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What Condition(s) Must Be Met For Glucose To Be Produced During Photosynthesis?

Materials Needed For Photosynthesis

Materials Needed For Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants create energy from sunlight. It occurs at the cellular level in the leaves of plants and is the way in which they produce oxygen and carbohydrates. The oxygen is released into the atmosphere, and the carbohydrates, simple sugars, are used by the plant for growth. In order to carry out photosynthesis, green plants need several ingredients. Chlorophyll, the pigment in plants that makes them green, is essential to the photosynthetic process. This chemical is produced naturally by all green plants and its role in photosynthesis is to absorb light. That light energy triggers the chemical reaction we know as photosynthesis. The process cannot work without an energy input, and this comes from the sun. The sun starts the first reaction in photosynthesis, which is known as the light-dependent process. During this stage of photosynthesis, as the sunlight excites the chlorophyll, water is split into oxygen and hydrogen, and the oxygen is released into the atmosphere. As any gardener knows, plants take in water from the ground through their roots. The water travels up the stem of the plant through a complex transport system and arrives in the leaves, to be used as a raw material during photosynthesis. This gas is abundantly available in the atmosphere around plants. Most plants have a protective waxy layer over their leaves, which prevents them from drying out. Normally, this would also prevent a gas such as carbon dioxide from entering the leaf. But the leaf also has special openings, called stomata, that allow the gas to enter the leafs cells. Once photosynthesis has taken place, the oxygen produced also leaves the cells via the stomata. Carbon dioxide is bonded with the hydrogen produced in the first light dependent process, t Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

If you've ever looked closely at a leafyou've noticed some pattern of lines running through it. These lines are veins, or "vascular bundles"(the side of one bundle is colored lightgreen). Inside the vascular bundle are tubes thattransport materials from place to place in the plant. The xylem (colored blue)transport water & minerals from the roots, through the stem, &into the leaves (remember ... we need water for photosynthesis). Phloem (colored orange)are tubes that transport "food" through the plant. This "food" isbasically sugary water (sap). The sugars are synthesized (made) duringphotosynthesis. Scattered about the lower epidermis are smallopenings called stomata. It is through these holes that carbon dioxideenters the leaf, & oxygen & water vapor exit. Each stomate is surrounded by a pair of guardcells. When guard cells swell, the stomates close, when the guardcells shrink, the stomates are open. Plants respond to changes intemperature & humidity by opening or closing their stomata (an exampleof maintaining ... homeostasis). All of the "black dots" in the picture representchloroplasts, which are the cell organelles in plant cells where the chemicalreactions of photosynthesis take place. You should notice that the vast majorityof chloroplasts are found in the cells of the mesophyll. Even morespecifically, the palisade layer has the most chloroplasts, so the greatestamount of photosynthesis occurs in that leaf layer. Now let's revisit the summary equation forphotosynthesis & note how each of the raw materials end up in the chloroplastsso that the whole photosynthesis deal can go down. Now let's do the same, except pay attentionto what happens to the products of photosynthesis. I should mention that glucose may be usedfor things other than energy. For example, a who Continue reading >>

What Are The Reactants Of Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration?

What Are The Reactants Of Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration?

The reactants of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water, meaning during photosynthesis carbon dioxide and water are taken in to create energy. The reactants of cellular respiration are glucose (sugar) and oxygen, these are taken in by animals and humans to produce energy. The cells found in both plants and animals need to produce energy. Trees produce energy via the process of photosynthesis which takes the raw solar energy from the sun and converts it into carbohydrates, or usable chemical energy. Meanwhile, the cells found in animals, including the cells in your body, perform the process of cellular respiration which makes ATP (a form of usable energy). The Relationship Between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Apart from both being processes that cells use to create energy, is there any relationship between the two processes? As it turns out, yes there is. To find out what it is, lets take a look at the chemical equations which happen in both cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Heres the equation for photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6+ 6O2 The reactants of cellular respiration are: The products of cellular respiration are: This equation means that plants take C02 (carbon dioxide) and water, and with the assistance of solar energy, turn it into glucose and oxygen (O2). The equation for cellular respiration is as follows: C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O This means that cellular respiration utilizes glucose and oxygen and releases carbon dioxide and water as a result. Essentially, the two equations are the exact opposite of one another. Animal cells combine oxygen and hydrogen to form water as a byproduct, while the glucose they use to create the ATP (energy) they need is transformed back into carbon dioxide. Plants use both this water and carbon dioxide to Continue reading >>

Bbc Bitesize - Ks3 Biology - Photosynthesis - Revision 2

Bbc Bitesize - Ks3 Biology - Photosynthesis - Revision 2

To open and close the stomata depending on the conditions To transport water (xylem) and food (phloem) A leaf usually has a large surface area, so that it can absorb a lot of light. Its top surface is protected from water loss, disease and weather damage by a waxy layer. The upper part of the leaf is where the light falls, and it contains a type of cell called a palisade cell. This is adapted to absorb a lot of light. It has lots of chloroplasts and is shaped like a tall box. A cross-section through a leaf showing its main parts Plants get the carbon dioxide they need from the air through their leaves. It moves by diffusion through small holes in the underside of the leaf called stomata . Guard cells control the size of the stomata so that the leaf does not lose too much water in hot, windy or dry conditions. The lower part of the leaf is a spongy layer with loose-fitting cells. These let carbon dioxide reach the other cells in the leaf, and also let the oxygen produced in photosynthesis leave the leaf easily. The water needed for photosynthesis is absorbed through the roots and transported through tubes to the leaf. The roots have a type of cell called a root hair cell. These project out from the root into the soil, and have a big surface area and thin walls. This lets water pass into them easily. Note that root cells do not contain chloroplasts, as they are normally in the dark and cannot carry out photosynthesis. Water is absorbed from the soil by root hair cells Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration In Plants

Cellular Respiration In Plants

By Claire Gillespie; Updated April 25, 2018 Every living thing (organism) in the world gets the energy it needs to survive from a chemical reaction called respiration. Plant cells respire the same way animal cells do, but respiration is only one part of the process. To survive, plants also need another chemical reaction called photosynthesis. While both plants and animals carry out cellular respiration, only plants conduct photosynthesis to make their own food. Cellular respiration is a chemical reaction plants need to get energy from glucose. Respiration uses glucose and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water and release energy. Plants make their own food by photosynthesis. During photosynthesis a plant takes in water, carbon dioxide and light energy, and gives out glucose and oxygen. It takes light from the sun, carbon and oxygen atoms from the air and hydrogen from water to make energy molecules called ATP, which then build glucose molecules. The oxygen released by photosynthesis comes from the water a plant absorbs. Every water molecule is made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, but only the hydrogen atoms are required. The oxygen atoms are released back into the air. Plants can only photosynthesize when they have light. The glucose made in photosynthesis travels around the plant as soluble sugars and gives energy to the plant's cells during respiration. The first stage of respiration is glycolysis, which splits the glucose molecule into two smaller molecules called pyruvate, and expels a small amount of ATP energy. This stage (anaerobic respiration) does not need oxygen. In the second stage, the pyruvate molecules are reorganized and fused over again in a cycle. While the molecules are being reorganized, carbon dioxide is formed and electrons are remov Continue reading >>

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Green plants absorb light energy using chlorophyll in their leaves. They use it to react carbon dioxide with water to make a sugar called glucose. The glucose is used in respiration, or converted into starch and stored. Oxygen is produced as a by-product. This process is called photosynthesis. Temperature, carbon dioxide concentration and light intensity are factors that can limit the rate of photosynthesis. Plants also need mineral ions, including nitrate and magnesium, for healthy growth. They suffer from poor growth in conditions where mineral ions are deficient. Photosynthesis [photosynthesis: The chemical change that occurs in the leaves of green plants. It uses light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. Oxygen is produced as a by-product of photosynthesis. ] is the chemical change which happens in the leaves of green plants. It is the first step towards making food - not just for plants but ultimately every animal on the planet. During this reaction, carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide: A gaseous compound of carbon and oxygen, which is a by-product of respiration, and which is needed by plants for photosynthesis. and water are converted into glucose and oxygenoxygen: Gaseous element making up about 20 per cent of the air, which is needed by living organisms for respiration. The reaction requires light energylight energy: Visible electromagnetic radiation., which is absorbed by a green substance called chlorophyll. Photosynthesis takes place in leaf cells. These contain chloroplasts, which are tiny objects containing chlorophyll. carbon dioxide + water (+ light energy) glucose + oxygen 'Light energy' is shown in brackets because it is not a substance. You will also see the equation written like this: Plants absorb water through their roots, and carbon Continue reading >>

Photosynthetic Cells

Photosynthetic Cells

Cells get nutrients from their environment, but where do those nutrients come from? Virtually all organic material on Earth has been produced by cells that convert energy from the Sun into energy-containing macromolecules. This process, called photosynthesis, is essential to the global carbon cycle and organisms that conduct photosynthesis represent the lowest level in most food chains (Figure 1). Plants exist in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. (A) Coleochaete orbicularis (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 75 (photograph courtesy of L. E. Graham). (B) Chara (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 1.5 (photograph courtesy of M. Feist). (C) Riccia (liverwort) gametophyte showing sporangia (black) embedded in the thallus; magnification x 5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (D) Anthoceros (hornwort) gametophyte showing unbranched sporophytes; magnification x 2.5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (E) Mnium (moss) gametophyte showing unbranched sporophytes with terminal sporangia (capsule); magnification x 4.5 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger). (F) Huperzia (clubmoss) sporophyte with leaves showing sessile yellow sporangia; magnification x 0.8. (G) Dicranopteris (fern) sporophyte showing leaves with circinate vernation; magnification x 0.08. (H) Psilotum (whisk fern) sporophyte with reduced leaves and spherical synangia (three fused sporangia); magnification x 0.4. (I) Equisetum (horsetail) sporophyte with whorled branches, reduced leaves, and a terminal cone; magnification x 0.4. (J) Cycas (seed plant) sporophyte showing leaves and terminal cone with seeds; magnification x 0.05 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger). Figure Detail Most living things depend on photosynthetic cells to manufacture the complex organic molecules they require as a source Continue reading >>

Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Before photosynthesis evolved, ________ was rare in Earth's atmosphere. 3) What structural feature of a leaf enables it to obtain CO2 from the air? 4) The vast majority of chloroplasts found in a leaf are in the 5) Specifically, molecules of chlorophyll are located in the membranes of sacs called 6) All of the following factors influence the rate of photosynthesis EXCEPT 7) All of the following compounds are necessary components for photosynthesis EXCEPT 8) The cellular organelle that utilizes sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar and 9) Imagine that a scientist discovers a mutant plant seedling that appears to lack stomata. What A) CO2 would not be able to enter the plant as a reactant for photosynthesis. 10) Imagine that a plant in your garden doesn't receive an adequate amount of water. Which of the following would be most affected by this? C) Both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis 11) Albino corn has no chlorophyll. You would expect albino corn seedlings to C) fail to thrive because they cannot capture light energy. 12) The energy required for photosynthesis to occur is 13) In the chloroplast, energy in sunlight is passed around different chlorophyll molecules until it reaches a specific chlorophyll molecule that can transfer energy in sunlight to an energized electron. This chlorophyll molecule is called the D) thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts. 15) Pigments that absorb light energy to drive photosynthesis include 16) A pigment that absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light is 17) Which of the following is NOT true of chlorophyll? 18) Suppose that you are experimenting with different types of lighting Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis - The Process Of Photosynthesis: Carbon Fixation And Reduction | Britannica.com

Photosynthesis - The Process Of Photosynthesis: Carbon Fixation And Reduction | Britannica.com

See trusted Britannica articles at the top of every search. Download our free Chrome Extension The process of photosynthesis: carbon fixation and reduction The assimilation of carbon into organic compounds is the result of a complex series of enzymatically regulated chemical reactionsthe dark reactions. This term is something of a misnomer, for these reactions can take place in either light or darkness. Furthermore, some of the enzymes involved in the so-called dark reactions become inactive in prolonged darkness; however, they are activated when the leaves that contain them are exposed to light. C3 carbon fixation pathwayPathway of carbon dioxide fixation and reduction in photosynthesis, the reductive pentose phosphate cycle. The diagram represents one complete turn of the cycle, with the net production of one molecule of Gal3P. The nine molecules of ATP and six molecules of NADPH come from the light reactions. Radioactive isotopes of carbon (14C) and phosphorus (32P) have been valuable in identifying the intermediate compounds formed during carbon assimilation. A photosynthesizing plant does not strongly discriminate between the most abundant natural carbon isotope (12C) and 14C. During photosynthesis in the presence of 14CO2, the compounds formed become labeled with the radioisotope . During very short exposures, only the first intermediates in the carbon-fixing pathway become labeled. Early investigations showed that some radioactive products were formed even when the light was turned off and the 14CO2 was added just afterward in the dark, confirming the nature of the carbon fixation as a dark reaction. American biochemist Melvin Calvin , a Nobel Prize recipient for his work on the carbon-reduction cycle, allowed green plants to photosynthesize in the presence of r Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis And Respiration

Photosynthesis And Respiration

The relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration is such that the products of one system are the reactants of the other. Photosynthesis involves the use of energy from sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and oxygen. Cellular respiration uses glucose and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. To emphasize this point even more, the equation forphotosynthesis is the opposite ofcellular respiration. Humans, animals and plants depend on the cycle of cellular respiration and photosynthesis for survival. The oxygen produced by plants during photosynthesis is what humans and animals inhale for the blood to transport to the cells for respiration. The carbon dioxide produced during respiration is released from the body and absorbed by plants to help provide the energy they need for growth and development. This is the never ending cycle that sustains life on earth. The process of photosynthesis is used by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to produce energy, whereas the process of cellular respiration breaks down the energy for use. Despite the differences between these two processes, there are some similarities. For example, both processes synthesize and use ATP, the energy currency. Below are some of the similarities and differences between these two systems. Similarities between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Continue reading >>

Basic Products Of Photosynthesis

Basic Products Of Photosynthesis

As has been stated, carbohydrates are the most-important direct organic product of photosynthesis in the majority of green plants. The formation of a simple carbohydrate, glucose, is indicated by a chemical equation, Little free glucose is produced in plants; instead, glucose units are linked to form starch or are joined with fructose, another sugar, to form sucrose (see carbohydrate). Not only carbohydrates, as was once thought, but also amino acids, proteins, lipids (or fats), pigments, and other organic components of green tissues are synthesized during photosynthesis. Minerals supply the elements (e.g., nitrogen, N; phosphorus, P; sulfur, S) required to form these compounds. Chemical bonds are broken between oxygen (O) and carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen, and sulfur, and new bonds are formed in products that include gaseous oxygen (O2) and organic compounds. More energy is required to break the bonds between oxygen and other elements (e.g., in water, nitrate, and sulfate) than is released when new bonds form in the products. This difference in bond energy accounts for a large part of the light energy stored as chemical energy in the organic products formed during photosynthesis. Additional energy is stored in making complex molecules from simple ones. Evolution of the process Although life and the quality of the atmosphere today depend on photosynthesis, it is likely that green plants evolved long after the first living cells. When Earth was young, electrical storms and solar radiation probably provided the energy for the synthesis of complex molecules from abundant simpler ones, such as water, ammonia, and methane. The first living cells probably evolved from these complex molecules (see life: Production of polymers). For example, the accidental joining (condens Continue reading >>

Molecular Biology Of The Cell. 4th Edition.

Molecular Biology Of The Cell. 4th Edition.

All animals and most microorganisms rely on the continual uptake of large amounts of organic compounds from their environment. These compounds are used to provide both the carbon skeletons for biosynthesis and the metabolic energy that drives cellular processes. It is believed that the first organisms on the primitive Earth had access to an abundance of the organic compounds produced by geochemical processes, but that most of these original compounds were used up billions of years ago. Since that time, the vast majority of the organic materials required by living cells have been produced by photosynthetic organisms, including many types of photosynthetic bacteria. The most advanced photosynthetic bacteria are the cyanobacteria, which have minimal nutrient requirements. They use electrons from water and the energy of sunlight when they convert atmospheric CO2 into organic compounds—a process called carbon fixation. In the course of splitting water [in the overall reaction nH2O + nCO2 (CHO) + nO], they also liberate into the atmosphere the oxygen required for oxidative phosphorylation. As we see in this section, it is thought that the evolution of cyanobacteria from more primitive photosynthetic bacteria eventually made possible the development of abundant aerobic life forms. In plants and algae, which developed much later, photosynthesis occurs in a specialized intracellular organelle—the chloroplast. Chloroplasts perform photosynthesis during the daylight hours. The immediate products of photosynthesis, NADPH and ATP, are used by the photosynthetic cells to produce many organic molecules. In plants, the products include a low-molecular-weight sugar (usually sucrose) that is exported to meet the metabolic needs of the many nonphotosynthetic cells of the organism. Bio Continue reading >>

Artificial Photosynthesis

Artificial Photosynthesis

A sample of a photoelectric cell in a lab environment. Catalysts are added to the cell, which is submerged in water and illuminated by simulated sunlight. The bubbles seen are oxygen (forming on the front of the cell) and hydrogen (forming on the back of the cell). Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicates the natural process of photosynthesis , a process that converts sunlight , water , and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen ; as an imitation of a natural process it is biomimetic . The term, artificial photosynthesis, is commonly used to refer to any scheme for capturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel (a solar fuel ). Photocatalytic water splitting converts water into hydrogen and oxygen, and is a major research topic of artificial photosynthesis. Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is another process studied, that replicates natural carbon fixation . Research of this topic includes the design and assembly of devices for the direct production of solar fuels, photoelectrochemistry and its application in fuel cells, and the engineering of enzymes and photoautotrophic microorganisms for microbial biofuel and biohydrogen production from sunlight. The photosynthetic reaction can be divided into two half-reactions of oxidation and reduction , both of which are essential to producing fuel . In plant photosynthesis, water molecules are photo-oxidized to release oxygen and protons. The second phase of plant photosynthesis (also known as the Calvin-Benson cycle ) is a light-independent reaction that converts carbon dioxide into glucose (fuel). Researchers of artificial photosynthesis are developing photocatalysts that are able to perform both of these reactions. Furthermore, the protons resulting from water Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis In Leaves That Arent Green

Photosynthesis In Leaves That Arent Green

Q: How does photosynthesis occur in plants that are not obviously green, such as ornamental plum trees with deep purple-colored leaves? [Paul, Santa Cruz] A: Photosynthesis (which literally means light put together) is that very elegant chemical process that jump-started life as we know it some 4 billion years ago. So to answer your question, well need a short chemistry lesson. Basically six molecules of water (H2O) plus six molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the presence of light energy produce one molecule of glucose sugar (C6H12O6) and emit six molecules of oxygen (O2) as a by-product. That sugar molecule drives the living world. Animals eat plants, then breathe in oxygen, which is used to metabolize the sugar, releasing the solar energy stored in glucose and giving off carbon dioxide as a by-product. Thats life, in a nutshell. All photosynthesizing plants have a pigment molecule called chlorophyll. This molecule absorbs most of the energy from the violet-blue and reddish-orange part of the light spectrum. It does not absorb green, so thats reflected back to our eyes and we see the leaf as green. There are also accessory pigments, called carotenoids, that capture energy not absorbed by chlorophyll. There are at least 600 known carotenoids, divided into yellow xanthophylls and red and orange carotenes. They absorb blue light and appear yellow, red, or orange to our eyes. Anthocyanin is another important pigment thats not directly involved in photosynthesis, but it gives red stems, leaves, flowers, or even fruits their color. Many plants are selected as ornamentals because of their red leavespurple smoke bush andJapanese plums and some Japanese maples, to name just a few. Obviously they manage to survive quite well without green leaves. At low light levels, green le Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistansuse the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellularrespiration converts into ATP ,the "fuel" used by all living things. The conversion of unusablesunlight energy into usable chemical energy, is associated with theactions of the green pigment chlorophyll .Most of the time, the photosynthetic process uses water and releasesthe oxygen that we absolutely must have to stay alive. Oh yes, weneed the food as well! We can write the overall reaction of this processas: Most of us don't speak chemicalese, so the abovechemical equation translates as: six molecules of water plus sixmolecules of carbon dioxide produce one molecule of sugar plus sixmolecules of oxygen Diagram of a typical plant, showing the inputs andoutputs of the photosynthetic process. Image from Purves etal., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by SinauerAssociates ( www.sinauer.com ) andWH Freeman ( www.whfreeman.com ),used with permission. Plants are the only photosynthetic organisms tohave leaves (and not all plants have leaves). A leaf may be viewed as a solarcollector crammed full of photosynthetic cells. The raw materials of photosynthesis, water andcarbon dioxide, enter the cells of the leaf, and the products ofphotosynthesis, sugar and oxygen, leave the leaf. Cross section of a leaf, showing the anatomicalfeatures important to the study of photosynthesis: stoma, guard cell,mesophyll cells, and vein. Image from Purves et al., Life:The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates( www.sinauer.com ) and WH Freeman( www.whfreeman.com ), used withpermission. Water enters the root and is transported up to theleaves through specialized plant cells known as xylem (pronounces zigh-lem). Land plants must guar Continue reading >>

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