently. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that adults with high blood pressure or high cholesterol be screened for type 2 diabetes (insulin-resistant diabetes) in an effort to reduce cardiovascular disease. What Are the Diabetes Risk Factors? Common risk factors for diabetes include: Family history of diabetes (parents or siblings with diabetes) Overweight (a body mass index equal to or greater than 25) Habitual physical inactivity Race/ethnicity (including African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, and Pacific Islanders) History of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) High blood pressure (equal to or greater than 140/90 in adults) Abnormal lipids: HDL cholestero Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: Screening And Diagnosis

Diabetes Mellitus: Screening And Diagnosis

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diagnoses made by family physicians. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to blindness, limb amputation, kidney failure, and vascular and heart disease. Screening patients before signs and symptoms develop leads to earlier diagnosis and treatment, but may not reduce rates of end-organ damage. Randomized trials show that screening for type 2 diabetes does not reduce mortality after 10 years, although some data suggest mortality benefits after 23 to 30 years. Lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions decrease progression to diabetes in patients with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Screening for type 1 diabetes is not recommended. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for abnormal blood glucose and type 2 diabetes in adults 40 to 70 years of age who are overweight or obese, and repeating testing every three years if results are normal. Individuals at higher risk should be considered for earlier and more frequent screening. The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for type 2 diabetes annually in patients 45 years and older, or in patients younger than 45 years with major risk factors. The diagnosis can be made with a fasting plasma glucose level of 126 mg per dL or greater; an A1C level of 6.5% or greater; a random plasma glucose level of 200 mg per dL or greater; or a 75-g two-hour oral glucose tolerance test with a plasma glucose level of 200 mg per dL or greater. Results should be confirmed with repeat testing on a subsequent day; however, a single random plasma glucose level of 200 mg per dL or greater with typical signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia likely indicates diabetes. Additional testing to determine the etiology of diabetes is not routinely recommended. Clinical r Continue reading >>

Diabetes Screening Test

Diabetes Screening Test

If you are human, leave this field blank. Diabetes is a dangerous and life-threatening disease. Are you the 1 in 4 at major risk of developing diabetes? Early identification of your risk is the first step to prevention of diabetes and/or its complications. This simple Q and A helps assess your risk for having or developing diabetes but is not intended to replace an examination by your physician! The signs and symptoms of Type 2 diabetes can be so mild that you might not even notice them. I of every 3 people with diabetes dont even know it! When symptoms do occur the type and severity vary from person to person and include: Increased Thirst and/or Increased Urination Increased Hunger (especially after eating) Numbness or Tingling in feet, hands or legs Slow healing Sores or Frequent Infections I have an inactive lifestyle exercise less than 3 times a week I have a family history of diabetes parent or sibling Minority races in the USA have a higher incidence of diabetes. Do you identify yourself as a minority? I have hypertension or high blood pressure I have abnormal cholesterol levels Low HDL, High LDL or triglycerides I have a history of cardiovascular disease I have had diabetes during pregnancy or had a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds at birth I have a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women only I have areas of darkened skin (Acanthosis Nigricans) dark velvety patches around neck or armpits On previous testing, I had prediabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Continue reading >>

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