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What Causes Neuropathy In Diabetic Patients?

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

What are diabetic neuropathies? Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms. Others may have symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness—loss of feeling—in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Nerve problems can occur in every organ system, including the digestive tract, heart, and sex organs. About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy. People with diabetes can develop nerve problems at any time, but risk rises with age and longer duration of diabetes. The highest rates of neuropathy are among people who have had diabetes for at least 25 years. Diabetic neuropathies also appear to be more common in people who have problems controlling their blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as those with high levels of blood fat and blood pressure and those who are overweight. What causes diabetic neuropathies? The causes are probably different for different types of diabetic neuropathy. Researchers are studying how prolonged exposure to high blood glucose causes nerve damage. Nerve damage is likely due to a combination of factors: metabolic factors, such as high blood glucose, long duration of diabetes, abnormal blood fat levels, and possibly low levels of insulin neurovascular factors, leading to damage to the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to nerves autoimmune factors that cause inflammation in nerves mechanical injury to nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome inherited traits that increase susceptibility to nerve disease lifestyle factors, such as smoking or alcohol use What are the symptoms of diabetic neuropathies? Symptoms depend on the type of neuropathy and which Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy (nerve Damage) - An Update

Diabetic Neuropathy (nerve Damage) - An Update

Nerve damage or diabetic neuropathy resulting from chronically high blood glucose can be one of the most frustrating and debilitating complications of diabetes because of the pain, discomfort and disability it can cause, and because available treatments are not uniformly successful. Some patients find some relief from this nerve damage or neuropathy by keeping blood sugars as closely controlled as possible, getting regular exercise and keeping their weight under control. Using non-narcotic pain relievers consistently throughout the day—rather than waiting until nighttime when symptoms can become more severe—also seems to help if pain is the major symptom. Surprisingly, clinicians have also found that certain antidepressants may be helpful and can take the edge off the pain of neuropathy. Although pain or numbness in the legs or feet may be the most common complaint from people diagnosed with neuropathy, it is not the only symptom of this complication. Neuropathy can cause a host of different types of symptoms, depending on whether nerves in the legs, gastrointestinal tract, or elsewhere in the body are affected. If you have any of these symptoms, neuropathy may be the culprit: inability to adequately empty the bladder of its contents, resulting in frequent infections; nausea, vomiting, abdominal fullness or bloating, diarrhea, or constipation; low blood pressure upon standing that causes fainting or dizziness; inability to lift the foot or new deformities of the foot, or foot ulcers; trouble achieving or maintaining an erection. Although physicians have found some medications and other treatments that help ease these symptoms in some people, prevention continues to be the key. "Hemoglobin A1C readings should ideally be at 7.0% or lower. Those that are consistently n Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Preventive treatment Prevention of diabetic neuropathy and of its complications remains the best treatment. Tight diabetic control diminishes the risk of developing a disabling peripheral neuropathy, but it is not often achievable, because it carries a higher risk of hypoglycemia. Prevention of complications of diabetic neuropathy includes prevention of trophic changes in the feet. Diabetics need advice about foot care and footware and about protection of hyposensitive areas and pressure points, to prevent the occurrence of painless ulcers and decrease the risk of bone infection. Prevention and treatment of the diabetic foot are at best given in specialized foot clinics. Diabetics with sensory loss also need advice about painless burns and injuries. Pancreatic transplantation is not routinely performed yet. Although it may stabilize the neuropathy it does not seem to improve it (Kennedy et al., 1990). Somatic and autonomic peripheral nervous system manifestations The most common diabetic neuropathy is a symmetric, predominately sensory, neuropathy that affects the distal regions of the lower limbs first, gradually spreads proximally, and later similarly affects the upper limbs. Symptoms include paresthesias, numbness, and, in some patients, burning and lancinating pain in the lower limbs. Once established, sensory diabetic neuropathy is persistent even if hyperglycemia is controlled. Acute painful diabetic neuropathy is an infrequent syndrome that often follows precipitous weight loss. Patients with this neuropathy experience unremitting, burning pain in the lower limbs. Cutaneous hyperesthesia that results from contact with clothing or sheets is especially troublesome to these patients. Their symptoms often resolve over the course of a few months, after weight gain acc Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus. These conditions are thought to result from a diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (vasa nervorum) in addition to macrovascular conditions that can accumulate in diabetic neuropathy. Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve palsy[1]; mononeuropathy; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful polyneuropathy; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. Signs and symptoms[edit] Illustration depicting areas affected by diabetic neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy affects all peripheral nerves including sensory neurons, motor neurons, but rarely affects the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, diabetic neuropathy can affect all organs and systems, as all are innervated. There are several distinct syndromes based on the organ systems and members affected, but these are by no means exclusive. A patient can have sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy or any other combination. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the nerve(s) affected and may include symptoms other than those listed. Symptoms usually develop gradually over years. Symptoms may include the following: Trouble with balance Numbness and tingling of extremities Dysesthesia (abnormal sensation to a body part) Diarrhea Erectile dysfunction Urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) Facial, mouth and eyelid drooping Vision changes Dizziness Muscle weakness Difficulty swallowing Speech impairment Fasciculation (muscle contractions) Anorgasmia Retrograde ejaculation (in males) Burning or electric pain Pathogenesis[edit] The following factors are thought to be involved in the development of dia Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy. Half of all people with diabetes will develop neuropathy. The nerves of the feet are most commonly affected by diabetic neuropathy. The feet are usually numb, although many people also experience significant discomfort and pain. Most people with diabetic neuropathy are unaware that they have nerve damage, until it is picked up on routine screening by their doctor or when they develop complications. Although there is no cure, early diagnosis and treatment can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of further complications. On this page: Neuropathy means damage to the nerves of the peripheral nervous system. Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy. It most commonly affects the nerves to the feet and hands, but any nerves can be involved, including those that control internal organs (autonomic nerves). Up to half of all people with diabetes develop neuropathy during the course of their disease. There is no cure. Management aims to ease symptoms and reduce the risk of further complications. Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy Most people with diabetic neuropathy are unaware that they have nerve damage, until it is picked up on routine screening by their doctor. Typical symptoms vary from person to person, but may include one or more of numbness, pins and needles, tingling, discomfort, or weakness, which usually begin in both feet and spread symmetrically up the legs (like stockings). About half of those people with diabetic neuropathy experience significant pain in their feet and increased sensitivity to painful stimuli (known as neuropathic pain or painful neuropathy).Neuropathic pain is often worse at night, and can seriously disrupt sleep patterns. These symptoms can have a major effect on health and wellbeing bec Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The best way to prevent or treat diabetic neuropathy is to keep your blood sugar (glucose) and blood pressure well controlled, to attend regular diabetes checks and to avoid smoking. The outcome for early diabetic neuropathy can be good but severe neuropathy is often associated with a poor outcome. The best way to prevent or treat diabetic neuropathy is to keep your blood sugar (glucose) and blood pressure well controlled, to attend regular diabetes checks and to avoid smoking. The outcome for early diabetic neuropathy can be good but severe neuropathy is often associated with a poor outcome. What is diabetic neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Your peripheral nervous system is a network of nerves called peripheral nerves. These transmit information between your central nervous system and all the other parts of your body, including your arms, legs and organs. Your peripheral nervous system is divided into: Sensory nerves. Electrical impulses transmitted along your sensory nerves allow you to touch and feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The information from the sensory nerves passes to your spinal cord and brain. Motor nerves. Electrical impulses that pass along these nerves pass information from your brain and spinal cord to stimulate your muscles to move. Autonomic nerves. Your autonomic nervous system controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart and the widening or narrowing of your blood vessels. When something goes wrong in this system, it can cause serious problems which can affect: Continue reading >>

What Causes Neuropathy In Diabetes Patients? Is Any Of The Nerve Damage Reversible?

What Causes Neuropathy In Diabetes Patients? Is Any Of The Nerve Damage Reversible?

Damage to nerves and blood vessels. Prolonged exposure to high blood sugar can damage delicate nerve fibers, causing diabetic neuropathy. ... It also weakens the walls of the small blood vessels (capillaries) that supply the nerves with oxygen and nutrients. Glycosylation causes neuropathy. In a nutshell, your cells can only absorb so much glucose. With the elevated blood glucose that accompanies uncontrolled diabetes, the excess glucose binds proteins to cells, causing them to swell affecting cell function and structure, and creating an inbalance that leads to cell destabilization and damage. The condition targets organs and tissues that don't depend on insulin to absorb glucose: kidneys, blood vessels, peripheral nerves and lenses of the eyes in particular are vulnerable to damage from hyperglycemia. Most doctors will tell you that nerve damage is nonreversible, but if you read the work of Dr. Randall C. Labrum, you'll find that he himself, as well as his patients, have managed to normalize neuropathy by keeping blood sugars at levels equivalent to non-diabetics. I highly recommend his book " The Neuropathy Solution." for a look into how this is accomplished. Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

Diabetic neuropathy refers to the damage that affects the nerves of the body in people who have diabetes. It is a progressive disease, and symptoms worsen over a number of years. People who do not control their blood sugar levels and those who have high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, or who are overweight are more susceptible. Neuropathy can affect any nerve in the body, but especially the nerves of the ganglia, the outside of the skull, the spinal cord, and those that impact the functioning of fundamental organs, such as the heart, bladder, intestines, and stomach. Problems can occur in the nerves that control the periphery, or outside, of the body, such as the feet and hands, those that control the automatic functions of the body, such as heart rate and digestion, or just one or a small group of nerves. Different nerves are affected in different ways. Around 60 percent to 70 percent of people with diabetes develop diabetic neuropathy, but symptoms may take 10 to 20 years to appear. The highest rates of neuropathy are found in patients who have been diagnosed with diabetes for 25 years or more. Types of diabetic neuropathy There are four main types of neuropathy, and they are: Peripheral neuropathy, which affects the feet and hands, is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy Autonomic neuropathy, affecting the nerves that control the involuntary functions of the body, like digestion Proximal neuropathy, which affects the legs Focal neuropathy, in which damage can occur in any nerve or any group of nerves. The symptoms of neuropathy depend on the nerves affected. A range of problems is associated with diabetic neuropathy. These include cardiovascular issues, intestinal problems such as constant diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, weakness, muscle pain, and para Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathydiabetic Neuropathy Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Diabetic Neuropathydiabetic Neuropathy Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Diabetic neuropathy definition and facts Diabetes is thought to damage nerves as a result of prolonged elevated levels of blood glucose. Peripheral neuropathy most commonly causes: Autonomic neuropathy causes symptoms related to dysfunction of an organ system, such as: Diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy is usually done by a clinical exam. There is no cure for diabetic neuropathy, but treatments are available to manage the symptoms. Diabetic nerve pain may be controlled by medications such as tricyclic antidepressants, duloxetine (Cymbalta), or certain antiseizure medications. Keeping tight control of blood sugar levels is the best way to prevent diabetic neuropathy and other complications of diabetes. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Improve Diabetes Nerve Pain What are the symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy? The symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy depend upon the type of neuropathy that is present. Signs and symptoms can also vary in severity among affected people. Signs and symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy include: Numbness or tingling of the feet and lower legs Pain or burning sensations Loss of sensation in the feet or lower legs Sometimes, but less commonly, these symptoms can occur in the hands or arms Signs and symptoms of diabetic proximal neuropathy include: Pain, usually on one side, in the hips, buttocks, or thighs Signs and symptoms of diabetic autonomic neuropathy depend upon the organ system that is involved and can include: Feeling full after eating a small amount Inability to empty the bladder completely Decrease in vaginal lubrication in women Rapid resting heartbeat Signs and symptoms of diabetic focal neuropathy also depend upon the location of the affected nerve. The symptoms can appear suddenly. It usually does not cause a long t Continue reading >>

The Nerve Damage Of Diabetes

The Nerve Damage Of Diabetes

Diabetic neuropathy is a nerve disorder caused by diabetes. Symptoms of neuropathy include numbness and sometimes pain in the hands, feet, or legs. Nerve damage caused by diabetes can also lead to problems with internal organs such as the digestive tract, heart, and sexual organs, causing indigestion, diarrhea or constipation, dizziness, bladder infections, and impotence. In some cases, neuropathy can flare up suddenly, causing weakness and weight loss. Depression may follow. While some treatments are available, a great deal of research is still needed to understand how diabetes affects the nerves and to find more effective treatments for this complication. A 10-year clinical study that involved 1,441 volunteers with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) was recently completed by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The study proved that keeping blood sugar levels as close to the normal range as possible slows the onset and progression of nerve disease caused by diabetes. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) studied two groups of volunteers: those who followed a standard diabetes management routine and those who intensively managed their diabetes. Persons in the intensive management group took multiple injections of insulin daily or used an insulin pump and monitored their blood glucose at least four times a day to try to lower their blood glucose levels to the normal range. After 5 years, tests of neurological function showed that the risk of nerve damage was reduced by 60 percent in the intensively managed group. People in the standard treatment group, whose average blood glucose levels were higher, had higher rates of neuropathy. Although the DCCT included only patients with IDDM, researchers believe that people with nonins Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Glycemic Control, Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Management

Diabetic Neuropathy Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Glycemic Control, Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Management

Diabetic NeuropathyTreatment & Management Author: Dianna Quan, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP more... Management of diabetic neuropathy should begin at the initial diagnosis of diabetes. The primary care physician needs to be alert for the development of neuropathyor even its presence at the time of initial diabetes diagnosisbecause failure to diagnose diabetic polyneuropathy can lead to serious consequences, including disability and amputation. [ 67 , 68 , 69 , 70 ] Consider any patient with clinical evidence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy to be at risk for foot ulceration, and provide education on foot care. [ 71 ] If necessary, refer the patient to a podiatrist. Admit patients for an infected diabetic foot ulcer or gangrene. For more information, see Diabetic Foot Infections . Patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy require more frequent follow-up, with particular attention to foot inspection to reinforce the need for regular self-care. The provision of regular foot examinations and reinforcement of the educational message on foot care have been shown in several studies to significantly reduce rates of ulceration and even amputation. [ 72 ] The primary care physician is responsible for educating patients about the acute and chronic complications of diabetes, [ 46 ] including the psychological impact of sexual dysfunction in both men and women. The importance of involving a neurologist (preferably with expertise in peripheral neuropathy) in the treatment of patients with diabetic neuropathy cannot be overemphasized. Of all treatments, tight and stable glycemic control is probably the most important for slowing the progression of neuropathy. [ 73 ] Because rapid swings from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia have been suggested to induce and aggra Continue reading >>

7 Natural Diabetic Neuropathy Treatments That Work

7 Natural Diabetic Neuropathy Treatments That Work

Diabetes itself is extremely common, affecting about one in every three adults in the U.S., and diabetic neuropathy is one of the most likely complications to develop as a side effect because high blood sugar levels affect nerve fibers throughout the body. Neuropathy is a pathological condition that encompasses more than 100 different forms and manifestations of nerve damage, both in people with diabetes and those without. (1) Diabetic neuropathy (also sometimes called peripheral neuropathy) is the term for nerve damage caused by diabetes, a chronic condition that occurs when the body doesn’t use the hormone insulin properly. Neuropathy can form anywhere but is most likely to affect nerves running through the limbs, hands and feet. Not every person with diabetes symptoms develops complications such as neuropathy, but many do. In fact, up to 60 percent to 70 percent of all diabetics experience some form of neuropathy. For some people, only mild symptoms develop from nerve damage, such as tingling or numbness in the limbs. But for others, neuropathy causes a good amount of pain, digestive issues, problems with the heart and blood vessels, the inability to go about life normally, and even death if major organs are affected badly enough. Diabetic neuropathy can trigger a cascade of events that lead to even more serious complications. Just like with diabetes itself, there is no known “cure” for peripheral neuropathy, only ways to manage it and stop progression, similarly to the natural treatments for diabetes. It’s a dangerous problem to have, but fortunately most people are able to keep it under control by regulating their blood sugar levels, changing their diets and adopting healthier lifestyles overall, all of which help control their diabetes. 7 Natural Remedies Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Print Overview Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerve fibers throughout your body, but diabetic neuropathy most often damages nerves in your legs and feet. Depending on the affected nerves, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can range from pain and numbness in your extremities to problems with your digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels and heart. For some people, these symptoms are mild; for others, diabetic neuropathy can be painful, disabling and even fatal. Diabetic neuropathy is a common serious complication of diabetes. Yet you can often prevent diabetic neuropathy or slow its progress with tight blood sugar control and a healthy lifestyle. Symptoms There are four main types of diabetic neuropathy. You may have just one type or symptoms of several types. Most develop gradually, and you may not notice problems until considerable damage has occurred. The signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy vary, depending on the type of neuropathy and which nerves are affected. Peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy. Your feet and legs are often affected first, followed by your hands and arms. Signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy are often worse at night, and may include: Numbness or reduced ability to feel pain or temperature changes A tingling or burning sensation Sharp pains or cramps Increased sensitivity to touch — for some people, even the weight of a bed sheet can be agonizing Muscle weakness Loss of reflexes, especially in the ankle Loss of balance and coordination Serious foot problems, such as ulcers, infections, deformities, and bone and joint pain Autonomic neuropathy The autonomic nervous system controls your hea Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy: Causes And Symptoms

Diabetic Neuropathy: Causes And Symptoms

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy—DPN for short—is diabetes-related damage to nerves that sit near the surface of your skin. DPN usually affects the feet and the hands, but can also harm nerves in arms and legs. Approximately 50 percent of people with type 2 diabetes and 20% of those with type 1 diabetes develop this kind of nerve damage.1 DPN can be extremely painful—or cause numbness so that you have little feeling, especially in your feet. DPN damages two different types of nerves close to the surface of your skin. DPN can affect small nerves that protect your body by sending signals about pain and temperature changes to your brain. This condition can also attack large nerves that detect touch, pressure and help you keep your balance. 2 Symptoms are different for each type. Most people with DPN have damage to both types of nerves. DPN usually affects extremities—feet, hands, legs and arms—where nerve fibers are the longest and most numerous. 3 Causes Experts are still investigating exactly how diabetes harms and kills these nerve cells. “The causes remain unknown,” the American Diabetes Association noted in a definitive 2017 review. One thing is certain: The conventional wisdom—that high blood sugar is the cause—is just part of the story. New research is revealing a bigger cast of culprits. These include high cholesterol, high triglycerides (another blood fat), high blood pressure, obesity and smoking, according to a British research report in a widely-cited 2005 study that tracked 1,172 people with diabetes for seven years. 4 The threats are major: Obesity and high triglycerides each doubled risk in people with diabetes in a 2013 University of Utah study of 218 people with type 2 diabetes. 5 Smoking increased risk by as much as 42% in a 2015 Harvard M Continue reading >>

Everything You Should Know About Diabetic Neuropathy

Everything You Should Know About Diabetic Neuropathy

What is diabetic neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a serious and common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It’s a type of nerve damage caused by uncontrolled high blood sugar levels. You may not initially have any symptoms. The condition usually develops slowly, sometimes over the course of several decades. If you have diabetes and are experiencing numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness of your hands or feet, call your doctor. These are the early symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. In cases of severe or prolonged peripheral neuropathy, you may experience injuries or infections in your extremities. In some cases, these can lead to amputation. Damage to other nerves of the body can cause other symptoms. That’s why it’s important to regularly monitor your blood sugar levels and contact your doctor if have any symptoms of neuropathy. It’s common for symptoms of neuropathy to appear gradually. In many cases, the first type of nerve damage to occur involves the nerves of the feet. This can lead to symptoms such as the sensation of pins and needles in your feet. Symptoms vary depending on the nerves affected. Common signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy include: sensitivity to touch loss of sense of touch difficulty with coordination when walking numbness or pain in your extremities muscle weakness or wasting nausea and indigestion diarrhea or constipation dizziness upon standing excessive sweating vaginal dryness in women and erectile dysfunction in men Symptoms may vary depending on the type of neuropathy you’re experiencing. The term neuropathy is used to describe several types of nerve damage. In people with diabetes, there are four main types of neuropathy you may develop. Peripheral neuropathy The most common form of neuropathy is peripheral neuropa Continue reading >>

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