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What Effect Does Insulin Have On The Storage Of Nutrients?

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, And Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, And Blood Sugar

The body uses three main nutrients to function-carbohydrate, protein, and fat. These nutrients are digested into simpler compounds. Carbohydrates are used for energy (glucose). Fats are used for energy after they are broken into fatty acids. Protein can also be used for energy, but the first job is to help with making hormones, muscle, and other proteins. Nutrients needed by the body and what they are used for Type of nutrient Where it is found How it is used Carbohydrate (starches and sugars) Breads Grains Fruits Vegetables Milk and yogurt Foods with sugar Broken down into glucose, used to supply energy to cells. Extra is stored in the liver. Protein Meat Seafood Legumes Nuts and seeds Eggs Milk products Vegetables Broken down into amino acids, used to build muscle and to make other proteins that are essential for the body to function. ADVERTISINGinRead invented by Teads Fat Oils Butter Egg yolks Animal products Broken down into fatty acids to make cell linings and hormones. Extra is stored in fat cells. After a meal, the blood sugar (glucose) level rises as carbohydrate is digested. This signals the beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose enter the body's cells to be used for energy. If all the glucose is not needed for energy, some of it is stored in fat cells and in the liver as glycogen. As sugar moves from the blood to the cells, the blood glucose level returns to a normal between-meal range. Several hormones and processes help regulate the blood sugar level and keep it within a certain range (70 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL). When the blood sugar level falls below that range, which may happen between meals, the body has at least three ways of reacting: Cells in the pancreas can release glucagon, a hormone that signals the b Continue reading >>

Insulin And Fat Storage

Insulin And Fat Storage

We left off last week with the question, “What prevents fat from leaving the fat cell?” If you missed out on it, you may want to read The Futility of Low-Calorie Diets. To quickly recap, we talked about the fact that your body has two main fuels: glucose (sugar) or fat. The preferred source of fuel is fat, but under certain circumstances, we can shift the body to using more sugar rather than fat. At times, such as being chased by a rabid dog, this is a good thing. However, it’s not a good thing if sugar remains the main fuel for most of the day. Relying on sugar means you’re not burning fat. Many people make lifestyle choices and nutrition decisions that have basically locked up their extra stored fat in their fat cells, making it useless for energy. The only way you can lose fat is if you use fat. You’ll be unsuccessful at losing fat if you don’t burn fat, even if you eat fewer calories and burn more through exercise. You can lose weight, but most of the loss will come from lean body mass, or muscle tissue, not fat. Fat Storage and Insulin The most significant factor in fat storage is the level of insulin in the blood. Insulin has many effects on the body. With respect to fat storage, insulin increases the storage of fat in fat cells and prevents fat cells from releasing fat for energy. This is such a key point for people to understand that I’ll repeat it: Insulin increases the storage of fat in fat cells and prevents the cells from releasing it for energy. Eight hormones stimulate fat utilization: epinephrine, norepinephrine, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), glucagon, thyroid-stimulating hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, vasopressin and growth hormone. One hormone prevents fat utilization: insulin. The pancreas releases insulin when blood suga Continue reading >>

Does Insulin Make You Fat?

Does Insulin Make You Fat?

Revision: What Happens When We Eat Carbs When we eat carbohydrates of any kind, we break them down into glucose molecules. This glucose is transported around the body in the bloodstream to the various bodily tissues to be used as energy. This circulating glucose is what is commonly called blood sugar. Our body generally wants to keep our blood sugar (blood glucose) stable and so tries to keep blood glucose levels within quite a narrow range (on average this is about 5.5 mmol/L but can vary among individuals). When our bodies detect a rise in blood glucose, it responds by getting the beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin. The insulin then acts to lower the level of glucose in the blood in two primary ways. First, it helps to move this glucose into muscle and fat cells (via glucose transporters). And second, it slows down the production of any more glucose molecules by the liver. These two actions cause glucose levels in the bloodstream to drop back to normal. Insulin and Fat Storage Insulin levels influence the creation and storage of carbohydrate, fat and protein in the body. It is involved in allowing these nutrients to be taken into cells and used for many different things. Important things like supplying muscles with an energy source, repairing muscle tissue, and supplying cell membranes with necessary fatty acids are all reliant on the action of insulin. At certain times though, these nutrients may not be needed immediately and so we may end up storing them. For example, if glucose is not required for energy immediately, it can be converted into glycogen and stored in the liver or muscle tissue. Insulin plays a role here too as it “turns on” the glycogen making process (glycogenesis). This is useful to us as we can breakdown this glycogen back into gluco Continue reading >>

All About Insulin

All About Insulin

What is insulin? Insulin is a peptide hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to increases in blood sugar, usually following a meal. However, you don’t have to eat a meal to secrete insulin. In fact, the pancreas always secretes a low level of insulin. After a meal, the amount of insulin secreted into the blood increases as blood sugar rises. Similarly, as blood sugar falls, insulin secretion by the pancreas decreases. Insulin thus acts as an “anabolic” or storage hormone. In fact, many have called insulin “the most anabolic hormone”. Once insulin is in the blood, it shuttles glucose (carbohydrates), amino acids, and blood fats into the cells of the body. If these nutrients are shuttled primarily into muscle cells, then the muscles grow and body fat is managed. If these nutrients are shuttled primarily into fat cells, then muscle mass is unchanged and body fat is increased. Insulin’s main actions Rapid (seconds) Increases transport of glucose, amino acids (among the amino acids most strongly transported are valine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine), and potassium into insulin-sensitive cells Intermediate (minutes) Stimulates protein synthesis (insulin increases the formation of new proteins) Activates enzymes that store glycogen Inhibits protein degradation Delayed (hours) Increases proteins and other enzymes for fat storage Why is insulin so important? The pancreas releases insulin whenever we consume food. In response to insulin, cells take in sugar from the bloodstream. This ultimately lowers high blood sugar levels back to a normal range. Like all hormones, insulin has important functions, and an optimal level. Without enough insulin, you lose all of the anabolic effects, since there is not enough insulin to transport or store energy Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Insulin On The Body

The Effects Of Insulin On The Body

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Its function is to allow other cells to transform glucose into energy throughout your body. Without insulin, cells are starved for energy and must seek an alternate source. This can lead to life-threatening complications. The Effects of Insulin on the Body Insulin is a natural hormone produced in the pancreas. When you eat, your pancreas releases insulin to help your body make energy out of sugars (glucose). It also helps you store energy. Insulin is a vital part of metabolism. Without it, your body would cease to function. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is no longer able to produce insulin. In Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas initially produces insulin, but the cells of your body are unable to make good use of the insulin (insulin resistance). Uncontrolled diabetes allows glucose to build up in the blood rather than being distributed to cells or stored. This can wreak havoc with virtually every part of your body. Complications of diabetes include kidney disease, nerve damage, eye problems, and stomach problems. People with Type 1 diabetes need insulin therapy to live. Some people with Type 2 diabetes must also take insulin therapy to control blood sugar levels and avoid complications. Insulin is usually injected into the abdomen, but it can also be injected into the upper arms, thighs, or buttocks. Injection sites should be rotated within the same general location. Frequent injections in the same spot can cause fatty deposits that make delivery of insulin more difficult. Some people use a pump, which delivers insulin through a catheter placed underneath the skin of the abdomen. When you eat, food travels to your stomach and small intestines where it is broken down into nutrients. The nutrients are absorbed and distributed v Continue reading >>

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

Tweet Insulin is a hormone which plays a key role in the regulation of blood glucose levels. A lack of insulin, or an inability to adequately respond to insulin, can each lead to the development of the symptoms of diabetes. In addition to its role in controlling blood sugar levels, insulin is also involved in the storage of fat. Insulin is a hormone which plays a number of roles in the body’s metabolism. Insulin regulates how the body uses and stores glucose and fat. Many of the body’s cells rely on insulin to take glucose from the blood for energy. Insulin and blood glucose levels Insulin helps control blood glucose levels by signaling the liver and muscle and fat cells to take in glucose from the blood. Insulin therefore helps cells to take in glucose to be used for energy. If the body has sufficient energy, insulin signals the liver to take up glucose and store it as glycogen. The liver can store up to around 5% of its mass as glycogen. Some cells in the body can take glucose from the blood without insulin, but most cells do require insulin to be present. Insulin and type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body produces insufficient insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. Without the presence of insulin, many of the body’s cells cannot take glucose from the blood and therefore the body uses other sources of energy. Ketones are produced by the liver as an alternative source of energy, however, high levels of the ketones can lead to a dangerous condition called ketoacidosis. People with type 1 diabetes will need to inject insulin to compensate for their body’s lack of insulin. Insulin and type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body not responding effectively to insulin. This is termed insulin resistance. As a result the body is less able to t Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin And It’s Connection To Fat Storage

What Is Insulin And It’s Connection To Fat Storage

Insulin is one of those words that everybody’s heard of, but many can’t actually explain. Asked what it is and why it’s important, they shuffle their feet and uncomfortably shrug their shoulders. For those people concerned with controlling their body fat levels (and who isn’t?) that creates a problem. Insulin, you see, has a critical part to play in determining whether your body is lean and mean or flabby and lethargic. Let’s find out how. The Carb / Insulin Connection Every piece of food that we eat travels down into our stomach and is broken down into small particles that travel through the gastro-intestinal tract. When that food is in the form of carbohydrate it gets broken down into glucose. Now, your body can only use so much of that glucose at any one time. What doesn’t get used gets stored by your body. To transport that spill-over glucose to its storage site, your body produces a hormone called insulin. You could liken insulin to a railway carriage cart that carries glucose around the body. If the body didn’t produce insulin, we’d end up with a whole lot of excess sugar in the blood. This would make the blood extremely thick and difficult to move through the veins and arteries. This would require the heart to pump a lot harder to move the blood around the body. The Fat Storage Train There are only a couple of places that the insulin can carry the extra glucose to. The first place is the liver. There it will either be used or moved on to the next location, which is the muscle cell. The more muscle we have, the more glucose is required for maintenance and energy. That’s why the more muscle you have, the leaner you will be. If the muscle cell rejects the glucose that is offered to it because it’s already saturated, that glucose will then be stor Continue reading >>

Insulin Made Simple

Insulin Made Simple

Most people are vaguely aware that insulin has a relationship to blood sugar levels, but unless they have diabetes or live with someone who does, they know little more than that. Our six questions and answers explain how insulin works and its relationship to metabolic syndrome. What is insulin? It’s a hormone made and released by the pancreas, an organ or gland that is part of your endocrine system. What causes the pancreas to make and release insulin? Your blood sugar (glucose) level needs to remain within a relatively narrow range to avoid an overload. When it rises as a result of consuming foods full of sugar, white flour and other quickly metabolized carbohydrates, the pancreas receives a signal to produce insulin to carry glucose to the cells. There glucose is at the ready to provide energy as needed. What happens to excess glucose? When you consume more carbs than necessary to meet energy requirements, the excess glucose has to be transported and stored somewhere. Insulin helps convert the excess carbohydrate foods you eat into either glycogen (the storage form of carbohydrate in the muscles) or into fat stored in fat cells. How does that relate to fat buildup? Insulin promotes the storage of nutrients and simultaneously blocks the breakdown (metabolism) of protein, fat and carbohydrate in the body. When the insulin level rises, it puts the brakes on burning fat for fuel and simultaneously encourages fat storage. How can you avoid storing fat? When you limit your carb consumption, you stimulate increased fat burning and decreased fat storage. In fact, fat breakdown and fat burning are exquisitely sensitive to changes in the amount of insulin released in response to dietary carbohydrate. Small decreases in insulin can almost immediately significantly increase fat Continue reading >>

How Insulin And Glucagon Work To Regulate Blood Sugar Levels

How Insulin And Glucagon Work To Regulate Blood Sugar Levels

The pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon, both of which play a vital role in regulating blood sugar levels. The two hormones work in balance. If the level of one hormone is outside the ideal range, blood sugar levels may spike or drop. Together, insulin and glucagon help keep conditions inside the body steady. When blood sugar is too high, the pancreas secretes more insulin. When blood sugar levels drop, the pancreas releases glucagon to bring them back up. Blood sugar and health The body converts carbohydrates from food into sugar (glucose), which serves as a vital source of energy. Blood sugar levels vary throughout the day but, in most instances, insulin and glucagon keep these levels normal. Health factors including insulin resistance, diabetes, and problems with diet can cause a person's blood sugar levels to soar or plummet. Blood sugar levels are measured in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dl). Ideal blood sugar ranges are as follows: Before breakfast - levels should be less than 100 mg/dl for a person without diabetes and 70-130 mg/dl for a person with diabetes. Two hours after meals - levels should be less than 140 mg/dl for a person without diabetes and less than 180 mg/dl for a person with diabetes. Blood sugar regulation Blood sugar levels are a measure of how effectively an individual's body uses glucose. When the body does not convert enough glucose for use, blood sugar levels remain high. Insulin helps the body's cells absorb glucose, lowering blood sugar and providing the cells with the glucose they need for energy. When blood sugar levels are too low, the pancreas releases glucagon. Glucagon forces the liver to release stored glucose, which causes the blood sugar to rise. Insulin and glucagon are both released by islet cells in the pancreas. These cells Continue reading >>

Understanding Our Bodies: Insulin

Understanding Our Bodies: Insulin

Almost everyone has heard of Insulin. You probably know that people with type 1 diabetes need to inject themselves with insulin to survive, and must constantly monitor the amount of sugar they eat. But what do you really know about insulin? What is its purpose in the body, and why do we need it? How does it relate to our diets? What happens when things go wrong with it? And why should anyone who doesn’t have diabetes give a hoot? Insulin is one of the most important hormones in the human body, and yet most people don’t really understand why our bodies make it or how what we eat affects the levels of insulin we produce. More so than any other hormone, our diet is key in regulating insulin levels, and thus a number of biological processes. As you’ll soon see, everyone should think about how what they eat impacts their body’s insulin release to be at their happiest and healthiest. Why We Need Insulin Every living thing requires energy to survive. In cells, energy is stored and shuttled around using a molecule called Adenosine Tri-Phosphate, or ATP. Whenever the cell then has an energy-requiring reaction, enzymes can use the energy stored in ATP’s phosphate bonds to fuel it. Cells rely on ATP to survive, and to create ATP, they rely on glucose. All cells, from bacteria and fungi to us, take glucose and use it to generate ATP by a process called Oxidative Phosphorylation. First, glucose is converted to an intermediate molecule called pyruvate via a process called glycolosis. As long as there is oxygen around, this pyruvate is further converted to Acetyl CoA, which enters a cycle of reactions called the Citric Acid Cycle. This takes the carbon to carbon bonds and uses them to create high energy electrons, which are then passed down a chain of enzymes which use the e Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone; a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body to have an action on another. It is a protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels as part of metabolism.1 The body manufactures insulin in the pancreas, and the hormone is secreted by its beta cells, primarily in response to glucose.1 The beta cells of the pancreas are perfectly designed "fuel sensors" stimulated by glucose.2 As glucose levels rise in the plasma of the blood, uptake and metabolism by the pancreas beta cells are enhanced, leading to insulin secretion.1 Insulin has two modes of action on the body - an excitatory one and an inhibitory one:3 Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and lipid synthesis It inhibits the breakdown of lipids, proteins and glycogen, and inhibits the glucose pathway (gluconeogenesis) and production of ketone bodies (ketogenesis). What is the pancreas? The pancreas is the organ responsible for controlling sugar levels. It is part of the digestive system and located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and next to the duodenum - the first part of the small intestine.4 The pancreas has two main functional components:4,5 Exocrine cells - cells that release digestive enzymes into the gut via the pancreatic duct The endocrine pancreas - islands of cells known as the islets of Langerhans within the "sea" of exocrine tissue; islets release hormones such as insulin and glucagon into the blood to control blood sugar levels. Islets are highly vascularized (supplied by blood vessels) and specialized to monitor nutrients in the blood.2 The alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon while the beta cells - the most abundant of the islet cells - release insulin.5 The release of insulin in response to elevated glucose has two phases - a first around 5-10 minutes after g Continue reading >>

Functions Of Insulin

Functions Of Insulin

Insulin is a protein-based hormone that is made by the beta cells of the pancreas. Most people know that insulin is the hormone that helps the body’s cells put glucose into the cells for use as cellular fuel. In the absence of insulin, the cells do not have enough biochemical energy so they must use other nutrients in order to function. Without insulin, life-threatening complications can occur due to high blood sugar levels. Insulin and Metabolism When a person eats a meal containing glucose (or any other carbohydrate), the pancreas secretes insulin so that the glucose absorbed by the cells can be used for cellular metabolism. Insulin essential for cell metabolism and, without it, the individual would die. In type 1 diabetics, the pancreas cannot secrete insulin so the blood sugars go higher. The cells do not get enough glucose for cellular metabolism. In type 2 diabetes, there is usually enough insulin secreted; however, the cells are resistant to insulin and glucose cannot get into the cells for cellular metabolism. If diabetes is left unchecked, glucose builds up in the bloodstream and doesn’t get passed along to the cells nor is it stored as glycogen in the liver. This can damage many bodily organs and tissues, including the eyes, nerves, blood vessels, and kidneys. Insulin replacement is necessary for type 1 diabetes because these types of diabetics don’t get enough insulin from the pancreas to do its job. In some cases, type 2 diabetics need insulin because their pancreas has been overworked and is tired, damaging the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin is injected into the fatty tissue, usually in the abdomen; however, other good sites for injection of insulin is the buttocks, thighs, or upper arms. Insulin’s action on the Digestive System When a person e Continue reading >>

Insulin, Nutrition, And Your Health

Insulin, Nutrition, And Your Health

Do you know what insulin resistance is? How about insulin sensitivity? Both are terms that are used regularly in the media and by public health professionals, but do you find yourself confused about what insulin health actually is? Optimal insulin health is a fine balance between the type of food you eat, when you eat it, and how much activity you get. Insulin plays a primary role in managing body composition by mediating fat burning and energy levels, and it is thereby involved in the development of lean mass. Although insulin health is a complicated process, managing it is probably one of the most important things you can do to feel better and achieve a lean physique. In this article, the basics of insulin health will be reviewed. It will look at how insulin health influences body composition and energy production, and provide simple strategies for improving it. What is Insulin? Insulin is a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas—an organ that sits behind the stomach—primarily after you eat carbohydrates, but also in response to other foods such as whey protein. When you eat carbs and they are absorbed into the bloodstream, they elevate your blood sugar (also called blood glucose), which the pancreas detects. The pancreas secretes insulin in order to help the body process the blood glucose. In a healthy body, the insulin binds with receptors on your cells. When a cell has insulin attached to it via the receptor, the cell activates other receptors (that act like messengers) to absorb the glucose from the blood stream into the cell to be used for energy. What is Insulin Resistance? Insulin resistance is a continuum; it’s not that you are either insulin resistance or insulin sensitive. These are not absolute terms, and the good news is that you can shift your how Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

When people eat a food containing carbohydrates, the digestive system breaks down the digestible ones into sugar, which enters the blood. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that prompts cells to absorb blood sugar for energy or storage. As cells absorb blood sugar, levels in the bloodstream begin to fall. When this happens, the pancreas start making glucagon, a hormone that signals the liver to start releasing stored sugar. This interplay of insulin and glucagon ensure that cells throughout the body, and especially in the brain, have a steady supply of blood sugar. Carbohydrate metabolism is important in the development of type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the body can’t make enough insulin or can’t properly use the insulin it makes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops gradually over a number of years, beginning when muscle and other cells stop responding to insulin. This condition, known as insulin resistance, causes blood sugar and insulin levels to stay high long after eating. Over time, the heavy demands made on the insulin-making cells wears them out, and insulin production eventually stops. Glycemic index In the past, carbohydrates were commonly classified as being either “simple” or “complex,” and described as follows: Simple carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of sugars (such as fructose and glucose) which have simple chemical structures composed of only one sugar (monosaccharides) or two sugars (disaccharides). Simple carbohydrates are easily and quickly utilized for energy by the body because of their simple chemical structure, often leading to a faster rise in blood sugar and insulin secretion from the pancreas – which can have negative health effects. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates have mo Continue reading >>

Insulin Effects In Muscle And Adipose Tissue.

Insulin Effects In Muscle And Adipose Tissue.

Abstract The major effects of insulin on muscle and adipose tissue are: (1) Carbohydrate metabolism: (a) it increases the rate of glucose transport across the cell membrane, (b) it increases the rate of glycolysis by increasing hexokinase and 6-phosphofructokinase activity, (c) it stimulates the rate of glycogen synthesis and decreases the rate of glycogen breakdown. (2) Lipid metabolism: (a) it decreases the rate of lipolysis in adipose tissue and hence lowers the plasma fatty acid level, (b) it stimulates fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in tissues, (c) it increases the uptake of triglycerides from the blood into adipose tissue and muscle, (d) it decreases the rate of fatty acid oxidation in muscle and liver. (3) Protein metabolism: (a) it increases the rate of transport of some amino acids into tissues, (b) it increases the rate of protein synthesis in muscle, adipose tissue, liver, and other tissues, (c) it decreases the rate of protein degradation in muscle (and perhaps other tissues). These insulin effects serve to encourage the synthesis of carbohydrate, fat and protein, therefore, insulin can be considered to be an anabolic hormone. Continue reading >>

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