Metformin For The Treatment Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder of body metabolism that affects 5-10% of women and can cause infrequent periods, weight gain, acne, unwanted hair growth and infertility. PCOS should not be confused with the incidental finding of polycystic ovaries on an ultrasound scan which occur in about 20% of the female population and usually do not cause any symptoms. The cause of PCOS is not fully understood but is thought to have a genetic component. The small cysts seen in the ovaries do not cause PCOS but are the result of the underlying disturbance of metabolism. Most women with PCOS do not have every symptom and the treatment that a doctor recommends is usually chosen to treat the symptoms that bother the woman. In recent years there has been a lot of interest in the use of Metformin to treat the symptoms of PCOS. This information sheet aims to answer many of the questions that women have about this treatment. What is Metformin? Metformin is a medicine that is taken by mouth. It is from a family of drugs known as biguanides and was developed to treat type 2 (late onset) diabetes. Why is it used to treat PCOS? There are a number of similarities between PCOS and adult-onset diabetes. In both conditions, people have a resistance to the effects of insulin with resulting high levels of insulin in their blood stream. These high insulin levels cause an increased production of androgens (male-type hormones that can cause acne and unwanted hair growth) in the ovaries and adrenal glands. This in turn affects the pituitary hormones (LH and FSH) that normally stimulate the ovaries to produce eggs. The result is often irregular infertile periods. Metformin increases the effectiveness of insulin, resulting in a lowering of blood insulin levels which in turn lowers the androg Continue reading >>
- Type 1 Diabetes and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Diabetes
- Relative effectiveness of insulin pump treatment over multiple daily injections and structured education during flexible intensive insulin treatment for type 1 diabetes: cluster randomised trial (REPOSE)
Pcos: Insulin And Metformin
Young women with PCOS often have elevated insulin levels and are more likely to develop diabetes. Metformin is a medication often prescribed for women with PCOS to help prevent diabetes. A lifestyle that includes healthy nutrition and daily exercise is the most important part of a PCOS treatment plan. What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ in the body called the pancreas. The food you eat is broken down into simple sugar (glucose) during digestion. Glucose is absorbed into the blood after you eat. Insulin helps glucose enter the cells of the body to be used as energy. If there’s not enough insulin in the body, or if the body can’t use the insulin, sugar levels in the blood become higher. What is insulin resistance? If your body is resistant to insulin, it means you need high levels of insulin to keep your blood sugar normal. Certain medical conditions such as being overweight or having PCOS can cause insulin resistance. Insulin resistance tends to run in families. What can insulin resistance do to me? High insulin levels can cause thickening and darkening of the skin (acanthosis nigricans) on the back of the neck, axilla (under the arms), and groin area. In young women with PCOS, high insulin levels can cause the ovaries to make more androgen hormones such as testosterone. This can cause increased body hair, acne, and irregular or few periods. Having insulin resistance can increase your risk of developing diabetes. How can I lower my insulin levels? You can help lower your insulin levels naturally by eating fewer starches and sugars, and more foods that are high in fiber and low in refined carbohydrates. Low glycemic foods, on the other hand, don’t raise your blood sugar or insulin levels as much as foods that are high in sugar or refined carbohydr Continue reading >>
Metformin, Weight Loss & Pcos – Does It Actually Work?
Did you know that one of the main reasons you can't lose weight with PCOS is because of your hormones? It's true, and that's why many women (and physicians) turn to using Metformin to try and help with weight loss. But just because it works for some people doesn't mean it will necessarily work for YOU. Find out why metformin helps with weight loss, but more important what works better and how to finally lose weight if you have PCOS. Insulin & PCOS: Why It's so Important One of the most common medications prescribed for PCOS is metformin. But, PCOS is a hormonal condition which results in weight gain, hair growth on the face, infertility, acne and estrogen/progesterone imbalances. So why is metformin, a medication used to lower blood sugar and treat insulin resistance, used to treat estrogen/progesterone imbalances in women? The logic is quite simple: Most of the symptoms of PCOS (all those listed above) stem from insulin resistanc e! In fact many physicians recommend that ALL women with PCOS should be treated for insulin resistance regardless of what their fasting insulin and fasting blood sugar levels are. This means that the root cause of PCOS (at least the majority of it) is insulin resistance, and this is why metformin is so commonly used to treat. Insulin resistance causes a block of glucose uptake in your skeletal muscles which results in a lower metabolism (and weight gain), insulin also directly acts on your ovaries and adrenals increasing androgens like testosterone and DHEA. It's also the action of insulin on your pituitary that results in increased LH production which over stimulates your ovaries resulting in the characteristic "cysts" of PCOS. High levels of DHEA and testosterone lead to acne and hair growth (hirsutism). But one simple question r Continue reading >>
Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (pcos) Often Undergo Protracted Treatment With Metformin And Are Disinclined To Stop: Indications For A Change In Licensing Arrangements?
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often undergo protracted treatment with metformin and are disinclined to stop: indications for a change in licensing arrangements? University Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, G31 2ER, UK To whom correspondence should be addressed: University Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Level 3 Q.E. Building, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, G31 2ER, UK. Email: [email protected] Search for other works by this author on: University Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, G31 2ER, UK Search for other works by this author on: University Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, G31 2ER, UK Search for other works by this author on: University Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, G31 2ER, UK Search for other works by this author on: Human Reproduction, Volume 19, Issue 12, 1 December 2004, Pages 27182720, Sabine Muth, Jane Norman, Naveed Sattar, Richard Fleming; Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often undergo protracted treatment with metformin and are disinclined to stop: indications for a change in licensing arrangements?, Human Reproduction, Volume 19, Issue 12, 1 December 2004, Pages 27182720, Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are increasingly being treated with metformin as an insulin sensitizing agent to reduce symptoms of hyperandrogenism and promote fertility. Indications such as hirsutism and cycle regulation require long term treatment. The drug is also being used through pregnancy. It is not licensed for any indication specific to PCOS, which means that much of this prescribing is taking place in an environment short of reliable information concerning safety. We describe the failure of rec Continue reading >>
6 Reasons Why Metformin Might Not Be Safe For Pcos
Have you been prescribed metformin for PCOS and are wondering what the side affects are? Metformin is often described as a ‘safe’ drug, but read on to find out why this might not be the case. When I was diagnosed with PCOS, the first thing I asked my GP was what I could take to ‘fix’ it. She gently explained that there was no pill or surgery that could cure my condition. However, there was a drug that could help with the elevated insulin levels caused by it. Metformin, she claimed, was a safe drug with no major side effects that would help with insulin resistance and weight loss. Sign me up. At first, I thought metformin was the wonder drug. I lost about 5kg in 4 months, more than I had ever been able to lose previously. I was ecstatic. I had a quick look online to see whether there were any side effects and initially found that diarrhea, loose stools, fatigue, and muscle soreness were commonly experienced. But I thought that it was small price to pay for finally being able to lose some weight. However, when I investigated further I found that that there are some much more sinister side effects of metformin that aren’t so widely publicised. These include: – Depleting our bodies of essential nutrients. – Increasing the risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect by up to 9 times. – Reducing energy levels by almost 50%. – Killing beneficial gut bacteria. This article is not intended to be a case against metformin for PCOS. There is no doubt that metformin helps to reduce weight, lowers blood glucose levels, and promotes ovulation. My concern is the lack of studies about the safety of long-term use of metformin for PCOS, especially in utero. Drugs can help with the associated symptoms of a disease, but they cannot fix the root cause of it. Metformin i Continue reading >>
Stopping Metformin: When Is It Ok?
The most common medication worldwide for treating diabetes is metformin (Glumetza, Riomet, Glucophage, Fortamet). It can help control high blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. It’s available in tablet form or a clear liquid you take by mouth before meals. Metformin doesn’t treat the underlying cause of diabetes. It treats the symptoms of diabetes by lowering blood sugar. It also increases the use of glucose in peripheral muscles and the liver. Metformin also helps with other things in addition to improving blood sugar. These include: lowering lipids, resulting in a decrease in blood triglyceride levels decreasing “bad” cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) increasing “good” cholesterol, or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) If you’re taking metformin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, it may be possible to stop. Instead, you may be able to manage your condition by making certain lifestyle changes, like losing weight and getting more exercise. Read on to learn more about metformin and whether or not it’s possible to stop taking it. However, before you stop taking metformin consult your doctor to ensure this is the right step to take in managing your diabetes. Before you start taking metformin, your doctor will want to discuss your medical history. You won’t be able to take this medication if you have a history of any of the following: alcohol abuse liver disease kidney issues certain heart problems If you are currently taking metformin, you may have encountered some side effects. If you’ve just started treatment with this drug, it’s important to know some of the side effects you may encounter. Most common side effects The most common side effects are digestive issues and may include: diarrhea vomiting nausea heartburn abdominal cramps Continue reading >>
Metformin is a medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes and sometimes polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Type 2 diabetes is an illness where the body doesn't make enough insulin, or the insulin that it makes doesn't work properly. This can cause high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). PCOS is a condition that affects how the ovaries work. Metformin lowers your blood sugar levels by improving the way your body handles insulin. It's usually prescribed for diabetes when diet and exercise alone have not been enough to control your blood sugar levels. For women with PCOS, metformin stimulates ovulation even if they don't have diabetes. It does this by lowering insulin and blood sugar levels. Metformin is available on prescription as tablets and as a liquid that you drink. Key facts Metformin works by reducing the amount of sugar your liver releases into your blood. It also makes your body respond better to insulin. Insulin is the hormone that controls the level of sugar in your blood. It's best to take metformin with a meal to reduce the side effects. The most common side effects are feeling sick, vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach ache and going off your food. Metformin does not cause weight gain (unlike some other diabetes medicines). Metformin may also be called by the brand names Bolamyn, Diagemet, Glucient, Glucophage, and Metabet. Who can and can't take metformin Metformin can be taken by adults. It can also be taken by children from 10 years of age on the advice of a doctor. Metformin isn't suitable for some people. Tell your doctor before starting the medicine if you: have had an allergic reaction to metformin or other medicines in the past have uncontrolled diabetes have liver or kidney problems have a severe infection are being treated for heart failure or you have recentl Continue reading >>
Stop The Metformin Madness
I have never been a fan of Metformin. It seemed too good to be true. Many years ago I had a conversation with a researcher about all of its possible therapeutic indications. His lab was actively pursuing the anti-cancer angle. That should have been a clue that Metformin might be causing more damage than we recognized, but it wasn’t. At that point, I was still enamored with the wonders of pharmacology and hadn’t yet begun my path toward understanding medication adverse reactions. Indeed, it wasn’t until very recently, when a family member began suffering from one of these reactions, that I began my investigation in full. This is what I learned. Type 2 Diabetes is Big Business The global profits from Type 2 diabetes medications rested at a paltry $23 billion dollars in 2011 but are expected to grow to over $45 billion annually by 2020. The market growth is bolstered in large part by the ever-expanding demand for therapeutics like Metformin or Glucophage. Metformin is the first line of treatment and standard of care for insulin resistance across all populations of Type 2 diabetics with over 49 million Americans on Metformin in 2011-2012. It is particularly popular in women’s health with an increasing reliance on Metformin for the metabolic dysfunction observed in women with PCOS, PCOS-related infertility and even gestational diabetes. Metformin is prescribed so frequently and considered so innocuous that it is sometimes euphemistically referred to as vitamin M. If we quickly scan the safety research for metformin, there is little immediate evidence suggesting any side effects whatsoever. In fact, in addition to controlling blood sugar by blocking the hepatic glucose dump, this drug is suggested to promote weight loss, increase ovulation in women, (thereby helping a Continue reading >>
What Will Happen If I Stop Taking Metformin For Pcos?
Metformin helps you manage the symptoms of the disease. There is no no doubt that it works. But it does not offer a cure. You can discontinue metformin on only one condition - you should exercise more and cut out all refined sugars and processed foods or just look around to what other diabetics do for insulin resistance. I cannot emphasize home-cooked food enough. Home cooked-food without those processed sauces and canned ingredients. Try it for a short time after you are on an exercise regimen for atleast a month.Keep checking your sugar from time to time. You will know that you need to get back on your metformin if the cravings and the bluesy moods come back. If the cravings don’t come back well and good, but if it does, you should get back on metformin. What I can assure you is that there is no harm in trying - PCOS is a lifelong thing - so nothing that you do can kill or cure you in a day or week. Whatever works will work over months. So give exercise and no sugar a try for two -three months. In the first month continue with the metformin with the exercise and in the next, reduce use by either reducing dosage or eating one every two days. And then if things look positive stop completely. Losing weight also helps reduce metformin dependence. While you are at it one basic advice I can give you is - don’t get into tiring exercise regimes (walking for an hour is also good), don’t get into diets unless your gynaecologist/endocrinologist has recommended one (even then don’t get into anything punishing because sustaining it will be stressful) and do everything it takes to keep a healthy mind - remove or modify habits from your life that induce stress - be it your job, family or friends. Identify them and pull the plug. Be nice to yourself. Please note that if you a Continue reading >>
Metformin Weight Loss – Does It Work?
Metformin weight loss claims are something that are often talked about by health professionals to be one of the benefits of commencing metformin therapy, but are they true? At myheart.net we’ve helped millions of people through our articles and answers. Now our authors are keeping readers up to date with cutting edge heart disease information through twitter. Follow Dr Ahmed on Twitter @MustafaAhmedMD Metformin is possibly one of the most important treatments in Type II Diabetes, so the question of metformin weight loss is of the utmost importance, as if true it could provide a means to lose weight as well as control high sugar levels found in diabetes. What is Metformin? Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic medication – meaning it reduces levels of sugar, or more specifically glucose in the blood. It is so effective that the American Diabetes Association says that unless there is a strong reason not to, metformin should be commenced at the onset of Type II Diabetes. Metformin comes in tablet form and the dose is gradually increased until the maximum dose required is achieved. How Does Metformin Work & Why Would it Cause Weight Loss? Metformin works by three major mechanisms – each of which could explain the “metformin weight loss” claims. These are: Decrease sugar production by the liver – the liver can actually make sugars from other substances, but metformin inhibits an enzyme in the pathway resulting in less sugar being released into the blood. Increase in the amount of sugar utilization in the muscles and the liver – Given that the muscles are a major “sink” for excess sugar, by driving sugar into them metformin is able to reduce the amount of sugar in the blood. Preventing the breakdown of fats (lipolysis) – this in turn reduces the amount of fatt Continue reading >>
10 Facts About Metformin And Pcos
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a relatively common hormonal disorder that is one of the leading causes of infertility. Some women who have PCOS develop insulin resistance. This occurs when the cells of the body don’t respond well to a hormone known as insulin. Insulin allows the cells to take sugar (glucose) from the blood. If the cells don’t take in this sugar it leads to higher levels of glucose and insulin circulating through the body in the bloodstream. This, in turn, leads to increased levels of androgens (male hormones) which cause the classic symptoms of PCOS such as excess hair growth and more importantly in terms of fertility – lack of ovulation. Getting pregnant with PCOS can be possible with the right diagnosis and treatment plan. Here are the Top 10 facts about metformin use in PCOS patients: 1) Metformin is a medication that is primarily used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is marketed in the US under the names Fortamet, Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza and Riomet. It is available as a tablet, extended-release tablet and a liquid. 2) With infertility patients, it is used not because the women with PCOS have diabetes (although they do have an increased risk of developing this disease), but because it acts on improving use of insulin by the cells of the body and therefore reducing the level of insulin in the blood. This can lead to improved ovulation, more regular menstrual cycles as well as a reduction in excessive hair growth, acne and weight gain. It may also slow down or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes later in life. 3) To determine if it would be helpful for a patient with PCOS to use Metformin, they are given a 2 Hour Glucose Tolerance Test. First, a fasting blood sample is drawn to determine a baseline glucose level. The patient t Continue reading >>
Metformin And Pcos: Everything You Need To Know
Metformin is a type of medication used to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Because there is a strong link between diabetes and PCOS, metformin is now commonly proscribed to treat PCOS. But should it be? What is the real relationship between metformin and PCOS? Can Metformin used for PCOS help lessen PCOS symptoms? Metformin used for PCOS: The Science PCOS is an infertility condition that often causes acne, facial hair growth, balding, low sex drive, weight gain, difficulty with weight loss, and mental health disturbances such as depression and anxiety in approximately 15% of women. It is also associated with a myriad of health conditions, spanning from diabetes to hypothyroidism and to heart disease. PCOS is, in short, not a condition to sneeze at. PCOS is a condition of hormone imbalance. With PCOS, male sex hormones such as testosterone and DHEA-S rise relative to the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. (…Roughly speaking – it’s complicated. For a full-blown account of the science of PCOS and how it affects you, see here.) Elevated testosterone is very often the primary culprit in causing PCOS. (But not always! For one of my most thorough accounts of other things that can cause PCOS, see here.) Insulin causes testosterone levels to rise because insulin tells the ovaries to produce testosterone. Basically, elevated insulin causes elevated testosterone, which causes PCOS. This is where metformin comes into play. Metformin lowers blood sugar levels below what they would otherwise be after a meal. This is because it intervenes with the liver’s interaction with and production of glucose. Insulin is the body’s way of dealing with blood sugar. If blood sugar is lower, then insulin will be lower, and thus testosterone will be lower. Metformin decreases blood sugar, Continue reading >>
Role Of Metformin In The Management Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Go to: Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological disorder affecting 4–12% of women [Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 1999; Farah et al. 1999; Knochenhauer et al. 1998]. It has also been the most controversial medical condition and every aspect has received a lot of attention from the nomenclature to the management. Several descriptions of similar conditions took place in the 20th century and it was named Stein—Leventhal Syndrome in 1935 after the authors who described polycystic ovarian morphology in patients suffering from hirsutism, amenorrhoea and infertility [Leventhal, 1958; Stein and Leventhal, 1935]. PCOS was also called polycystic ‘ovarian’ syndrome implying that the primary pathology lies in or triggered by the ovary. Others have called it polycystic ovary disease (PCOD), which is the least used term for obvious reasons. Currently, PCOS refers to a disorder with a combination of reproductive and metabolic characteristics. This has evolved over time with controversy over the definition culminating in the latest consensus [ESHRE/ASRM, 2004] which instead of solving the issue created more controversy [Azziz et al. 2006]. In the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ESHRE/ASRM) consensus, at least two of the following features are needed to make the diagnosis; oligo/anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic features on ultrasound scan [ESHRE/ASRM, 2004]. The Androgen Excess Society, however, recommended that androgen excess should remain a constant feature of PCOS irrespective of the ovulatory status and morphological features of the ovaries [Azziz et al. 2006]. For almost three decades, PCOS has been regarded as a life course disease which besides its reproductiv Continue reading >>
Stopping Metformin For Pcos Once Pregnant?
Stopping Metformin for PCOS once pregnant? I just informed my RE that I am 4 weeks pregnant and she advised me to discontinue my Metformin for PCOS immediately. She said "Some of the ob/gyn doctors will continue the Metformin until the end of the 1st trimester, then stop, in patients with a history of pre-diabetes or recurrent miscarriages. Without that history, we usually will discontinue once pregnant so as not to have any additional medications on board." Of course I then immediately googled and found a couple studies that suggest continuing Metformin through pregnant or 1st trimester can reduce rate of miscarriage. Anyone else have experience or insight of what I should do? So confused. This is my first pregnancy, conceived via IUI- so I want to make sure it sticks!!! I am in the same boat. I asked but my ob is on vacation until the 8th! She asked another doctor and after my paperwork they said I should stop. I had a 2nd trimester loss due to cord accident two months ago so I am paranoid!! I Me to keep taking metformin. Sadly i had a miscarriage at 8 weeks. My Dr told me that i had to take it for the first trimester hopefully this will help you out. Congrats I will be on mine the remainder of my pregnancy! It actually helps your milk supply too!! I too have PCOS and with my DD they had me keep taking my metformin until I was 12 weeks. I am currently 5 weeks with #2 and will continue taking my metformin along with added progesterone until 12 weeks this time also...hope this helps and lots of prayers for a happy healthy nine months :) I started metformin last cycle for t2 diabetes and that's how I got pregnant! I have my first app on Thursday but I went to see my GP and she said to stop. My endo said it was fine, so I guess my Ob gets to make the tie breaker. I am in Continue reading >>
The Effects Of Stopping Metformin
The medication metformin is a drug in the biguanide family that is used to treat type 2 or adult-onset diabetes mellitus. Drugs.com notes that metformin is often the first prescribed medication for individuals with type 2 diabetes and may also be used in combination with other diabetes medications or insulin. This medication is sold under the brand name Glucophage, Glucophage XR and Fortamet. Metformin helps to reduce glycemic or sugar levels in the blood in a number of ways. If an individual with type 2 diabetes stops taking metformin, they may experience serious immediate and long-term effects of uncontrolled high levels of blood glucose. Video of the Day A primary mode of action of metformin is increasing the sensitivity of the body’s muscles, tissues and cells to insulin--a hormone that is essential for transporting glucose from the blood to the body. Drugs.com notes that individuals with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance. This causes the cells to ignore the effects of insulin and not allow glucose to be transported into the muscles and tissues where it is vital to produce energy. The body tries to compensate by secreting more insulin, which only leads to hyperinsulinemia in the blood. If a patient stops taking metformin, the type 2 diabetes effects occur due to insulin resistance causing symptoms such as severe thirst, hunger and urinary frequency. The chronic levels of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also contribute to diseases of the heart and vascular-blood vessel-system. Gluconeogenesis is the production of glucose by the liver. A storage supply of glucose is reserved in the liver and released into the bloodstream when the body requires energy due to stress or hunger. The MayoClinic.com notes that another one of the mechanisms of metformin to reduce Continue reading >>