Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people aged over 40 years. However, an increasing number of younger people, even children, are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The first-line treatment is diet, weight control and physical activity. If the blood sugar (glucose) level remains high despite these measures then tablets to reduce the blood glucose level are usually advised. Insulin injections are needed in some cases. Other treatments include reducing blood pressure if it is high, lowering high cholesterol levels and also using other measures to reduce the risk of complications. Although diabetes cannot be cured, it can be treated successfully. If a high blood sugar level is brought down to a normal level, your symptoms will ease. You still have some risk of complications in the long term if your blood glucose level remains even mildly high - even if you have no symptoms in the short term. However, studies have shown that people who have better glucose control have fewer complications (such as heart disease or eye problems) compared with those people who have poorer control of their glucose level. Therefore, the main aims of treatment are: To keep your blood glucose level as near normal as possible. To reduce any other risk factors that may increase your risk of developing complications. In particular, to lower your blood pressure if it is high and to keep your blood lipids (cholesterol) low. To detect any complications as early as possible. Treatment can prevent or delay some complications from becoming worse. Type 2 diabetes is usually initially treated by following a healthy diet, losing weight if you are overweight, and having regular physical activity. If lifestyle advice does not control your blood sugar (glucose) levels then medicines are used to help lower your Continue reading >>
6 Things To Do If Your Blood Sugar Is Too High
Grapefruit also has a low glycemic index (GI), around 25, which means it doesn't raise blood sugar as quickly or as much as high-GI foods like white bagel (72) or even a banana (48) or watermelon (72). (The highest GI score is 100.) A 2006 study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food, found that people who ate grapefruit (juice or half a fruit) before a meal had a lower spike in insulin two hours later than those taking a placebo, and fresh grapefruit was associated with less insulin resistance. All 91 patients in the 12-week study were obese, but they did not necessarily have type 2 diabetes. While the results are promising in those without diabetes, blood-sugar reactions to food can vary widely, so if you have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, test your blood sugar after eating grapefruit to make sure it can be part of your healthy eating plan. Getty Images Blood sugar is a tricky little beast. Yes, you can get a high reading if you throw caution to the wind and eat several slices of cake at a wedding. The problem is that you can also have a high blood sugar reading if you follow every rule in the type 2 diabetes handbook. That's because it's not just food that affects blood sugar. You could have a cold coming on, or stress may have temporarily boosted your blood sugar. The reading could be wrong, and you need to repeat it. Or it could mean that your medicine is no longer working, and it's time to try a new one. The point is, it's the pattern that matters, not a single reading. Whatever you do, don't feel bad or guilty if you have a high blood sugar reading. A 2004 study found that blood sugar monitoring often amplifies feelings of being a "success" or "failure" at diabetes, and when readings are consistently high, it can trigger feelings of anxiety or self-bla Continue reading >>
What Does Mg/dl Mean?
Mg/dL, or milligrams per deciliter, is a measurement that indicates the amount of a particular substance (such as glucose) in a specific amount of blood. SOURCES: American Diabetes Association. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. xylitol.org.News release, FDA. Reviewed by Michael Dansinger on January 20, 2017 SOURCES: American Diabetes Association. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. xylitol.org.News release, FDA. Reviewed by Michael Dansinger on January 20, 2017 When should you call a doctor or podiatrist about your diabetes-related skin issues? THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911. This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information. Continue reading >>
Blood Glucose Measurement (bm)
Foreword Blood glucose monitoring, or BM, is the skill where you test a patient’s blood to assess the glucose (sugar) levels within the blood. Patients with diabetes mellitus will perform this on themselves daily to monitor their glucose levels. It is therefore performed routinely on diabetic patients in hospital and also in all unconscious/collapsed patients that are brought into A&E to ensure the patient is not having a hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic episode. It is an easy skill to master and should gain you good marks in an OSCE, the difficulty often lies in interpretation of the results. Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com Step 01 Ensure you have all necessary equipment for the procedure: Gloves. An alcohol wipe. Test strips. Spring loaded lancet. Cotton wool. Step 02 Introduce yourself and explain the procedure to the patient. The patient may be used to performing this procedure on themselves, however it is important to make sure of this and that you have their consent. Step 03 Wash your hands and put on your gloves. Turn on the glucose monitor and ensure that it has been calibrated. If not, insert the calibration strip and allow it to calibrate. Step 04 Clean the tip of one of the patient’s fingers with an alcohol wipe and allow it to dry. Note that any sugar on the patient’s finger from a sweet/candy will give a falsely elevated reading. Step 05 Prepare the test strip, ensuring that it is still in date. Load it into the glucose monitor. Step 06 Open the lancet carefully. Prick the side of the patient’s finger with the lancet and squeeze the finger. Wipe away the first drop of blood and squeeze the finger again to form another drop. Place this Continue reading >>
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Newly Diagonosed Strang Bm Readings
My 10 year Daughter has been very recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. We were discharged from hospital tonight. At bed time she took her glcose and it was 25.4, I decided to redo it an hour later and the meter said it was hi over 27.8, re did it at got the same reading. I phoned the childrens ward and they were very unhelpful. Any advice. Thanks First, I want you to know that I am not a medical professional, so my input/advice is based on personal experience and knowledge from taking care of my son who is living with type 1 diabetes.He was diagnosed almost 7 yrs. ago when he was 3 yrs. old.My sister is also living with type 1 and was diagnosed almost 9 yrs. ago at the age of 24. Now, I want to say that my heart goes out to your daughter, you and your entire family.This is and will be a difficult time for all of you...I am not going to sugar coat it, but, please know that we volunteers are either living with diabetes or caring for or close to someone who is and WE are hear for you in addition to your daughter's Endocrinologist who is the person that needs to be your PRIMARY source of obtaining information pertaining to your daughter's diabetes. You should always talk to her doctor about any advice someone gives you....especially now because this is so new to you. We have our glucometer set to read the blood sugar in mg/dl and this is what I found out when converting.(I welcome any volunteer to post if this info. is inaccurate - as far as the conversion goes.) My son's glucometer would say HI danger call Dr. if he was over 600 mg/dl. I am VERY sorry to hear that the children's ward was unhelpful!(not right at all!) Have you been assigned a Endocrinologist or referred to one???This is the beginning and you NEED the proper tools to take care of your daughter and to he Continue reading >>
Immunological Basis For Rapid Progression Of Diabetes In Older Nod Mouse Recipients Post Bm-hsc Transplantation
Immunological Basis for Rapid Progression of Diabetes in Older NOD Mouse Recipients Post BM-HSC Transplantation Affiliation Program in Immunology, Division of Human Gene Therapy, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America Affiliation Program in Immunology, Division of Human Gene Therapy, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America Affiliation Program in Immunology, Division of Human Gene Therapy, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America Affiliation Program in Immunology, Division of Human Gene Therapy, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America Affiliation Program in Immunology, Division of Human Gene Therapy, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America Continue reading >>
Can You Help Me Out Of My Blonde Moment?
what does BM stand for, I know its is blood sugar monitoring, and I think the M stands for mellitus, but I am not sure if the B was for blood, or a latin type word. Can you help, me out of my blonde moment? I know that BM in the US means Bowel movement, I did try searching on the net, but it kept finding Bowel movement, In the UK BM means something very different, BM if I remember stand for the company who first made the devices thanks for the reply and welcome to the board If I find out which company I will post it Thanks, I am writing a teaching plan about teaching students to take BM's and was about half way through it before I realised, hang on a sec, I don;t have a clue what BM actually stands for! Hope you enjoy it on here, but be warned it is addictive I always thought it stood for Blood glucose Monitoring?... (BM) acording to some NT and NS articles, I have got, BGM is blood glucose monitoring, but we all, (at least around here) say BM's and it made me ponder... BM stands for Boehringer Mannheim which I believe is now part of Roche. Its amazing what you remember when you are as old as me Thanks, sending a huge cyber hug your way. I HATE presentations, and have changed my topic on this one about four times already, I have now completed it, and am hopefully not going to have to alter it until after the presentation. I dont really think we should be using the term BM i think the initial is BGM ie blood glucose monitoring. I have just done a days course on defensible documentation and apparently we should not abbrieviate anything at all, this is because in each different speciality they are interpreted differently. eg DOA could mean 'date of admission' or 'dead on arrival' (oops,,, when anwering queries to relatives). I always thought it stood for Blood glucose Mon Continue reading >>
What Is Bm Stand For In Diabetics/? | Yahoo Answers
i am doing nvq 3 in health and social care, i am at the diabetic what does BM stand for? Are you sure that you want to delete this answer? Best Answer: In the case of Diabetes Mellitus - BM or GBM stands for Glomerular Basement Membrane. It is the thickness of the kidney and the affect of diabetes, in reasearch. You might want to check the website: Source(s): Secret To Destroy Diabetes : Source(s): 30 Days Diabetes Cure : I am writing to tell you what an incredible impact these methods had on my life! I have had type 2 diabetes for 27 years. For me, the worst part of this horrible disease is the severe pain I constantly get in my feet. The pain is so bad that I avoid standing and walking as much as possible. I've got to tell you that within the first month, my feet stopped hurting altogether and I can now walk totally pain free. Believe it or not, I even danced at my niece's wedding last month, something I have not done in a many years. I've been following the book for six months now and my blood sugar is well within normal range. I feel great! I recommend you use the Type 2 Diabetes Destroyer to naturally reverse your diabetes. Upload failed. Please upload a file larger than 100 x 100 pixels We are experiencing some problems, please try again. You can only upload files of type PNG, JPG or JPEG. You can only upload files of type 3GP, 3GPP, MP4, MOV, AVI, MPG, MPEG or RM. You can only upload photos smaller than 5 MB. You can only upload videos smaller than 600 MB. You can only upload a photo (png, jpg, jpeg) or video (3gp, 3gpp, mp4, mov, avi, mpg, mpeg, rm). Video should be smaller than 600 MB/5 minutes Video should be smaller than 600 MB/5 minutes Continue reading >>
Hypoglycaemia Monitoring In A Medical Receiving Ward | Bmj Open Quality
Hypoglycaemia monitoring in a medical receiving ward Hypoglycaemia monitoring in a medical receiving ward It has been suggested that current care for diabetes inpatients remains inadequate and that greater attention is required for high quality management. In this project the aspect of hypoglycaemia was studied in a busy medical receiving ward at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. A large proportion of inpatients have diabetes and episodes of hypoglycaemia experienced by this population can delay discharge and indeed be detrimental to health. Thus it is important from both an organisational and patient perspective to manage this population well. In this project BM machine data was analysed to identify patients who were hypoglycaemic. These patients were then tracked down to study the subsequent management and compared this against recommended guidance. Following this an intervention was made to promote identification, management, documentation, and prevention of hypoglycaemia. This was deliberately a simple intervention involving discussions with staff and provision of basic documented guidance next to every BM machine. In the first phase 17 patients were identified and in a second and third phase 16 patients each time were further identified. Patients in the study were both type 1 and type 2 diabetics. Initial results in phase I were compared to results in phase II and III respectively. This intervention produced significant improvements in management with correct monitoring of low BMs (i.e. upon identification of low BM repeat within 1 hour) improving from 47% to 100% (for Phase II and III). Also, recording of preventative measures of hypoglycaemia improved from 35% to 88% and 94% with an improvement from 24% to 69% and 75% in recording of treatment given if needed. In con Continue reading >>
Revise 4 Finals > Medicine - Medical Finals Examination Resource - Blood Glucose Sampling
Useful fact: The test is usually called a 'BM' test after 'Boehringer Mannheim', a German pharmaceutical company (now named 'Roche'). 1. Collect your equipment, introduce yourself to the patient, confirm their identity, explain what you are about to do, and obtain consent. 2. Ensure the machine is calibrated for use. This will probably be done for you in an exam (or on the wards, ask the nurses to show you!), but make sure that you have checked/mentioned that this is done. Put on your gloves. 3. Make sure the patient has also washed their hands (or clean the sampling area with the alcohol swab, as this will reduce false readings. 4. Using the finger-pricking device, prick the patient's finger at the side of the fingertip. Try not to choose a finger that has been tested recently. 5. Squeeze the tip of the chosen finger to get some blood accumulating at the tip. Hold the test strip by the tip and get a large drop of blood onto the sample area of the test strip. Once you have enough to cover the sample area, place a cotton wool ball onto the skin and get the patient to apply pressure to prevent further bleeding. 6. Insert the test strip into the machine. Different machines have different techniques by which they operate...be sure to practice on the ones in use at your hospital. 7. Press the 'analyse' button and wait for the machine to analyse the blood. This can sometimes take a while to complete. Record the result. 8. Dispose of the lancet and test strip into the sharps bin. Thank the patient, and clear up. Wash your hands. 1. This test is usually performed to confirm more 'borderline' cases of Diabetes Mellitus (either those in the category of 'impaired fasting glucose' levels or when 2 indeterminate fasting glucose results are obtained). 2. It needs to be performed on Continue reading >>
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What Does A Glucose Value Of 3.4 Mean?
I just saw the following question: If my glucose test is 3.4, what does this mean? I had tested in the past several times and it came back 5.6, 6.6, and 5.4 but never so low as 3.4. I am 59 years and not a diet person. My reply: As you know, your blood glucose (BG) values are in mmol/L (the measurement system used throughout most of the world) rather than the measurement system used in the United States (which are in mg/dl). Don’t ask me why we in the US are so stubborn about units of measurement, but we also use miles instead of kilometers and pounds instead of kilograms. To convert the BG, you can multiply the value in mmol/L by 18 to get the value in mg/dl – or use an online BG converter such as the one at Blood Sugar Converter. I’ll assume that you don’t have already have a diagnosis of diabetes. If you were fasting at the time of the test, a blood glucose value of 3.4 mmol/L (62 mg/dl) is a bit on the low side but probably okay; normal ranges for people who haven’t eaten recently are below 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/L). See How to Tell if You Have Diabetes or Prediabetes for further information about what’s usually considered “normal.” If your physician was looking for the possibility of diabetes (a high sugar problem), then a value of 3.4 is certainly not a problem; on the other hand, if your physician had been looking to see if you have hypoglycemia (low sugar) then this value is suspicious, but not diagnostic. Hypoglycemia frequently has symptoms such as shakiness, hunger, headache, or rapid heart rate. If you had such symptoms when your BG was measured, you might want to adjust your meal plan to decrease the chances of more severe hypos. The usual recommendation to avoid low sugar symptoms would be to eat small frequent high protein meals - discuss whe Continue reading >>
How To Lower Blood Glucose Levels
Blood sugar (glucose) is at the heart of diabetes management. Diabetes develops when your pancreas can no longer produce insulin in sufficient quantity, or your body becomes less sensitive to the insulin you produce. Without enough effective insulin, your blood sugar levels can get out of control. High blood glucose (hyperglycemia) is most common in type 2 diabetes. But any person with diabetes can have bouts of high blood sugar. Lowering your blood sugar is crucial to both short-term and long-term diabetes management. When left untreated, hyperglycemia can cause: eye damage cardiovascular disease kidney failure nerve damage (neuropathy) skin and gum infections joint problems diabetic coma Many people with diabetes can detect hyperglycemia. According to the Mayo Clinic, signs of high blood sugar start to develop when levels reach more than 200 mg/dL. Some common symptoms include: sudden, excessive fatigue severe headaches blurry vision increased urination abdominal pain nausea dry mouth confusion The goal is to prevent hyperglycemia before it starts. It can develop suddenly, but in many cases high blood sugar develops over the course of several days. Symptoms worsen the longer you experience elevated blood sugar. The key is knowing where your blood sugar levels stand. Regular blood glucose monitoring is essential, especially in type 2 diabetes. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends a range of 70 to 130 mg/dL before meals, and blood glucose less than 180 mg/dL after eating. Dietary changes are among the first actions taken by diabetics. Not only does a healthy diet make you feel good, but you can also lower your blood sugar during the process. Carbohydrates are often a source of criticism because they affect glucose more than any other food group. But it’s im Continue reading >>
B. M. Hegde - Articles: Autobiography Of Diabetes Mellitus.
Knowledge of what is possible is the beginning of happiness. I am not a disease. I am only an abnormality of glucose (sugar) metabolism in the human body with associated changes in other functions. While blood sugar is the vital need for humankind to survive, when the body finds it difficult to keep sugar under control, they label me as the cause. In fact, it is their pancreas that is at fault. I need the hormone, Insulin, secreted by human pancreas, to keep me under check. If there is not enough to go round and control me then I will have to go astray and at times, I might even cause harm. But the commonest cause is that affluent humankind today seems to have put itself in the midst of food plenty atmosphere where the pancreas of man, poor thing that it is, finds it difficult to cope with the enormous amount of junk food calories that man eats daily. While high blood sugar might harm in the very long run, overzealous lowering of blood sugar to ridiculously low levels, in the fond hope of controlling me adequately, might even kill the person instantaneously! Yes, and no. I, like any other abnormality in the human system, depend on the human genes. When there is a diabetic gene inherited by mankind, I could penetrate to produce my symptoms in any one. But the most important thing to remember about me is that I do not and, can not; show my powers unless the owner of the gene puts himself in an unfriendly atmosphere. If he eats too much and becomes obese and does not bother even to get up from his easy chair, then he has no control over his blood sugar and the poor pancreas finds it difficult to control the sugar level and I will have to appear there for certain. But if another person with a similar gene acts to control his blood sugar right from younger days by being ver Continue reading >>
My Contour Meter Is Displaying An 'e3' Code, What Does This Mean?
My CONTOUR meter is displaying an 'E3' code, what does this mean? An E3 Error Code means the meter is sensing that blood has already been applied to the test strip (or the strip has already been used). What to do: Please make sure you see the flashing blood drop on the display before adding the blood sample. Ensure that you are using a clean, new strip each time you If issue persists contact Customer Support at 1-800-348-8100. Please tell us how we can make this answer more useful. The information brought to you by Ascensia Diabetes Care US, Inc provides general information. It is not intended to be used as medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not replace the advice of your Healthcare Provider. 2016 Ascensia Diabetes Care US, Inc. All rights reserved. Bayer , the Bayer Cross are trademarks of Bayer. CONTOUR, No Coding, the No Coding logo , Sip-In Sampling, Second-Chance, the Second-Chance logo are trademarks of Ascensia Diabetes Care US, Inc. Ascensia Diabetes Care, 5 Wood Hollow Road, Parsippany, NJ, 07054 United States Continue reading >>
Four generations of blood glucose meter, c. 1993–2005. Sample sizes vary from 30 to 0.3 μl. Test times vary from 5 seconds to 2 minutes (modern meters typically provide results in 5 seconds). A glucose meter is a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. It can also be a strip of glucose paper dipped into a substance and measured to the glucose chart. It is a key element of home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM) by people with diabetes mellitus or hypoglycemia. A small drop of blood, obtained by pricking the skin with a lancet, is placed on a disposable test strip that the meter reads and uses to calculate the blood glucose level. The meter then displays the level in units of mg/dl or mmol/l. Since approximately 1980, a primary goal of the management of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus has been achieving closer-to-normal levels of glucose in the blood for as much of the time as possible, guided by HBGM several times a day. The benefits include a reduction in the occurrence rate and severity of long-term complications from hyperglycemia as well as a reduction in the short-term, potentially life-threatening complications of hypoglycemia. History Leland Clark presented his first paper about the oxygen electrode, later named the Clark electrode, on 15 April 1956, at a meeting of the American Society for Artificial Organs during the annual meetings of the Federated Societies for Experimental Biology. In 1962, Clark and Ann Lyons from the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital developed the first glucose enzyme electrode. This biosensor was based on a thin layer of glucose oxidase (GOx) on an oxygen electrode. Thus, the readout was the amount of oxygen consumed by GOx during the enzymatic reaction with the substra Continue reading >>