Metformin Side Effects
Generic Name: metformin (met FOR min) Brand Names: Fortamet, Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Riomet What is metformin? Metformin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. Metformin is used together with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin is sometimes used together with insulin or other medications, but it is not for treating type 1 diabetes. Important information You should not use metformin if you have severe kidney disease or diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment). If you need to have any type of x-ray or CT scan using a dye that is injected into your veins, you will need to temporarily stop taking metformin. This medicine may cause a serious condition called lactic acidosis. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms such as: muscle pain or weakness, numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs, trouble breathing, stomach pain, nausea with vomiting, slow or uneven heart rate, dizziness, or feeling very weak or tired. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to metformin: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Some people develop lactic acidosis while taking this medicine. Early symptoms may get worse over time and this condition can be fatal. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms such as: muscle pain or weakness; numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs; trouble breathing; feeling dizzy, light-headed, tired, or very weak; stomach pain, nausea with vomiting; or slow or uneven heart rate. Common metformin side effects may include: low blood sugar; nausea, upset stomach; or diarrhea. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doc Continue reading >>
Metformin: Use, Action, Dose, Side-effects And Brands Available
Controlling blood sugar levels inadults, adolescents and children aged 10 years and over with type 2 diabetes . Metformin is usedwhen diet alone has failed to fully control blood sugar. It may be used on its own, in combination with other oral antidiabetic medicines, or with insulin. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This is an off-licence use of metformin, so you won't find it mentioned in the information leaflets that come with the medicine. However, metforminis awidely used and established treatmentoptionfor this condition. In type 2 diabetes the cells in the body, particularly muscle, fat and liver cells, become resistant to the action of insulin.Insulin is the main hormone responsible for controlling the level of sugar (glucose)in the blood. It makes cells in the body remove sugar from the blood. When the cells are resistant to insulin this makes blood sugar levels rise too high. Metformin hydrochlorideis a type of antidiabetic medicine called a biguanide. It works in a number of ways to lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Firstly,it increases the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin. This enables these cells to remove sugar from the blood more effectively.Secondly,it reduces the amount of sugar produced by cells in the liver.Finally, it delays the absorption of sugar from the intestines into the bloodstream after eating so that there is less of a spike in blood sugar levels after meals. Metformin is taken regularly every day to help controlblood sugar levels both between and directly after meals. In polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOSmanywomen have high insulin levels, and as a result their cells become resistant to the action ofinsulin. The high insulin levels also cause an increase in the male hormonetestosterone. Both problems cancause som Continue reading >>
Description And Brand Names
Drug information provided by: Micromedex US Brand Name Fortamet Glucophage Glucophage XR Glumetza Riomet Descriptions Metformin is used to treat high blood sugar levels that are caused by a type of diabetes mellitus or sugar diabetes called type 2 diabetes. With this type of diabetes, insulin produced by the pancreas is not able to get sugar into the cells of the body where it can work properly. Using metformin alone, with a type of oral antidiabetic medicine called a sulfonylurea, or with insulin, will help to lower blood sugar when it is too high and help restore the way you use food to make energy. Many people can control type 2 diabetes with diet and exercise. Following a specially planned diet and exercise will always be important when you have diabetes, even when you are taking medicines. To work properly, the amount of metformin you take must be balanced against the amount and type of food you eat and the amount of exercise you do. If you change your diet or exercise, you will want to test your blood sugar to find out if it is too low. Your doctor will teach you what to do if this happens. Metformin does not help patients does not help patients who have insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes because they cannot produce insulin from their pancreas gland. Their blood glucose is best controlled by insulin injections. This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription. This product is available in the following dosage forms: Tablet Tablet, Extended Release Solution Copyright © 2017 Truven Health Analytics Inc. All rights reserved. Information is for End User's use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes. Continue reading >>
- Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and a Dose-Response Meta-analysis
- Insulin, glucagon and somatostatin stores in the pancreas of subjects with type-2 diabetes and their lean and obese non-diabetic controls
- St. Luke’s Spotlights Critical Link Between Type 2 Diabetes and Heart Disease in Partnership with Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly and Company
Metformin is a medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes and sometimes polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Type 2 diabetes is an illness where the body doesn't make enough insulin, or the insulin that it makes doesn't work properly. This can cause high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). PCOS is a condition that affects how the ovaries work. Metformin lowers your blood sugar levels by improving the way your body handles insulin. It's usually prescribed for diabetes when diet and exercise alone have not been enough to control your blood sugar levels. For women with PCOS, metformin stimulates ovulation even if they don't have diabetes. It does this by lowering insulin and blood sugar levels. Metformin is available on prescription as tablets and as a liquid that you drink. Key facts Metformin works by reducing the amount of sugar your liver releases into your blood. It also makes your body respond better to insulin. Insulin is the hormone that controls the level of sugar in your blood. It's best to take metformin with a meal to reduce the side effects. The most common side effects are feeling sick, vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach ache and going off your food. Metformin does not cause weight gain (unlike some other diabetes medicines). Metformin may also be called by the brand names Bolamyn, Diagemet, Glucient, Glucophage, and Metabet. Who can and can't take metformin Metformin can be taken by adults. It can also be taken by children from 10 years of age on the advice of a doctor. Metformin isn't suitable for some people. Tell your doctor before starting the medicine if you: have had an allergic reaction to metformin or other medicines in the past have uncontrolled diabetes have liver or kidney problems have a severe infection are being treated for heart failure or you have recentl Continue reading >>
Can Metformin Help With Weight Loss?
Metformin is a drug prescribed to manage blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. You may have heard that metformin can also help you lose weight. But is it true? The answer is a resounding maybe. Here’s what you should know about what metformin can do for weight loss, as well as why your doctor may prescribe it for you. According to research, metformin can help some people lose weight. However, it’s not clear why metformin may cause weight loss. One theory is that it may prompt you to eat less by reducing your appetite. It may also change the way your body uses and stores fat. Although studies have shown that metformin may help with weight loss, the drug is not a quick-fix solution. According to one long-term study, the weight loss from metformin tends to occur gradually over one to two years. The amount of weight lost also varies from person to person. In the study, the average amount of weight lost after two or more years was four to seven pounds. Taking the drug without following other healthy habits may not lead to weight loss. Individuals who follow a healthy diet and exercise while taking metformin tend to lose the most weight. This may be because metformin is thought to boost how many calories you burn during exercise. If you don’t exercise, you likely won’t have this benefit. In addition, any weight loss you have may only last as long as you take the medication. That means if you stop taking metformin, there’s a good chance you will return to your original weight. And even while you’re still taking the drug, you may slowly gain back any weight you’ve lost. In other words, metformin may not be the magic diet pill some people have been waiting for. It has been shown to reduce weight in some, but not others. One of the benefits of metformin Continue reading >>
Does Metformin Cause Weight Loss? What To Know Before You Take It
If you’re managing type 2 diabetes with metformin (Glucophage), you might be well acquainted with unwanted side effects of this drug — namely, upset stomach, diarrhea, muscle aches, and sleepiness. These can be a figurative and literal pain, but you might welcome one side effect of metformin with open arms, particularly if you’ve struggled to lose weight. Metformin isn’t a weight loss drug, but researchers have found a link between the drug and weight loss. In fact, a long-term study published in April 2012 in the journal Diabetes Care that was conducted by the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) concluded that the drug could serve as a treatment for excess body weight, although more studies are needed. What Is Metformin and How Does It Work? “[Metformin] has been considered a first-line medication in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and it mainly acts by lowering the amount of glucose released by the liver,” says Minisha Sood, MD, an endocrinologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. “It also helps a hormone called insulin to work better by helping muscles use glucose in a more efficient manner. When insulin works better (and insulin sensitivity improves), a person’s insulin levels are lower than they would be otherwise.” There’s no cure for type 2 diabetes, but the right combination of medication and healthy lifestyle can stabilize blood sugar levels, which, of course, is the end goal of any diabetes treatment. As the medication helps your body properly metabolize food and restores your ability to respond to insulin, you’ll not only feel better, you can potentially avoid complications of high blood sugar, such as heart disease, kidney damage, nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy), and eye damage (retinopathy). Why Does Metformin Cause Weight Lo Continue reading >>
How Does Metformin Work?
Metformin is a type of oral medication used to treat type 2 diabetes — and according to Gary Scheiner, CDE, in his book, “Until There is a Cure,” metformin is the most prescribed medication for type 2 diabetes, and one of those most widely used drugs in the world. But type 1 diabetics can take metformin, too, explains Scheiner, if they’re struggling with insulin resistance and persistent high blood sugars. The brand names for metformin are Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, and Riomet. Metformin has also been combined with other medications, giving you two diabetes treatment methods in one medication. Those combo-medications are: glyburide (Glucovance), glipizide (Metaglip), rosiglitazone (Avandamet), pioglitazone (Actoplus Met), sitagliptin (Janumet) and repaglinide (PrandiMet). [Download our free Guide to Type 2 Diabetes Medications] Metformin is taken in pill-form. It is generally taken twice per day, at breakfast and at dinner. For those with higher levels of insulin resistance, your doctor may prescribe metformin to be taken at all three meals: breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Benefits of Metformin: While there are a variety of oral medications to help people with type 2 diabetes reduce their blood sugar levels, they all work very differently in the body. Scheiner explains exactly how metformin works in the body: Metformin does not increase insulin levels and does not cause hypoglycemia. Instead, it decreases the amount of sugar produced by the liver and tends to suppress appetite. – “Until There is a Cure,” page 81 In every human body, the liver releases small amounts of glucose throughout the day. The primary effect of taking metformin is that this release of glucose from the liver is lessened, resulting in lower blood sugars. Metformin als Continue reading >>
What Is Metformin?
MORE Metformin is a prescription drug used primarily in the treatment of Type II diabetes. It can be used on its own or combined with other medications. In the United States, it is sold under the brand names Fortamet, Glucophage, Glumetza and Riomet. "Metformin is very often prescribed as the first step in a diabetic's regime," said Ken Sternfeld, a New York-based pharmacist. How it works "When you're diabetic you lose the ability to use the insulin you need to offset the food," Sternfeld explained. "If you eat a carb or sugar that can't be metabolized or offset by the insulin you produce, your sugar levels will be higher. Metformin and drugs in that category will help your body better metabolize that food so that insulin levels will be able to stay more in line." Metformin aims to decrease glucose production in the liver, consequently lowering the levels of glucose in the bloodstream. It also changes the way that your blood cells react to insulin. "It makes them more sensitive to insulin," said Dr. Stephen Neabore, a primary care doctor at the Barnard Medical Center in Washington, D.C. "It makes the same amount of insulin work better. It transports the insulin to the cells in a more effective way." Metformin may have a preventive health role, as well. New research presented at the American Diabetes Association 2017 Scientific Sessions showed that long-term use of metformin is particularly useful in preventing the onset of type II diabetes in women who have suffered from gestational diabetes. Because metformin changes the way the body uses insulin, it is not used to treat Type I diabetes, a condition in which the body does not produce insulin at all. Metformin & PCOS Metformin is sometimes prescribed to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), according to Neabore. "I Continue reading >>
What Next When Metformin Isn't Enough For Type 2 Diabetes?
› Turn first to metformin for pharmacologic treatment of type 2 diabetes. A › Add a second oral agent (such as a sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor), a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, or basal insulin if metformin at a maximum tolerated dose does not achieve the HbA1c target over 3 months. A › Progress to bolus mealtime insulin or a GLP-1 agonist to cover postprandial glycemic excursions if HbA1c remains above goal despite an adequate trial of basal insulin. A Strength of recommendation (SOR) A Good-quality patient-oriented evidence B Inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence C Consensus, usual practice, opinion, disease-oriented evidence, case series The "Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes" guidelines published in 2015 by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) state that metformin is the preferred initial pharmacotherapy for managing type 2 diabetes.1 Metformin, a biguanide, enhances insulin sensitivity in muscle and fat tissue and inhibits hepatic glucose production. Advantages of metformin include the longstanding research supporting its efficacy and safety, an expected decrease in the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 1% to 1.5%, low cost, minimal hypoglycemic risk, and potential reductions in cardiovascular (CV) events due to decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.1,2 To minimize adverse gastrointestinal effects, start metformin at 500 mg once or twice a day and titrate upward every one to 2 weeks to the target dose.3 To help guide dosing decisions, use the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) instead of the serum creatinine (SCr) level, because the SCr can translate into a variable range of eGFRs (TABLE 1).4,5 What if metfo Continue reading >>
Uses Metformin is used with a proper diet and exercise program and possibly with other medications to control high blood sugar. It is used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Metformin works by helping to restore your body's proper response to the insulin you naturally produce. It also decreases the amount of sugar that your liver makes and that your stomach/intestines absorb. How to use Metformin HCL Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start taking metformin and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist. Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually 1-3 times a day with meals. Drink plenty of fluids while taking this medication unless otherwise directed by your doctor. The dosage is based on your medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products). To reduce your risk of side effects (such as upset stomach), your doctor may direct you to start this medication at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Follow your doctor's instructions carefully. Take this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day. If you are already taking another diabetes drug (such as chlorpropamide), follow your doctor's directions carefully for stopping/continuing the old drug and starting metformin. Check your blood sugar regularly a Continue reading >>
Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight. It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer complications of diabetes. It is not associated with weight gain. It is taken by mouth. Metformin is generally well tolerated. Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain. It has a low risk of causing low blood sugar. High blood lactic acid level is a concern if the medication is prescribed inappropriately and in overly large doses. It should not be used in those with significant liver disease or kidney problems. While no clear harm comes from use during pregnancy, insulin is generally preferred for gestational diabetes. Metformin is in the biguanide class. It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver and increasing the insulin sensitivity of body tissues. Metformin was discovered in 1922. French physician Jean Sterne began study in humans in the 1950s. It was introduced as a medication in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Metformin is believed to be the most widely used medication for diabetes which is taken by mouth. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale price in the developed world is between 0.21 and 5.55 USD per month as of 2014. In the United States, it costs 5 to 25 USD per month. Medical uses Metformin is primarily used for type 2 diabetes, but is increasingly be Continue reading >>
A popular oral drug for treating Type 2 diabetes. Metformin (brand name Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Riomet) is a member of a class of drugs called biguanides that helps lower blood glucose levels by improving the way the body handles insulin — namely, by preventing the liver from making excess glucose and by making muscle and fat cells more sensitive to available insulin. Metformin not only lowers blood glucose levels, which in the long term reduces the risk of diabetic complications, but it also lowers blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels and does not cause weight gain the way insulin and some other oral blood-glucose-lowering drugs do. Overweight, high cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels all increase the risk of developing heart disease, the leading cause of death in people with Type 2 diabetes. Another advantage of metformin is that it does not cause hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) when it is the only diabetes medicine taken. Metformin is typically taken two to three times a day, with meals. The extended-release formula (Glucophage XR) is taken once a day, with the evening meal. The most common side effects of metformin are nausea and diarrhea, which usually go away over time. A more serious side effect is a rare but potentially fatal condition called lactic acidosis, in which dangerously high levels of lactic acid build up in the bloodstream. Lactic acidosis is most likely to occur in people with kidney disease, liver disease, or congestive heart failure, or in those who drink alcohol regularly. (If you have more than four alcoholic drinks a week, metformin may not be the best medicine for you.) Unfortunately, many doctors ignore these contraindications (conditions that make a particular treatment inadvisable) and prescribe metformin to people Continue reading >>
Glucophage (metformin) And Diabetes
Tweet Glucophage and Metformin are often mentioned in relation to diabetes treatment. But what exactly is Glucophage and how does Glucophage help control type 2 diabetes? The following guide to Glucophage should help you to understand more about this medication, its side effects and its value. What is Glucophage? Glucophage tablets (and Glucophage SR tablets) each have an active ingredient called Metformin hydrochloride. Metformin is widely used to aid in the control of blood glucose levels amongst people with type 2 diabetes. How does Glucophage help people with type 2 diabetes? Amongst people with type 2 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce sufficient levels of insulin. Furthermore, the cells in the body may be resistant to any insulin that is present. Normally, insulin would instruct cells to remove sugar from the blood, but in people with diabetes blood sugar levels can climb too high. As we said before, Glucophage contains the ingredient Metformin. Metformin (Metformin hydrochloride) is a type of medicine known as a biguanide. This works to lower the amount of sugar in the blood of people with diabetes. It does this by lowering the amount of sugar produced in the liver, and also increasing the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin. The cells are therefore more able to remove sugar from the blood. Metformin also slows the absorption of sugars from the intestines. Metformin lowers blood sugar levels between and after meals. Who is Glucophage prescribed to? Glucophage is usually prescribed as a treatment for people with type 2 diabetes who are overweight or obese. When diet and exercise fail to adequately control blood glucose levels, Glucophage is prescribed. Sometimes, this medicine is used in conjunction with other anti-diabetic medication. How often do people Continue reading >>
- Is It Time to Change the Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Paradigm? No! Metformin Should Remain the Foundation Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes
- The Pros and Cons of Metformin for Diabetes
- NZ case study; A citizen scientist controls autoimmune diabetes without insulin, with a low carb diet, a glucose meter, and metformin.
Metformin may rarely cause a serious, life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you have kidney disease. Your doctor will probably tell you not to take metformin. Also, tell your doctor if you are over 65 years old and if you have ever had a heart attack; stroke; diabetic ketoacidosis (blood sugar that is high enough to cause severe symptoms and requires emergency medical treatment); a coma; or heart or liver disease. Taking certain other medications with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you are taking acetazolamide (Diamox), dichlorphenamide (Keveyis), methazolamide, topiramate (Topamax, in Qsymia), or zonisamide (Zonegran). Tell your doctor if you have recently had any of the following conditions, or if you develop them during treatment: serious infection; severe diarrhea, vomiting, or fever; or if you drink much less fluid than usual for any reason. You may have to stop taking metformin until you recover. If you are having surgery, including dental surgery, or any major medical procedure, tell the doctor that you are taking metformin. Also, tell your doctor if you plan to have any x-ray procedure in which dye is injected, especially if you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol or have or have had liver disease or heart failure. You may need to stop taking metformin before the procedure and wait 48 hours to restart treatment. Your doctor will tell you exactly when you should stop taking metformin and when you should start taking it again. If you experience any of the following symptoms, stop taking metformin and call your doctor immediately: extreme tiredness, weakness, or discomfort; nausea; vomiting; stomach pain; decreased appetite; deep and rapid breathing or shortness of breath; dizzi Continue reading >>
Drug information provided by: Micromedex This medicine usually comes with a patient information insert. Read the information carefully and make sure you understand it before taking this medicine. If you have any questions, ask your doctor. Carefully follow the special meal plan your doctor gave you. This is a very important part of controlling your condition, and is necessary if the medicine is to work properly. Also, exercise regularly and test for sugar in your blood or urine as directed. Metformin should be taken with meals to help reduce stomach or bowel side effects that may occur during the first few weeks of treatment. Swallow the extended-release tablet whole with a full glass of water. Do not crush, break, or chew it. While taking the extended-release tablet, part of the tablet may pass into your stool after your body has absorbed the medicine. This is normal and nothing to worry about. Measure the oral liquid with a marked measuring spoon, oral syringe, or medicine cup. The average household teaspoon may not hold the right amount of liquid. Use only the brand of this medicine that your doctor prescribed. Different brands may not work the same way. You may notice improvement in your blood glucose control in 1 to 2 weeks, but the full effect of blood glucose control may take up to 2 to 3 months. Ask your doctor if you have any questions about this. Dosing The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so. The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the Continue reading >>