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What Gene Is Affected By Diabetes?

Is Type 1 Diabetes Genetic/hereditary? | Causes & Treatment - Dlife

Is Type 1 Diabetes Genetic/hereditary? | Causes & Treatment - Dlife

What Are the Causes and Genetic Components of Type 1 Diabetes? Reviewed by: Dr. QinYang, M.D., Ph.D. 4/18. The exact causes of type 1 diabetes are not yet known. But genetics, family history, and environmental factors appear to play a role in the development of this serious health condition. In this section, well examine each of the potential causes. Type 1 diabetes is a polygenic disease; this means it is a disease that involves many genes. These gene groups are located on structures called chromosomes within the cell. These genes make proteins that help maintain our immune system, fighting off unwanted cells or infectious agents. Discrepancies in the functioning of these genes lead to a discrepancy in the synthesis of the proteins. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the -cells of the pancreas are regarded as external harmful agents by the bodys immune system, and the body seeks to destroy them. Around 20-40 different chromosomal gene groups have been linked to type 1 diabetes. The largest contributing gene for type 1 diabetes is called IDDM1; it is located in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) II region on chromosome six. This gene accounts for at least 40 percent of the familial hereditary cause of type 1 diabetes. Approximately one in every 250 children in the United States is born into a family already affected by type 1 diabetes. Children born into an affected family have a five percent increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes by age 20. In comparison, children with no such family history have only a 0.3 percent chance of developing this condition. A child with a family history of type 1 diabetes can be classified further based on which family member has the disease. The chances of a child developing type 1 diabetes are as follows: Five percent chance if Continue reading >>

Genetic Screening For The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Genetic Screening For The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes, representing >90% of all cases of diabetes, are increasing rapidly throughout the world. The International Diabetes Federation has estimated that the number of people with diabetes is expected to rise from 366 million in 2011 to 552 million by 2030 if no urgent action is taken. Furthermore, as many as 183 million people are unaware that they have diabetes (www.idf.org). Therefore, the identification of individuals at high risk of developing diabetes is of great importance and interest for investigators and health care providers. Type 2 diabetes is a complex disorder resulting from an interaction between genes and environment. Several risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified, including age, sex, obesity and central obesity, low physical activity, smoking, diet including low amount of fiber and high amount of saturated fat, ethnicity, family history, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, history of the nondiabetic elevation of fasting or 2-h glucose, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and different drug treatments (diuretics, unselected β-blockers, etc.) (1–3). There is also ample evidence that type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic basis. The concordance of type 2 diabetes in monozygotic twins is ~70% compared with 20–30% in dizygotic twins (4). The lifetime risk of developing the disease is ~40% in offspring of one parent with type 2 diabetes, greater if the mother is affected (5), and approaching 70% if both parents have diabetes. In prospective studies, we have demonstrated that first-degree family history is associated with twofold increased risk of future type 2 diabetes (1,6). The challenge has been to find genetic markers that explain the excess risk associated with family history of diabetes Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, the body stops using and making insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Specifically, insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells, where it is used as an energy source. When blood sugar levels are high (such as after a meal), the pancreas releases insulin to move the excess glucose into cells, which reduces the amount of glucose in the blood. Most people who develop type 2 diabetes first have insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's cells use insulin less efficiently than normal. As insulin resistance develops, more and more insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels in the normal range. To keep up with the increasing need, insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (called beta cells) make larger amounts of insulin. Over time, the beta cells become less able to respond to blood sugar changes, leading to an insulin shortage that prevents the body from reducing blood sugar levels effectively. Most people have some insulin resistance as they age, but inadequate exercise and excessive weight gain make it worse, greatly increasing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age or later. Signs and symptoms develop slowly over years. They include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet (diabetic neuropathy), sores that do not heal well, and weight loss. If blood sugar levels are not controlled through medication or diet, type 2 diabetes can cause long-lasting (chronic) health prob Continue reading >>

Genetics Of Type 1a

Genetics Of Type 1a

Type 1 diabetes is a complex genetic disorder. There are now at least 20 insulin-dependent genes associated with the development of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a complex genetic disorder. It occurs more frequently in families in which there are other relatives with type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune conditions. Children have a 5% to 6% chance of developing diabetes if their father has type 1 diabetes, and a 3% to 4% chance if their mother has type 1 diabetes. It is thought that some of the mother’s chromosomal material, or DNA, gets inactivated when passed on to the child, thereby accounting for the difference in the children’s diabetes risk. If a sibling has type 1 diabetes, the risk is 5-6%; however, if the sibling has identical MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) haplotypes, the risk increases. When one identical twin has diabetes, the risk of the other twin developing diabetes traditionally has been thought to be about 40%. Recent research suggests that the number may be much higher. A number of genes have been identified that are associated with the development of diabetes. The chromosomal locations of these “diabetes genes” are called inherited susceptibility loci. There are now at least 20 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) susceptibility loci. The most important are: IDDM 1 (the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6) IDDM 2 (the insulin gene locus on chromosome 11) PTPN 22 (the protein tyrosine phosphatase gene) with a mutation at LYP (the lymphocyte-specific phosphatase gene) on chromosome 1 associated with susceptibility to multiple autoimmune disorders IDDM 1 It is estimated that about 40-50% of the risk for type 1 diabetes is associated with the MHC complex or IDDM 1 loci. The MHC genes most associated with diabetes in white Continue reading >>

Genetics And Type 1 Diabetes

Genetics And Type 1 Diabetes

If you have type 1 diabetes, you might wonder if your child would get it, too. Or if one of your parents has it, what it means for you. Your genes definitely play a role in type 1, a less common form of diabetes that’s often diagnosed in children and young adults. But they’re not the whole story. Like much in life, it’s a mix of nature and nurture. Your environment, from where you grow up to the foods you eat, also matters. Researchers don’t know exactly how -- and how much -- all those things affect your chances of getting the disease. Your genes set the stage, but you can’t be certain how it'll all play out. There’s no diabetes gene that gets turned on or off to give you type 1. Instead, a bunch of them play a role, including a dozen or so that have the biggest say: the HLA genes. They make proteins your immune system uses to keep you healthy. Since type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease -- your body destroys the cells that make insulin -- it makes sense that HLA genes are front and center. There are thousands of versions of them in the human gene pool. Which ones you get from your parents affect your chances of diabetes in a big way. Some make you more likely to get it, while others can help protect you from it. You have type 1 if your body makes little or no insulin, a hormone that helps your body turn sugar into energy. Certain genes are more common in one group of people than in another. That’s why race and ethnicity affect things, too. For example, white people are more likely to have type 1 diabetes than others. But even if you have genes that make you more likely to get type 1, that doesn’t mean you definitely will. Even with identical twins -- who have the same exact genes -- sometimes one gets it and the other doesn’t. That’s where the e Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Genetics?

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Genetics?

Diabetes is a complex condition. Several factors must come together for you to develop type 2 diabetes. For example, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle play a role. Genetics can also influence whether you’ll get this disease. If you’ve been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, there’s a good chance that you’re not the first person with diabetes in your family. According to the American Diabetes Association, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes is: 1 in 7 if one of your parents was diagnosed before the age of 50 1 in 13 if one of your parents was diagnosed after the age of 50 1 in 2, or 50 percent, if both your parents have diabetes Several gene mutations have been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. These gene mutations can interact with the environment and each other to further increase your risk. Type 2 diabetes is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Scientists have linked several gene mutations to a higher diabetes risk. Not everyone who carries a mutation will get diabetes. But many people with diabetes do have one or more of these mutations. It can be difficult to separate genetic risk from environmental risk. The latter is often influenced by your family members. For example, parents with healthy eating habits are likely to pass them on to the next generation. On the other hand, genetics plays a big part in determining weight. Sometimes behaviors can’t take all the blame. Studies of twins suggest that type 2 diabetes might be linked to genetics. These studies were complicated by the environmental influences that also affect type 2 diabetes risk. To date, numerous mutations have been shown to affect type 2 diabetes risk. The contribution of each gene is generally small. However, each additional mutation you have seems to increase your Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Hereditary? Facts On Type 1, Type 2, And Gestational Diabetes | Everyday Health

Is Diabetes Hereditary? Facts On Type 1, Type 2, And Gestational Diabetes | Everyday Health

No type of diabetes mellitus is genetic per se, but your DNA may influence your risk of developing it. Its true that diabetes tends to run in families. You may wonder if that means there is a genetic cause to the disorder. The answer is complex, depending on the type of diabetes and frequently other factors such as diet , lifestyle, and environment. For most people who have diabetes , it is not due to a straight genetic group of factors or to environmental ones, but rather it is a combination of both, says MnicaAlvarado, a certified and licensed genetic counselor who is the regional administrator for Genetic Services at Kaiser Permanente in Southern California, in Pasadena. How Family History and Risk Factors Relate to Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes As mentioned, the role that genetics play in risk ultimately depends on the type of diabetes. Heres a look at how genetics may influence each disease. Type 1 diabetes is caused when the bodys immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin, a hormone that helps carry glucose (sugar) into your cells to be used for energy. The result is hyperglycemia , when the level of glucose in the blood is too high. ( 1 , 2 ) People who have type 1 diabetes must take injections to replace the insulin their body doesnt make, as well as monitor their blood glucose level, every day. The disorder affects about 5 percent of the estimated 30.3 million people in the United States who have diabetes. (1,2) This form of diabetes usually appears in childhood or early adulthood, which is why it was previously known as juvenile diabetes. But it can occur at any age. Autoantibodies that attack the insulin-producing beta cells may be in the blood for years before a diagnosis is made. ( 3 , 4 ) Yet the presence of Continue reading >>

Diabetes Gene Found That Causes Low And High Blood Sugar Levels In The Same Family

Diabetes Gene Found That Causes Low And High Blood Sugar Levels In The Same Family

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Diabetes gene found that causes low and high blood sugar levels in the same family A study of families with rare blood sugar conditions has revealed a new gene thought to be critical in the regulation of insulin, the key hormone in diabetes. A study of families with rare blood sugar conditions has revealed a new gene thought to be critical in the regulation of insulin, the key hormone in diabetes. The research carried out at Queen Mary University of London, University of Exeter and Vanderbilt University, and published in the journal PNAS, could lead to the development of novel treatments for both rare and common forms of diabetes. In addition to the more common forms of diabetes (type 1 or type 2), in about 1-2 per cent of cases diabetes is due to a genetic disorder. A defective gene typically affects the function of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, known as beta cells. The research team studied the unique case of a family where several individuals suffer from diabetes, while other family members had developed insulin-producing tumours in their pancreas. These tumours, known as insulinomas, typically cause low blood sugar levels, in contrast to diabetes which leads to high blood sugar levels. Lead author Professor Mrta Korbonits said: "We were initially surprised about the association of two apparently contrasting conditions within the same families -- diabetes which is associated with high blood sugar and insulinomas associated with low blood sugar. Our research shows that, surprisingly, the same gene defect can impact the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas to lead to these two opposing medical conditions." The team also observed that males were more prone to developing dia Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Genetic? Facts About Hereditary Risk

Is Diabetes Genetic? Facts About Hereditary Risk

Diabetes is a complex set of diseases with no single cause. Genetic factors make some people more vulnerable to diabetes, particularly with the right environment. In addition, certain lifestyle factors can cause type 2 diabetes in individuals with no known family history. This complex interaction between genes, lifestyle, and environment points to the importance of taking steps to minimize individual diabetes risk. Is type 1 diabetes hereditary? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means that it causes the body's immune system to attack healthy cells. It is often called juvenile diabetes because most people are diagnosed in childhood, and the condition then lasts their lifetime. Doctors used to think type 1 diabetes was wholly genetic. Newer studies have shown, however, that children develop type 1 diabetes 3 percent of the time if their mother has the condition, 5 percent of the time if their father has it, or 8 percent if a sibling has type 1 diabetes. Consequently, researchers now believe that something in the environment has to trigger type 1 diabetes. Some risk factors include: Cold weather. People develop type 1 diabetes in winter more frequently than summer. It is also more common in places with cool climates. Viruses. Researchers think some viruses might activate type 1 diabetes in people who are otherwise vulnerable. Measles, mumps, coxsackie B virus, and rotavirus have been linked to type 1 diabetes. Research suggests that people who develop type 1 diabetes may have autoimmune antibodies in their blood for many years before showing symptoms. As a result, the disease may develop over time, or something may have to activate the autoimmune antibodies for symptoms to appear. Is type 2 diabetes hereditary? Type 2 diabetes is the more common form of the d Continue reading >>

Genetics And Diabetes: Are You At Risk? | Joslin Diabetes Center

Genetics And Diabetes: Are You At Risk? | Joslin Diabetes Center

A school nurse anxiously wants to know if there is a reason why several children from her small grade school have been diagnosed with type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes. Is it an epidemic? Will there be more cases? Is a recent chicken pox outbreak to blame? A man in his 50s develops type 2 diabetes. His mother developed diabetes in her 60s. Should this man's brother and sister be concerned, too? What about his children's chances of developing diabetes? A married couple wants to have children, but they are concerned because the husband has type 1 diabetes. They wonder what the risk is that their child would have diabetes. A couple has three young children. One of the children develops type 1 diabetes. There's no history of diabetes anywhere in either parent's families. Is this just a fluke? What are the chances the other children will develop diabetes? Chances are if you or a loved one have diabetes, you may wonder if you inherited it from a family member or you may be concerned that you will pass the disease on to your children. Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center report that, while much has been learned about what genetic factors make one more susceptible to developing diabetes than another, many questions remain to be answered. While some people are more likely to get diabetes than others, and in some ways type 2 (adult onset diabetes) is simpler to track than type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes, the pattern is not always clear. For more than 20 years researchers in the Epidemiology and Genetics Section at Joslin in Boston (Section Head Andrzej S. Krolewski, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Investigator James H. Warram, M.D., Sc.D., and colleagues) have been studying diabetes incidence and hereditary factors. They are continuing a scientific journey begun by Elliott P. Joslin, M.D., Continue reading >>

About Type 1 Diabetes

About Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2 diabetes. In the past, type 1 diabetes was called juvenile diabetes, juvenile-onset diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes. Today we realize those terms aren't accurate. People can develop type 1 as adults, children can develop type 2, and people with type 2 might need to take insulin shots. Causes Type 1 diabetes is known as an autoimmune disease. It happens because a person's immune system destroys the body's beta cells, which make insulin and release it into the blood stream. These cells are located in an organ called the pancreas. When the immune system destroys the beta cells, the body stops being able to make insulin. Signs of type 1 diabetes start to show up when half or more of the beta cells have been destroyed. People who have type 1 diabetes will begin to take insulin shots right away, to replace the insulin their bodies no longer make. Type 1 diabetes is inherited, which means a group of genes that can lead to type 1 diabetes is passed down from mothers and fathers to their children. A person with a parent, brother, or sister with type 1 diabetes has a greater chance of also developing type 1 diabetes. Genes play an important role in determining who gets type 1 diabetes and who doesn't. But they might not be the only influence. Environmental factors, including viruses and allergies, appear to trigger type 1 diabetes in some people who have inherited the genes. These factors can trigger type 1 diabetes at any point in a person's life. That's why some people don't develop type 1 diabetes until they're adults, while others develop it when they're children. Symptoms The symptoms for type 1 diabetes usually show up over a few days or even a few weeks and are caused by high levels of sugar in the blood. Symptoms include: Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Causes

Type 2 Diabetes Causes

Type 2 diabetes has several causes: genetics and lifestyle are the most important ones. A combination of these factors can cause insulin resistance, when your body doesn’t use insulin as well as it should. Insulin resistance is the most common cause of type 2 diabetes. Genetics Play a Role in Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes can be hereditary. That doesn’t mean that if your mother or father has (or had) type 2 diabetes, you’re guaranteed to develop it; instead, it means that you have a greater chance of developing type 2. Researchers know that you can inherit a risk for type 2 diabetes, but it’s difficult to pinpoint which genes carry the risk. The medical community is hard at work trying to figure out the certain genetic mutations that lead to a risk of type 2. Lifestyle Is Very Important, Too Genes do play a role in type 2 diabetes, but lifestyle choices are also important. You can, for example, have a genetic mutation that may make you susceptible to type 2, but if you take good care of your body, you may not develop diabetes. Say that two people have the same genetic mutation. One of them eats well, watches their cholesterol, and stays physically fit, and the other is overweight (BMI greater than 25) and inactive. The person who is overweight and inactive is much more likely to develop type 2 diabetes because certain lifestyle choices greatly influence how well your body uses insulin. Lack of exercise: Physical activity has many benefits—one of them being that it can help you avoid type 2 diabetes, if you’re susceptible. Unhealthy meal planning choices: A meal plan filled with high-fat foods and lacking in fiber (which you can get from grains, vegetables, and fruits) increases the likelihood of type 2. Overweight/Obesity: Lack of exercise and unhealthy me Continue reading >>

Genetic Causes Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Genetic Causes Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Most cases of diabetes mellitus type 2 involved many genes contributing small amount to the overall condition.[1] As of 2011 more than 36 genes have been found that contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes.[2] All of these genes together still only account for 10% of the total genetic component of the disease.[2] There are a number of rare cases of diabetes that arise due to an abnormality in a single gene (known as monogenic forms of diabetes).[1] These include maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), Donohue syndrome, and Rabson–Mendenhall syndrome, among others.[1] Maturity onset diabetes of the young constitute 1–5% of all cases of diabetes in young people.[3] Polygenic[edit] Genetic cause and mechanism of type 2 diabetes is largely unknown. However, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is one of many mechanisms that leads to increased risk for type 2 diabetes. To locate genes and loci that are responsible for the risk of type 2 diabetes, genome wide association studies (GWAS) was utilized to compare the genomes of diabetic patient group and the non-diabetic control group.[4] The diabetic patients’ genome sequences differ from the controls' genome in specific loci along and around numerous genes, and these differences in the nucleotide sequences alter phenotypic traits that exhibit increased susceptibility to the diabetes. GWAS has revealed 65 different loci (where single nucleotide sequences differ from the patient and control group's genomes), and genes associated with type 2 diabetes, including TCF7L2, PPARG, FTO, KCNJ11,NOTCH2, WFS1, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8, JAZF1, HHEX, DGKB, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, KCNQ1, HNF1A, HNF1B MC4R, GIPR, HNF4A, MTNR1B, PARG6, ZBED3, SLC30A8, CDKAL1, GLIS3, GCKR, among others.[4][5][6][7]KCNJ11 (potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfa Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Inheritance

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Inheritance

Type 1 diabetes is an inherited condition and individuals with a first degree relative who has the condition are at an increased risk of developing the condition. Details regarding the risk of inheriting type 1 diabetes are given below: In men with type 1 diabetes, the risk of their child also developing the condition is one in 17. In women with type 1 diabetes who have their baby before the age of 25, the risk of the child developing the condition is one in 25. If she has her baby after the age of 25, the risk falls to 1 in 100. If both parents have type 1 diabetes, the risk of the condition developing in offspring varies between 1 in 4 and 1 in 10. The risks are somewhat increased if one of the parents developed type 1 diabetes before the age of 11. Around 1 in 7 people with type 1 diabetes suffer from a condition called type 2 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome and these individuals have parathyroid and adrenal gland disorders in addition to type 1 diabetes. If one of the parents has type 2 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, the risk that the child will inherit the condition, including type 1 diabetes, is 50%. Genes associated with type 1 diabetes Some genes have repeatedly been identified in people with type 1 diabetes. Among white individuals, examples of such genes include the HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR4 genes. Carrying these genes raises the risk that offspring will inherit type 1 diabetes. Children born with the HLADR3/4-DQ8 genotype make up nearly 50% of all children who develop type 1 diabetes before they are 5 years of age. Some studies on other ethnic groups have shown that similar risks are associated with the HLA-DR7 genotype among African Americans and with the HLA-DR9 gene among Japanese individuals. Genetic studies have also located HLA class II genes at 6p21 and Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, specialized cells in the pancreas called beta cells stop producing insulin. Insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. Lack of insulin results in the inability to use glucose for energy or to control the amount of sugar in the blood. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age; however, it usually develops by early adulthood, most often starting in adolescence. The first signs and symptoms of the disorder are caused by high blood sugar and may include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet, and weight loss. These symptoms may recur during the course of the disorder if blood sugar is not well controlled by insulin replacement therapy. Improper control can also cause blood sugar levels to become too low (hypoglycemia). This may occur when the body's needs change, such as during exercise or if eating is delayed. Hypoglycemia can cause headache, dizziness, hunger, shaking, sweating, weakness, and agitation. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to a life-threatening complication called diabetic ketoacidosis. Without insulin, cells cannot take in glucose. A lack of glucose in cells prompts the liver to try to compensate by releasing more glucose into the blood, and blood sugar can become extremely high. The cells, unable to use the glucose in the blood for energy, respond by using fats instead. Breaking down fats to obtain energy produces waste products called ketones, which can build up to toxic levels in people with type 1 diabetes, resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis. Affected individuals may begin breathin Continue reading >>

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