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What Infections Cause Diabetes?

Viral Trigger For Type 1 Diabetes

Viral Trigger For Type 1 Diabetes

Go to: INSIGHT FROM EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS The influence of the environment. Type 1 diabetes is a genetic autoimmune disorder caused by autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells that recognize pancreatic antigens such as insulin or GAD and subsequently destroy insulin-producing β-cells. The subject of very active research is the question of how endogenous β-cell antigens become immunogenic. Infiltration of the islets of Langerhans, where β-cells reside, by activated autoreactive T-cells is considered to be the major driving force in type 1 diabetes progression. The islet infiltrate in humans consists primarily of CD8+ T-cells and B-cells, followed by macrophages and dendritic cells of different subtypes (1). Interestingly, significantly fewer T-cells are found in human islets compared with islets from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The reduced numbers of T-cells, and in this way a limited autoreactive component in human islets, leads one to consider whether other contributing factors may be involved in disease development. Otherwise, sufficient insulitic infiltrate to destroy islet β-cells might not be easily maintained in humans. Further supporting a role for nongenetic factors in the control of type 1 diabetes is the observation that disease concordance among monozygotic twins is below 50% (2). Migrant studies also suggest the involvement of an environmental factor in type 1 diabetes, since disease incidence in migrating populations appears to conform to the incidence of the region to which there is migration (3). There is an ever-increasing body of literature suggesting that the significant environmental component to type 1 diabetes development and progression is a viral infection. However, this has not been clearly demonstrated. In fact, viral infectio Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult onset diabetes. Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include increased urine output, excessive thirst, weight loss, hunger, fatigue, skin problems slow healing wounds, yeast infections, and tingling or numbness in the feet or toes. Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the "good" cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. If you think you may have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health-care professional. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Begins With Bacterial Infection, Suggesting Room For A Vaccine

Type 2 Diabetes Begins With Bacterial Infection, Suggesting Room For A Vaccine

Type 2 Diabetes Begins With Bacterial Infection, Suggesting Room For A Vaccine Scientists working in rabbit models have recreated the hallmark symptoms of type 2 diabetes using a common strain of bacteria found on the skins surface, a new study reports. The findings could pave the way for anti-bacterial treatments and vaccination against microbial invaders. Between 90 to 95 percent of diabetes cases are type 2 diabetes, an insulin deficiency that develops through lack of exercise and poor diet . This has led to the widespread belief that obesity poses direct risks to developing the disease; however, the new research suggests an alternate route to diagnosis, namely, the Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria living on the surface of the skin. At any given time, 30 percent of folks are colonized in the [nostrils] and other mucosal surfaces with S. aureus, with nearly all of us occasionally colonized, Dr. Patrick Schlievert, the studys senior author and professor of microbiology at the University of Iowa College of Medicine, told Medical Daily in an email. As people gain weight, their skin effectively becomes wetter due to increased sweating and greater skin folds, making an ideal home for bacteria to colonize and enter the body. We find that the colonization rate goes up to 100 percent. Schlievert and his colleagues recently wanted to learn more about what happens when staph bacteria colonies grow to extraordinary numbers. Prior studies had shown a superantigen effect. When the bacteria reach a certain threshold, they initiate a defense mechanism against the bodys immune system, targeting key cells involved with immune-related functions, called T-cells. In their latest study, the investigators exposed a group of rabbits to the staph superantigen. Once in the body, the ba Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Infections

Diabetes And Infections

For people with diabetes, high blood sugars increase the risk of infections starting and spreading more quickly. High blood sugars also slow down the healing process and make infections more resistant to treatment. The first line of defense when it comes to managing the risk for infections is to manage your blood sugar levels as close to your target range as possible because high blood sugar can slow or limit your body’s ability to fight off infection. Some of the more likely places for infections in people with diabetes include the bladder, vagina, feet, kidneys, skin and gums. The Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism published a study by scientists who explain that the greater frequency of infections in people with diabetes is caused by numerous factors such as: high blood sugar levels that weaken the immune system micro- and macro-angiopathies (blood vessel disease) neuropathy which masks pain signals of an injury decrease in antibacterial activity of urine gastrointestinal and urinary function impairment frequent medical interventions due to other health issues People with diabetes are much more likely than people without diabetes to have a bladder infection which is also known as a urinary tract infection (UTI). UTI infections may involve the ureters, urethra, kidneys or bladder and you may experience pain, tiredness, nausea and fever. If you have a UTI, it is crucial to treat the infection because if not, the bacteria may spread to your kidneys and cause a dangerous kidney infection. An American Diabetes Association (ADA) published article states that more than 50% of men and women with diabetes live with some type of bladder dysfunction which involves symptoms like “urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia, and incontinence.” Early detection and treat Continue reading >>

Infections In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Review Of Pathogenesis

Infections In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Review Of Pathogenesis

Go to: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinical syndrome associated with deficiency of insulin secretion or action. It is considered one of the largest emerging threats to health in the 21st century. It is estimated that there will be 380 million persons with DM in 2025.[1] Besides the classical complications of the disease, DM has been associated with reduced response of T cells, neutrophil function, and disorders of humoral immunity.[2–4] Consequently, DM increases the susceptibility to infections, both the most common ones as well as those that almost always affect only people with DM (e.g. rhinocerebral mucormycosis).[4] Such infections, in addition to the repercussions associated with its infectivity, may trigger DM complications such as hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. This article aims to critically review the current knowledge on the mechanisms associated with the greater susceptibility of DM for developing infectious diseases and to describe the main infectious diseases associated with this metabolic disorder. Continue reading >>

The Root Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes Could Be A Common Childhood Viral Infection

The Root Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes Could Be A Common Childhood Viral Infection

A young child becomes very thirsty very often and seems tired all the time. A visit to the pediatrician determines she has type 1 diabetes. The onset of type 1 diabetes may seem sudden, and it can be, but the disease may actually have been triggered by common childhood viruses years earlier. Type 1 diabetes—also called diabetes mellitus—was previously called juvenile-onset diabetes because most people affected with this disease are diagnosed as children and young adults. It isn't the most common form of diabetes and only 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. That doesn't make it any less serious—in fact, it can be a life-threatening disease. When we eat something, our body converts carbohydrates and starches in the food into sugar (glucose), which is then processed by our bodies to either be used or stored for later. People with type 1 diabetes have trouble keeping their blood sugar level even: It spikes when they eat something and goes very low if they don't. That's because their pancreas doesn't make insulin, the hormone that in a healthy human moves glucose from the blood into cells where it can be used for energy, keeping it from spiking after eating. Type 1 diabetics must constantly monitor their blood sugar and take insulin to keep their levels within a normal range to keep this process running. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, a disease where the body forms antibodies to itself and attacks parts of its own body. In this case, antibodies are formed to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. Experts believe type 1 diabetes may be caused by a genetic risk factors and environmental factors, including viruses. A viral link to type 1 diabetes is one of the findings in a new study led by Hanna Honkanen and Heikki Hyöty in th Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Cause Vaginal Yeast Infections?

Can Diabetes Cause Vaginal Yeast Infections?

How common are yeast infections? A yeast infection, also known as candidiasis, is a type of fungal infection. It can cause irritation, itchiness, and discharge. Vaginal yeast infections are most common. 3 in 4 women will have at least one vaginal yeast infection in their lifetime. About half of all women will experience two or more. A number of things can increase your risk of yeast infection, including conditions such as diabetes. Keep reading to learn why this happens and what you can do to prevent it. Researchers in a 2013 study found a significant link between high blood sugar and vaginal yeast infections. This study focused on women and children with type 1 diabetes. According to a 2014 study, women with type 2 diabetes may be at an even higher risk of vaginal yeast infection. It’s unclear whether this is due to higher overall levels of blood sugar or another factor. Yeast feeds off of sugar. If your diabetes isn’t well-controlled, your blood sugar levels can spike to unreasonably high levels. This increase in sugar can cause yeast to overgrow, particularly in the vaginal area. Your body may develop a yeast infection in response. Maintaining your blood sugar levels may help reduce your risk of infection. If you have diabetes, you should undergo periodic screening for vaginal yeast infections. Some types of candidiasis can lead to serious health complications if left untreated. Talk with your doctor about the best screening schedule for you. Your vagina naturally contains a mix of yeast and bacteria. The yeast will remain in check as long as the balance between the two isn’t disrupted. A number of things can interfere with this balance and cause your body to produce an excessive amount of yeast. This includes: taking certain antibiotics undergoing hormone ther Continue reading >>

What Infections Are You At Risk For With Diabetes?

What Infections Are You At Risk For With Diabetes?

What Infections Are You at Risk for With Diabetes? By Heather M. Ross | Reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD People with diabetes are more susceptible to developing infections, as high blood sugar levels can weaken the patient's immune system defenses. In addition, some diabetes-related health issues, such as nerve damage and reduced blood flow to the extremities, increase the body's vulnerability to infection. What Kinds of Infections Are Most Likely If You Have Diabetes? When you have diabetes, you are especially prone to foot infections , yeast infections , urinary tract infections , and surgical site infections . In addition, yeast cells (Candida albicans) are more likely to colonize the mucous membranes (e.g., mouth, vagina, nose) in people with diabetes. These Candida cells then interfere with the normal infection-fighting action of white blood cells. With white blood cells impaired, Candida can replicate unchecked, causing yeast infections. High blood sugar levels contribute to this process. Other Sources of Diabetes-Related Infection Diabetic neuropathy ( nerve damage ) causes problems with sensation, particularly in the feet. This lack of sensation sometimes means foot injuries go unnoticed. Untreated injuries can lead to infection. Some types of neuropathy can also lead to dry, cracked skin, which allows a convenient entry point for infection into the body. People with diabetes often have low blood flow to the extremities. With less blood flow, the body is less able to mobilize normal immune defenses and nutrients that promote the body's ability to fight infection and promote healing. We know healthy eating is key to help manage diabetes, but that doesn't make it easy. Our free nutrition guide is here to help. Sign up and receive your free copy! Why Are Infecti Continue reading >>

Infection In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Infection In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Infection in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more... Diabetes increases susceptibility to various types of infections. The most common sites of infection in diabetic patients are the skin and urinary tract. Malignant otitis externa and rhinocerebral mucormycosis are 2 head-and-neck infections seen almost exclusively in patients with diabetes. Malignant or necrotizing otitis externa principally occurs in diabetic patients older than 35 years and is almost always due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [ 1 ] Infection starts in the external auditory canal and spreads to adjacent soft tissue, cartilage, and bone. Patients typically present with severe ear pain and otorrhea. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis collectively refers to infections caused by various ubiquitous molds. [ 2 ] Invasive disease occurs in patients with poorly controlled diabetes, especially those with diabetic ketoacidosis. Organisms colonize the nose and paranasal sinuses, spreading to adjacent tissues by invading blood vessels and causing soft tissue necrosis and bony erosion. Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria, cystitis, and, more important, serious upper urinary tract infection . [ 3 , 4 ] Intrarenal bacterial infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with diabetes who presents with flank or abdominal pain. Pyelonephritis makes control of diabetes more difficult by causing insulin resistance; in addition, nausea may limit the patient's ability to maintain normal hydration. Treatment of pyelonephritis does not differ for patients with diabetes, but a lower threshold for hospital admission is appropriate. Sensory neuropathy, atherosclerotic vascular disease, Continue reading >>

Viruses And Bacteria

Viruses And Bacteria

William was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age 2, following a virus. Viruses are thought to be one of the triggers of type 1 diabetes. Viruses and other infectious agents are associated with both an increased and a decreased risk of type 1 diabetes. One hypothesis argues that viruses can cause type 1 diabetes by damaging insulin producing beta cells. Another hypothesis (the hygiene hypothesis) argues that exposures in early childhood stimulate the immune system to control autoimmune reactions (Kondrashova and Hyöty, 2014). We'll look at both hypotheses below. A number of viruses have been associated with type 1 diabetes and/or type 1-associated autoantibodies in humans, including enterovirus, rubella, mumps, rotavirus, and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Many viruses have also been shown to affect the development of diabetes in laboratory animals (reviewed in van der Werf et al. 2007). Viruses have even been associated with type 1-related autoimmunity in wild animals (Warvsten et al. 2017). Most studies that have evaluated the association between viruses and type 1 have found that it is highly likely that some viruses do play a role in type 1 diabetes development (Principi et al. 2017). In addition to causing diabetes in animals, enteroviruses are associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes in human studies (e.g., Abdel-Latif et al. 2017; Boussaid et al. 2017), and have been detected in the pancreases of people with type 1 diabetes (Busse et al. 2017; Kondrashova and Hyöty, 2014; Krogvold et al. 2014). A meta-analysis that combined data from 24 separate studies found a significant association between enterovirus infection and both type 1 and type 1 related autoantibodies (Yeung et al. 2011). Cytomegalovirus has also been found in the pancreas of someone with type 1 Continue reading >>

Sepsis And Diabetes

Sepsis And Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic (life-long) autoimmune disease that has a significant impact on your life. Having diabetes means you must work to control your blood glucose (sugar) levels to be sure that they don’t get too high or too low. The amount of glucose in your blood is important. Your body needs glucose for energy, but too much of it can destroy body tissues and too little can starve your body of nutrients. People who have diabetes are also at risk of developing wounds and sores that don’t heal well. While the wounds are present, they are at high risk of developing infection. And, again because of the diabetes, the infections can get severe quickly. When infection overwhelms the body, the body can respond by developing sepsis and going into septic shock. Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and rapid treatment for survival. Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, or urinary tract infections. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly) and/or amputations. What is diabetes? Your pancreas is a small organ (about 6” by 1.5”) that is part of your digestive system. It is connected to your small intestine and it lies just below your stomach towards the back. Your pancreas has a few roles, one is to help digest the food you eat and another is to secrete (send out) insulin, which stimulates your cells to use the glucose in the food and drink you consume. When a person has diabetes, the pancre Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Infection

Diabetes Mellitus And Infection

Some types of infection occur more frequently in patients with diabetes. This increased risk is largely attributable to an altered immune response due to chronic hyperglycaemia, but increased susceptibility to infection may also result from diabetic complications such as diabetic neuropathy and vascular insufficiency. Risk of most common infections is only modestly increased (e.g. 1.2 fold), but a number of rare but potentially fatal infections occur primarily or even almost exclusively in patients with diabetes. These include mucormycosis, emphysematous urinary tract infections, emphysematous cholecystitis, necrotizing fasciitis and malignant otitis externa. Immediate antimicrobial and/or surgical treatment is needed to prevent serious complications from these infections, including death. In general, antimicrobial treatment of infections in patients with diabetes is not different than in patients without diabetes. Glucose lowering therapy often needs to be increased to counter the loss of control associated with infection. Vaccinations against influenza and pneumococcal infections are recommended for patients with diabetes. Incidence and contributing factors People with diabetes are reported to experience 21% more infections than the general population[1]. Several factors may contribute to this, for example possible ‘reporting bias’: more frequent medical visits due to diabetes may lead to better recording of infectious complications. Even so, it seems clear that the risk of many common infections increases in proportion to hyperglycemia. Special problems may also arise in relations to diabetic nephropathy, which may undermine host defences against infection, and peripheral vascular disease which may impair tissue nutrition, oxygen supply and the ability to mount a Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Feminine Health: What Women Need To Know

Diabetes And Feminine Health: What Women Need To Know

Anyone who has experienced a yeast infection knows how unpleasant the condition can be. Abnormal vaginal discharge, itching and burning, painful intercourse and urination, and redness and swelling — any of these common symptoms can put a dent in a woman’s sex life or simply impact her daily comfort level. For women with type 2 diabetes, combating this issue and maintaining feminine health overall can be of particular concern, especially if their blood sugar is poorly controlled. A Greater Risk of Yeast Infections “Control of blood sugars is important for the whole body,” says Mache Seibel, MD, a gynecologist and obstetrician at Harvard Medical School in Boston. “But an area that isn’t much talked about is how elevated blood sugars seep into vaginal tissues and set up an environment that’s more favorable for yeast infections.” Vaginal tissue contains a balance of microorganisms, like yeast and bacteria, Dr. Seibel explains, but excess sugar in the blood can fuel the growth of yeast, potentially leading to an infection. “Think about baking bread and how yeast thrives much better when you add sugar,” says Susan Renda, CDE, doctor of nursing practice and assistant professor in the department of community–public health at Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing in Baltimore. “I tell patients, ‘You have a nice little balance in your body, but when you throw a cake and cookie party, all the yeast comes to the party and just starts to go nuts.’” Frequent urination, which can occur when glucose levels are high and the body works to rid itself of excess sugar, can add to the problem by bringing additional sugar found in the urine to the vaginal area. Certain diabetes drugs, such as canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet, or Invokamet XR), an SGLT-2 in Continue reading >>

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

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