How Does Diabetes Affect The Immune System?
Diabetes, as we know, is a complicated disorder. When you have diabetes, there is a host of other diseases that you will be exposed to including cardiovascular diseases, kidney-related conditions, and others. However, diabetes also weakens the immunity system of the patient’s body. It is a metabolic disorder that exposes you to various unwanted infections and other conditions. In this article, we shall try to understand how diabetes adversely affects the immune system. Following are some of the ways in which diabetes can affect the immunity system of the patient: – It is a well-known fact that type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. This indicates that type 1 diabetes weakens the body’s immune system and the same is responsible for destroying the beta cells of the pancreas. It is these cells which enable the pancreas to produce insulin. Without insulin, the glucose from the food cannot be utilized efficiently and patients experience high blood glucose levels. – Besides, when you have diabetes, the response of the immunity system towards bacteria and viruses also reduces to a great extent, causing infections and other diseases in diabetes patients. Those that have diabetes will normally have more infections and the same will also take a longer time to get healed. – Another reason why the number of infectious diseases in those with diabetes is high is that the various microorganisms affect the patients with diabetes much more than those who are not diabetic. – The high levels of blood glucose often experienced by diabetes patients have also been held responsible for the weak immune system in a person who suffers from diabetes. – To begin with, when you have high blood glucose in the body, the microorganisms are able to better thrive in the environment cau Continue reading >>
Immune Dysfunction In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus (dm).
Abstract Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have infections more often than those without DM. The course of the infections is also more complicated in this patient group. One of the possible causes of this increased prevalence of infections is defects in immunity. Besides some decreased cellular responses in vitro, no disturbances in adaptive immunity in diabetic patients have been described. Different disturbances (low complement factor 4, decreased cytokine response after stimulation) in humoral innate immunity have been described in diabetic patients. However, the clinical relevance of these findings is not clear. Concerning cellular innate immunity most studies show decreased functions (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, killing) of diabetic polymorphonuclear cells and diabetic monocytes/macrophages compared to cells of controls. In general, a better regulation of the DM leads to an improvement of these cellular functions. Furthermore, some microorganisms become more virulent in a high glucose environment. Another mechanism which can lead to the increased prevalence of infections in diabetic patients is an increased adherence of microorganisms to diabetic compared to nondiabetic cells. This has been described for Candida albicans. Possibly the carbohydrate composition of the receptor plays a role in this phenomenon. Continue reading >>
How Diabetes Affects Immune System
How Diabetes affects Immune system ? Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that affects how the body uses food for energy due to insulin resistance. Diabetes affects the metabolism as well as the immune system. The disease causes the immune system to destroy insulin producing cells within the pancreas. The immune response is also much lower in people who have diabetes so they are more susceptible to getting infections that could result in the loss of a limb. Diabetes is widely recognized as one of the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. In 2006, it was the seventh leading cause of death. However, diabetes is likely to be underreported as the under lying cause of death on death certifi cates. In 2004, among people ages 65 years or older, heart disease was noted on 68 percent of diabetes-related death certifi cates; stroke was noted on 16 percent of diabetes-related death certificates for the same age group. Diabetes is associated with long-term complications that affect almost every part of the body. The disease often leads to blindness, heart and blood vessel disease, stroke, kidney failure, amputations, and nerve damage. Uncontrolled diabetes can complicate pregnancy, and birth defects are more common in babies born to women with diabetes. People with diabetes should see a health care provider who will help them learn to manage their diabetes and who will monitor their diabetes control. Most people with diabetes get care from primary care physicians—internists, family practice doctors, or pediatricians. Often, having a team of providers can improve diabetes care. A team can include a primary care provider such as an internist, a family practice doctor, or a pediatrician an endocrinologist—a specialist in diabetes care a dietitian, a nurse, and o Continue reading >>
What Infections Are You At Risk For With Diabetes?
People with diabetes are more susceptible to developing infections, as high blood sugar levels can weaken the patient's immune system defenses. In addition, some diabetes-related health issues, such as nerve damage and reduced blood flow to the extremities, increase the body's vulnerability to infection. What Kinds of Infections Are Most Likely If You Have Diabetes? When you have diabetes, you are especially prone to foot infections, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, yeast cells (Candida albicans) are more likely to colonize the mucous membranes (e.g., mouth, vagina, nose) in people with diabetes. These Candida cells then interfere with the normal infection-fighting action of white blood cells. With white blood cells impaired, Candida can replicate unchecked, causing yeast infections. High blood sugar levels contribute to this process. Other Sources of Diabetes-Related Infection Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage) causes problems with sensation, particularly in the feet. This lack of sensation sometimes means foot injuries go unnoticed. Untreated injuries can lead to infection. Some types of neuropathy can also lead to dry, cracked skin, which allows a convenient entry point for infection into the body. People with diabetes often have low blood flow to the extremities. With less blood flow, the body is less able to mobilize normal immune defenses and nutrients that promote the body's ability to fight infection and promote healing. Why Are Infections Risky for People With Diabetes? People with diabetes are more adversely affected when they get an infection than someone without the disease, because you have weakened immune defenses in diabetes. Studies have shown that even those who have minimally elevated blood sugar le Continue reading >>
6 Ways To Boost Your Immunity With Diabetes
Diabetes is often considered an autoimmune disease, especially type 1. The body is unable to produce any insulin. In type 2, the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not use it correctly. Either kind of diabetes can lower the actions of the immune system. People with diabetes are more prone to sickness and infection due to reduced action of white blood cells. Discover ways to boost your immunity with either type of diabetes and combat attacks from invaders such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Portion Size and Carbohydrates Make a Difference The foods we eat can boost our immune system and may help people with diabetes control blood sugar levels. Conversely, the wrong foods can be unhealthy and cause our blood sugar levels to rise which ends up decreasing our immunity. Portion control is crucial as weight gain can harm the immune system by increasing inflammation and make it more difficult to control blood sugar levels. Consider using portion plates to determine the proper amount of protein, carbohydrates and vegetables to serve during each meal. Never skip meals and always test your blood sugars as suggested. If snacks are recommended (depending on your medication regimen) eat them when scheduled. It may also be helpful to count calories. Too many calories can lead to weight gain which causes the immune system to slack. Instead of actual counting of calories, use a small kitchen scale or cup measurements to help you visualize portion size. After a while you will understand what a true portion is. You can also use common objects such as a fist, thumb, tennis ball or deck of cards to realize what a reasonable portion really looks like. Counting carbohydrates is critical to keeping blood sugars controlled and immune systems working properly. Schedule an app Continue reading >>
Immune (lymphatic) System And Diabetes - Components, White Blood Cells
The immune system is also known as the lymphatic system The immune system plays an important role in the body by keeping us free from infection. As with other organ systems, problems with the immune system can occur, leading to the development of long term conditions, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes . The role of the immune system is to protect the body from bacteria, viruses and tumours. The immune system deals with these threats in a number of different ways, from engulfing bacteria to killing parasites, tumours and cells infected with viruses. The following organs make up the immune system: A key part of the immune system are the white blood cells which are produced by bone marrow and help the immune system to perform its role. Bone marrow is a spongy tissue found within bones. Bone marrow is responsible for producing red and white blood cells . White blood cells play an important role in how the body fights infection. Read more about bone marrow Link to new content The thymus is an organ located between the heart and the breast bone. The thymus produces hormones involved in the immune system and is also responsible for the maturation of powerful immune cells called lymphocytes. The spleen is located between the stomach and the diaphragm and performs a number of activities for the immune system. The spleen filters bacteria and viruses out of the blood and stores red blood cells and lymphocytes for release when required. For example, if the body contracts an infection, the spleen can release a ready supply of lymphocytes to control the infection. The lymph nodes are situated at several parts of the body including at the: The lymph nodes filter the lymph fluid and white blood cells attack any bacteria or viruses that are present. The white blood cells play a very Continue reading >>
Can High Blood Sugar Affect The Immune System?
When you have an injury or infection, your body sends white blood cells to heal the damaged tissue. But too much glucose in your blood can slow the work of white blood cells, resulting in cuts and bruises that never seem to heal. Even minor injuries like a cut with a razor will take longer to heal and may become infected. When your blood sugar goes up above 200, your white blood cells can't fight really well. And that weakens your immune system. Continue reading >>
What Is The Immune System?
Your immune system protects you from some things and tolerates others. To maintain health, the balance between a destructive response and a tolerant one has to be just right. To understand the autoimmune attack of beta cells in type 1 diabetes, it helps to understand how the immune system normally functions. In humans, the immune system protects the person from outside invaders (also known as pathogens), such as bacteria or viruses, and abnormal or diseased cells, such as cancer cells. Additionally, the immune response allows some foreign material and normal cells for each individual (or “self”) to be tolerated. The balance between a destructive response and a tolerant response has to be just right; otherwise, people get autoimmune medical problems. On this page you will learn about: Lymphocytes & Immune Organs The immune cells are called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. Important immune organs or sites in the body are the thymus, bone marrow and lymph nodes. Lymphocytes include: T cells that can attack or kill infected or defective cells, and also regulate the immune response. The T cell receptors (TCRs) on their cell surface recognize and respond to foreign or abnormal tissue. This process is called cell-mediated immunity. See the glossary below for more about the different types of T cells B cells that make antibodies. B cells are involved in humoral – related to the blood – immunity. NK (natural killer) cells that cause cell death. Immune organs include: The thymus – a gland in the chest that programs the immune system. An important function is to choose and develop T cells that will protect the body and to eliminate T cells that could attack the body. Bone marrow – the source of precursor, or stem cells that can turn into new blood cells. Lymph Continue reading >>
Diabetic Complications And Dysregulated Innate Immunity
Go to: 2. INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease estimated to affect over 19 million people in the United States. Based on an evaluation of NHANES 1999-2002, the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes was estimated at 9.3% in U.S. adults, with an additional 26% having the prediabetic condition of impaired fasting glucose (1). The two major forms of diabetes mellitus are type 1 and type 2. They share similar diabetic complications but have distinct etiologies. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and insufficient amounts of insulin are produced. In most cases, type 1 diabetes is due to autoimmune-induced inflammation with destruction and apoptosis of beta cells (2). This is usually associated with infiltration of innate immune cells that produce cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) which promote beta cell apoptosis and increased infiltration of islet-specific T cells which attack and destroy beta cells (3). Approximately 90% of patients with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (4). The development of type 2 diabetes is directly related to increased amounts of visceral adipose tissue (5, 6). Weight gain in early adulthood is linked to a higher risk and earlier onset of type 2 diabetes and is particularly troublesome considering that the incidence of obesity has increased progressively over the last 5 decades (7, 8). Adipose tissue is viewed as an active hormone-regulating organ that releases metabolically active molecules that can inhibit the body’s ability to respond to insulin contributing to insulin resistance (9). Early in the development of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance requires the production of extra insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels. In the majority of obese individua Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes Linked To Immune System
The subject who is truly loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures. For decades, scientists have known that in type 1 diabetes the body's immune system malfunctions and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Insulin is the hormone that plays a key role in moving glucose, or sugar, from the bloodstream into the body's tissues where it's needed for energy. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, has never been considered an autoimmune disorder. People with this condition produce insulin but they don't use it very efficiently - although scientists don't know why. A new study by researchers at Stanford University and the University of Toronto, however, suggests that type 2 diabetes may involve immune-system abnormalities after all. In a series of laboratory experiments, the researchers found they could cause a mouse to develop this form of diabetes by manipulating its immune system. The researchers also found that blood samples of people with type 2 diabetes contained antibodies against some of their own proteins. In other words, their immune systems have turned on them. "This data is highly suggestive that there is an autoimmune component in type 2 diabetes," said Daniel Winer, one of the study's lead authors, along with his twin brother, Shawn Winer, both at the University of Toronto. If further research confirms these findings, published in the journal Nature Medicine, it could lead to new type 2 diabetes treatments that focus on the immune system. Continue reading >>
Does Diabetes Affect Your Immune System?-how To Boost It Naturally
What is the immune system? The immune system is without a doubt the most important system in your body. It is the center of your system. But does diabetes affect your immune system? It most certainly does and when it is compromised then you need to learn how to boost the immune system naturally. Your immune system is your defense against any invaders either from outside your body or from inside your body. Once your blood sugar is elevated, it affects your immune system. We have to get your immune system back up and working in top notch form again. If these invaders are not stopped, they can cause disease or even death. You cannot take lightly how crucial your immune system is. As far as toxins go, the less you have the better off you are and the more you have the worse it is for your health. You have to turn things around and reverse an immune system that isn’t healthy. Three factors determine the health of your immune system You are what you eat. Isn’t that what was always said? It’s true. Bad eating will weaken your immune system and healthy eating will strengthen your immune system. You should know that fruits and vegetables are what you should be feeding your body. Foods with sugar are the worst for you. There are suppressors that are toxic to your body and your immune system. Examples are chemicals, metals, and even radiation that will disrupt the health of your immune system. Refined sugars in your diet can damage your immune system too because of the bacteria and fungi which are fed on from the sugars. Is it heredity? If it’s in your genes, there isn’t anything you can do about that. But some folks eat healthy and do everything right and will die early and others eat junk and don’t look after their health and live a longer life. Or maybe you’re sick Continue reading >>
Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia
As the incidence of diabetes mellitus continues to rise, common focus areas for diabetes control are blood glucose levels, diet, and exercise. Addressing and controlling these factors as well as other factors associated with diabetes are essential for a better quality of life; however, awareness of an increased risk of infections is also warranted in diabetes patients with chronic hyperglycemia. The immune system is comprised of two subcategories: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity, the first line of defense, is activated when a pathogen initially presents itself. This portion of immunity is inherited at birth and is not specific in its mechanism of defense. In addition, it serves the overall immune system by alerting specific cells of pathogen invasion to activate the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system has physical and chemical mechanisms of response. These include but are not limited to sneezing, coughing, sweating, maintenance of normal body temperature, and gram-positive normal flora on the skin. Adaptive immunity is a very specific aspect of a properly functioning immune system that provides protection against previous infections experienced by the host. These responses are mediated by lymphocytes, which consist of natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T cells. Vaccinations and exposure to pathogens benefit the adaptive immune system by establishing immunologic memory. In the event of another attack by the same foreign organism, the adaptive immune system is able to provide a more efficient response. Complications of Chronic Hyperglycemia Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are considered immunosuppressed due to the negative effects of elevated blood sugars on the immune system. Hyperglycemia impairs overall immunity through diffe Continue reading >>
The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body
When you hear the word “diabetes,” your first thought is likely about high blood sugar. Blood sugar is an often-underestimated component of your health. When it’s out of whack over a long period of time, it could develop into diabetes. Diabetes affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin, a hormone that allows your body to turn glucose (sugar) into energy. Here’s what symptoms may occur to your body when diabetes takes effect. Diabetes can be effectively managed when caught early. However, when left untreated, it can lead to potential complications that include heart disease, stroke, kidney damage, and nerve damage. Normally after you eat or drink, your body will break down sugars from your food and use them for energy in your cells. To accomplish this, your pancreas needs to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin is what facilitates the process of pulling sugar from the blood and putting it in the cells for use, or energy. If you have diabetes, your pancreas either produces too little insulin or none at all. The insulin can’t be used effectively. This allows blood glucose levels to rise while the rest of your cells are deprived of much-needed energy. This can lead to a wide variety of problems affecting nearly every major body system. The effects of diabetes on your body also depends on the type you have. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1, also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is an immune system disorder. Your own immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying your body’s ability to make insulin. With type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin to live. Most people are diagnosed as a child or young adult. Type 2 is related to insulin resistance. It used to occur i Continue reading >>
How Does Type 1 Diabetes Affect The Immune System?
ANSWER What experts do know is that when you have type 1 diabetes, something goes wrong with your immune system. It destroys beta cells in your pancreas responsible for making a hormone called insulin. Insulin allows glucose -- or sugar -- to get into your cells, where it's turned into energy. But if you have type 1 diabetes, your body doesn't make insulin. Glucose builds up in your bloodstream and, over time, can cause serious health problems. Continue reading >>
10 Little-known Facts About Your Immune System
I honestly thought that with Type 1 diabetes, my immune system was shot to hell. But my husband and oldest daughter always get sick faster and longer than I do. Somehow I seem to fight off "bugs" better than they do. How can this be? Curious as ever, I spent a little time looking into the human immune system and found some pretty intriguing trivia, compiled here for your reading pleasure: 1) Type 1 diabetes doesn't hamper the day-to-day activity of your immune system if you have good blood glucose control. "The autoimmune part of type 1 is very particular, as only the beta cells in the islets are targeted; not the other cells in the islet, and not the other cells in the pancreas. In all of the usual ways, the immune system is just fine," my co-author Dr. Jackson tells me. "There are a few other autoimmune endocrine disorders that are slightly more likely if you have type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common, resulting in either an overactive or underactive thyroid." 2) Autoimmune (AI) disease is primarily a women's issue. This according to Rosalind Joffe in her new book, "Women, Work, and Autoimmune Disease" (due out in May '08). The ratios of AI diseases vary from 2:1 to 50:1 in favor of women, she says. 3) Allergies are also an "immune system mistake." "For some reason, in people with allergies, the immune system strongly reacts to an allergen that should be ignored. The allergen might be a certain food, or a certain type of pollen, or a certain type of animal fur. For example, a person allergic to a certain pollen will get a runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, etc." 4) Your immune system is a three-layer deal. Backing up for a moment, did you know that the immune system is composed of these three "layers" or mechanisms? (info from Bio-Medicine) i) Continue reading >>