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What Body System Is The Pancreas?

Pancreas

Pancreas

The pancreas is a glandular organ in the upper abdomen, but really it serves as two glands in one: a digestive exocrine gland and a hormone-producing endocrine gland. Functioning as an exocrine gland, the pancreas excretes enzymes to break down the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids in food. Functioning as an endocrine gland, the pancreas secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon to control blood sugar levels throughout the day. Both of these diverse functions are vital to the body’s survival. Continue Scrolling To Read More Below... Click To View Large Image Related Anatomy: Body of Pancreas Common Bile Duct Head of Pancreas Kidneys Neck of Pancreas Pancreatic Notch Small Intestine Tail of Pancreas Continued From Above... Anatomy of the Pancreas The pancreas is a narrow, 6-inch long gland that lies posterior and inferior to the stomach on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The pancreas extends laterally and superiorly across the abdomen from the curve of the duodenum to the spleen. The head of the pancreas, which connects to the duodenum, is the widest and most medial region of the organ. Extending laterally toward the left, the pancreas narrows slightly to form the body of the pancreas. The tail of the pancreas extends from the body as a narrow, tapered region on the left side of the abdominal cavity near the spleen. Glandular tissue that makes up the pancreas gives it a loose, lumpy structure. The glandular tissue surrounds many small ducts that drain into the central pancreatic duct. The pancreatic duct carries the digestive enzymes produced by endocrine cells to the duodenum. The pancreas is classified as a heterocrine gland because it contains both endocrine and exocrine glandular tissue. The exocrine tissue makes up about 99% of the pancrea Continue reading >>

An Overview Of The Pancreas

An Overview Of The Pancreas

Pancreas Essentials The pancreas maintains the body’s blood glucose (sugar) balance. Primary hormones of the pancreas include insulin and glucagon, and both regulate blood glucose. Diabetes is the most common disorder associated with the pancreas. The pancreas is unique in that it’s both an endocrine and exocrine gland. In other words, the pancreas has the dual function of secreting hormones into blood (endocrine) and secreting enzymes through ducts (exocrine). The pancreas belongs to the endocrine and digestive systems—with most of its cells (more than 90%) working on the digestive side. However, the pancreas performs the vital duty of producing hormones—most notably insulin—to maintain the balance of blood glucose (sugar) and salt in the body. Without this balance, your body is susceptible to serious complications, such as diabetes. Anatomy of the Pancreas The pancreas is a 6 inch-long flattened gland that lies deep within the abdomen, between the stomach and the spine. It is connected to the duodenum, which is part of the small intestine. Only about 5% of the pancreas is comprised of endocrine cells. These cells are clustered in groups within the pancreas and look like little islands of cells when examined under a microscope. These groups of pancreatic endocrine cells are known as pancreatic islets or more specifically, islets of Langerhans (named after the scientist who discovered them). Hormones of the Pancreas The production of pancreatic hormones, including insulin, somatostatin, gastrin, and glucagon, play an important role in maintaining sugar and salt balance in our bodies. Gastrin: This hormone aids digestion by stimulating certain cells in the stomach to produce acid. Glucagon: Glucagon helps insulin maintain normal blood glucose by working in the Continue reading >>

Pancreas - Simple English Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

Pancreas - Simple English Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates The pancreas is an organ that makes hormones and enzymes to help digestion . The pancreas helps break down carbohydrates , fats , and proteins . The pancreas is behind the stomach and is on the left side of the human body. The part of the pancreas that makes hormones is called the Islets of Langerhans . The Islets of Langerhans are a small part (2%) of the total cells in the pancreas. The Islets of Langerhans change which chemical they make depending on how much of other chemicals are already in the blood . So, the pancreas works to keep the level of chemicals in balance in the body. If the Islets of Langerhans stop working, a person will suffer from a disease called diabetes . Doctors are experimenting with taking the Islets of Langerhans cells from a donor body and putting them into the pancreas of a person with diabetes to make that person well. [1] [2] The pancreas belongs to two systems of the body: the digestive system for its role in breaking down nutrients, and the endocrine system for producing hormones. Continue reading >>

The Pancreas: Anatomy, Function, And Disorders | Everyday Health

The Pancreas: Anatomy, Function, And Disorders | Everyday Health

The pancreas is located behind the stomach in the upper-left area of the abdomen. Your pancreas is an organ that's part of both the digestive system and the endocrine system. The digestive system, which breaks down food into tiny components that are then absorbed into the body, is made up of numerous organs in addition to the pancreas, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines. The endocrine system is a collection of many different endocrine glands, such as the thyroid gland , testes, and pituitary gland, which secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. Your pancreas is located in the upper left area of your abdomen, behind your stomach and near your duodenum, the first section of your small intestine. The organ measures about 6 inches long and weighs about one-fifth of a pound. Looking somewhat like a sweet potato, the pancreas is made up of a bulbous head and neck, a tubular body, and a narrow, pointy tail. The pancreas contains a tubelike structure called the main pancreatic duct, which runs from the tail to the head of the organ. The gallbladder's bile duct enters at the top of the pancreas's head to connect to the main pancreatic duct. The joined ducts exit from the pancreas's head and connect to the duodenum. Some people also have an additional pancreatic duct, sometimes known as the duct of Santorini, which connects to another part of the duodenum. RELATED: 9 Common Digestive Conditions From Top to Bottom Your pancreas has two main responsibilities: It helps the body digest food, and it helps regulate blood sugar. More than 95 percent of the pancreas's mass is made up of cells and tissues that produce pancreatic juices containing digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase, elastase, and nucleases. ( 1 ) Each of these enzymes bre Continue reading >>

Organ Systems - Fundamentals - Merck Manuals Consumer Version

Organ Systems - Fundamentals - Merck Manuals Consumer Version

Although each organ has its specific functions, organs also function together in groups, called organ systems (see Table: Major Organ Systems ). Doctors categorize disorders and their own medical specialties according to organ systems. Some examples of organ systems and their functions include the digestive system, the cardiovascular system, and the musculoskeletal system. The digestive (or gastrointestinal) system , extending from the mouth to the anus, is responsible for receiving and digesting food and excreting waste. This system includes not only the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, which move and absorb food, but associated organs such as the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, which produce digestive enzymes, remove toxins, and store substances necessary for digestion. The cardiovascular system includes the heart (cardio) and blood vessels (vascular). The cardiovascular system is responsible for pumping and circulating the blood. The musculoskeletal system includes the bones, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and joints, which support and move the body. Organ systems often work together to do complicated tasks. For example, after a large meal is eaten, several organ systems work together to help the digestive system obtain more blood to perform its functions. The digestive system enlists the aid of the cardiovascular system and the nervous system . Blood vessels of the digestive system widen to transport more blood. Nerve impulses are sent to the brain, notifying it of the increased digestive activity. The digestive system even directly stimulates the heart through nerve impulses and chemicals released into the bloodstream. The heart responds by pumping more blood. The brain responds by perceiving less hunger, more fullness, and less interest in vigorous Continue reading >>

Liver And Pancreas - Functions Of The Human Body Systems

Liver And Pancreas - Functions Of The Human Body Systems

The liver is the largest gland or chemical factoryin the body. It is like a spongeshaped like a wedge. It has many metabolic and secretory functions. It produces a digestive fluid called bile, which is important in faciliating fat digestion and absorption. It stores vitamins and glycogen (a polysaccharide, that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and occurs primarily in the liver and muscle tissue. It is readily converted to glucose as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs. Also called animal starch). toremove waste and toxic material from the blood, to eliminate red blood cells that are no longer needed. The liver produces and releases about 800 and 1,000 ml of bile each day. Bile is also a gateway for the excretion of toxic substances such as drugs. A duct carries the bile to the common bile duct, which pours the bile into the duodenum (first section of the small intestines). The ducts are also connected to the gallbladder where the bile is concentrated and stored. Used red blood cells, which are called senescent red blood cells, are destroyed in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Bile is a greenish orange color because of the pigment bilirubin, which is made by the breakdown of hemoglobin (the iron-containing respiratory pigment in red blood cells). Liver cells produce a number of enzymes. When blood flows through the liver, the cells and enzymes are filtered. Nutrients that come into the liver through the intestines are converted so they can be used by cells and stored more easily. 1. Fats --> Fatty acids-->Carbohydrates or ketone bodies 2. Sugars --> Glycogen (stored in the liver until energy production --> glucose) The liver produces blood serum proteins and many clotting factors. The livermetabolizes nitrogenous waste products and detox

Bbc Science & Nature - Human Body And Mind - Organ Layer

Bbc Science & Nature - Human Body And Mind - Organ Layer

Location: Behind the stomach and level with the top of the small intestine Function: Secreting digestive enzymes and hormones that control blood sugar levels When you eat, your pancreas releases digestive juices through a duct into your duodenum - the first part of your small intestine. This fluid is rich in enzymes that break down fats, proteins and carbohydrates. It also contains sodium bicarbonate which neutralises acid in your stomach. Your pancreas produces insulin and glucagon, two hormones that regulate sugar levels in your blood. Insulin and glucagon are secreted from your pancreas directly into your blood. When the concentration of glucose (a sugar) rises in your blood, insulin is released. Insulin lowers blood glucose levels by stimulating cells throughout your body to use and store glucose. Glucagon has the opposite effect of insulin. It triggers the release of stored sugars, increasing the concentration of glucose in your blood. Glucagon acts as a control mechanism whenever your body produces too much insulin. It is possible to live without your pancreas provided you take insulin to regulate blood sugar concentration and pancreatic enzyme supplements to aid digestion. Continue reading >>

Pancreas: Functions And Possible Problems

Pancreas: Functions And Possible Problems

The pancreas is a gland organ. It is located in the abdomen. It is part of the digestive system and produces insulin and other important enzymes and hormones that help break down foods. The pancreas has an endocrine function because it releases juices directly into the bloodstream, and it has an exocrine function because it releases juices into ducts. Enzymes, or digestive juices, are secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. There, it continues breaking down food that has left the stomach. The pancreas also produces the hormone insulin and secretes it into the bloodstream, where it regulates the body's glucose or sugar level. Problems with insulin control can lead to diabetes. Here are some key points about the pancreas. More detail is in the main article. The pancreas is a gland organ with a key role in digestion and glucose control. A healthful diet can contribute to maintaining a healthy pancreas. Features of the pancreas The pancreas is an organ 6 to 8 inches long. It extends horizontally across the abdomen. The largest part lays on the right side of the abdomen where the stomach attaches to the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum. At this point, the partially digested food passes from the stomach into the small intestine, and it mixes with the secretions from the pancreas. The narrow part of the pancreas extends to the left side of the abdomen next to the spleen. A duct runs the length of the pancreas, and it is joined by several small branches from the glandular tissue. The end of this duct is connected to a similar duct that comes from the liver, which delivers bile to the duodenum. Around 95 percent of the pancreas is exocrine tissue. It produces pancreatic enzymes to aid digestion. A healthy pancreas makes about 2.2 pints (1 liter) of thes Continue reading >>

The Pancreas And Its Functions

The Pancreas And Its Functions

The pancreas is an organ located in the abdomen. It plays an essential role in converting the food we eat into fuel for the body's cells. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar. Location of the Pancreas The pancreas is located behind the stomach in the upper left abdomen. It is surrounded by other organs including the small intestine, liver, and spleen. It is spongy, about six to ten inches long, and is shaped like a flat pear or a fish extended horizontally across the abdomen. The wide part, called the head of the pancreas, is positioned toward the center of the abdomen. The head of the pancreas is located at the juncture where the stomach meets the first part of the small intestine. This is where the stomach empties partially digested food into the intestine, and the pancreas releases digestive enzymes into these contents. The central section of the pancreas is called the neck or body. The thin end is called the tail and extends to the left side. Several major blood vessels surround the pancreas, the superior mesenteric artery, the superior mesenteric vein, the portal vein and the celiac axis, supplying blood to the pancreas and other abdominal organs. Almost all of the pancreas (95%) consists of exocrine tissue that produces pancreatic enzymes for digestion. The remaining tissue consists of endocrine cells called islets of Langerhans. These clusters of cells look like grapes and produce hormones that regulate blood sugar and regulate pancreatic secretions. Functions of the Pancreas A healthy pancreas produces the correct chemicals in the proper quantities, at the right times, to digest the foods we eat. The pancreas contains exocrine glands that produce enzymes important t Continue reading >>

Bodymaps

Bodymaps

In Depth: Pancreas and Spleen Pancreas The pancreas is a wing-shaped gland that extends from the duodenum (the upper portion of the small intestine) to the spleen. It serves both digestive and endocrine functions. The pancreas aids in digestion by producing enzymes that digest several types of nutrients, including proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and nucleic acid, a common acid that acts as building block in DNA and is essential for all living things. The pancreas also produces large amounts of fluid that protects the lining of the small intestine from the acidic chyme (partially-digested food) that it receives from the stomach. This fluid collects in a main duct that joins with a common bile duct. The fluid and bile wait to be released into the duodenum when the stomach releases food. The pancreas also functions as an endocrine gland by producing two very important hormones that help regulate the level of sugar in the blood: insulin and glucagon. People whose pancreases do not produce enough insulin have a condition known as diabetes. Type 1 diabetics have a pancreas that does not produce any insulin, and they must administer the hormone via injections through their skin. Type 2 diabetics produce an insufficient amount of insulin. The pancreas can stop producing insulin for a variety of reasons. Poor diet, obesity, and a genetic disposition for the condition are among the most common causes of diabetes. Spleen The spleen is a fist-sized organ of the lymphatic system that operates as filter for blood. It helps ward off infections and maintains body-fluid balance. In addition to filtering blood through pulp-like tissue, the spleen also houses two very important types of immunity-related white blood cells: lymphocytes and phagocytes. Some of the spleen’s other functions i Continue reading >>

Pancreatitis Overview

Pancreatitis Overview

Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. Pancreatitis can develop suddenly and resolve in a short amount of time (called acute pancreatitis), or can be long lasting and recurrent (called chronic pancreatitis). In some cases, the condition is genetic (called hereditary pancreatitis). Pancreatitis is a serious medical problem that can be life threatening. It is more common in people who have a history of alcohol abuse or diseases of the biliary tract (e.g., liver, gallbladder, bile ducts). Symptoms of pancreatitis include abdominal pain (which may be severe), nausea, and vomiting. Pancreatitis can cause serious complications, including tissue death (necrosis), bleeding, and infection. In severe cases, it can cause toxic substances and digestive enzymes to be released into the bloodstream, where they can spread throughout the body, damage other organs (e.g., heart, lungs, kidneys), and cause infection (e.g., bacteremia). The pancreas is a long, glandular organ that is part of the digestive system. It is located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and between the first part of the small intestine (called the duodenum) and the spleen. The pancreas is both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland, and the organ is involved in digestion and metabolism. The exocrine function of the pancreas is to produce and secrete a substance called pancreatic juice. Pancreatic juice is made up of sodium bicarbonate and certain enzymes (e.g., trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, amylase, lipase) that aid in digestion in the small intestine. It flows from the pancreas through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum, where the enzymes become active. If the enzymes start to work before leaving the pancreas, they can begin to "digest" the organ itself (called autodigestion), causing pancreatitis. The Continue reading >>

Pancreas Anatomy & Diagram | Body Maps

Pancreas Anatomy & Diagram | Body Maps

Medically reviewed by Healthline Medical Team on November 6, 2014 The pancreas is a glandular organ that produces a number of hormones essential to the body. It forms an integral part of the digestive system. The pancreas is located below and behind the stomach, in the curve of the duodenum, which is a part of the small intestine. The pancreas secretes fluids that help break down food in the small intestine, along with bile and other fluids that aid the metabolism of fats and proteins. The pancreas is also critical to the production of insulin and glucagon, which regulate glucose levels in the blood. If the pancreas stops producing insulin, this leads to diabetes and a number of associated health issues. Other problems that concern the pancreas include pancreatic cancer. This is a particularly hard cancer to spot since the tumor generally is not palpable (it cant be felt) due to the positioning of the pancreas. People with pancreatic cancer generally only start to display symptoms when the tumor becomes large enough to interfere with its neighboring organs. Continue reading >>

Pancreas: Function, Location & Diseases

Pancreas: Function, Location & Diseases

MORE The pancreas is an abdominal organ that is located behind the stomach and is surrounded by other organs, including the spleen, liver and small intestine. The pancreas is about 6 inches (15.24 centimeters) long, oblong and flat. The pancreas plays an important role in digestion and in regulating blood sugar. Three diseases associated with the pancreas are pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Function of the pancreas The pancreas serves two primary functions, according to Jordan Knowlton, an advanced registered nurse practitioner at the University of Florida Health Shands Hospital. It makes “enzymes to digest proteins, fats, and carbs in the intestines” and produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, he said. Dr. Richard Bowen of Colorado State University’s Department of Biomedical Sciences wrote in Hypertexts for Pathophysiology: Endocrine System, “A well-known effect of insulin is to decrease the concentration of glucose in blood.” This lowers blood sugar levels and allows the body’s cells to use glucose for energy. Insulin also allows glucose to enter muscle and other tissue, works with the liver to store glucose and synthesize fatty acids, and “stimulates the uptake of amino acids,” according to Bowen. Insulin is released after eating protein and especially after eating carbohydrates, which increase glucose levels in the blood. If the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin, type 1 diabetes will develop. Unlike insulin, glucagon raises blood sugar levels. According to the Johns Hopkins University Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, the combination of insulin and glucagon maintains the proper level of sugar in the blood. The pancreas’ second, exocrine function is to produce and release digestive fluids. After food enters Continue reading >>

You And Your Hormones

You And Your Hormones

Where is the pancreas? The pancreas is a large gland that lies alongside the stomach and the small bowel. It is about six inches (approximately 15 cm) long and is divided into the head, body and tail. What does the pancreas do? The pancreas carries out two important roles: It makes digestive juices, which consist of powerful enzymes. These are released into the small bowel after meals to break down and digest food. It makes hormones that control blood glucose levels. The pancreas produces hormones in its 'endocrine' cells. These cells are gathered in clusters known as islets of langerhans and monitor what is happening in the blood. They then can release hormones directly into the blood when necessary. In particular, they sense when sugar (glucose) levels in the blood rise, and as soon as this happens the cells produce hormones, particularly insulin. Insulin then helps the body to lower blood glucose levels and 'store' the sugar away in fat, muscle, liver and other body tissues where it can be used for energy when required. The pancreas is very close to the stomach. As soon as food is eaten, the pancreas releases digestive enzymes into the bowel to break food down. As the food is digested, and nutrient levels in the blood rise, the pancreas produces insulin to help the body store the glucose (energy) away. Between meals, the pancreas does not produce insulin and this allows the body to gradually release stores of energy back into the blood as they are needed. Glucose levels remain very stable in the blood at all times to ensure that the body has a steady supply of energy. This energy is needed for metabolism, exercise and, in particular, to fuel the parts of the brain that 'run' on glucose. This makes sure that the body doesn't starve between meals. What hormones does th Continue reading >>

Pancreas Anatomy, Problems, Tests, And Treatments

Pancreas Anatomy, Problems, Tests, And Treatments

The pancreas is about 6 inches long and sits across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The head of the pancreas is on the right side of the abdomen and is connected to the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine) through a small tube called the pancreatic duct. The narrow end of the pancreas, called the tail, extends to the left side of the body. Diabetes, type 1 : The body’s immune system attacks and destroys the pancreas’ insulin-producing cells. Lifelong insulin injections are required to control blood sugar. Diabetes, type 2 : The pancreas loses the ability to appropriately produce and release insulin. The body also becomes resistant to insulin, and blood sugar rises. Cystic fibrosis : A genetic disorder that affects multiple body systems, usually including the lungs and the pancreas. Digestive problems and diabetes often result. Pancreatic cancer : The pancreas has many different types of cells, each of which can give rise to a different type of tumor. The most common type arises from the cells that line the pancreatic duct. Because there are usually few or no early symptoms, pancreatic cancer is often advanced by the time it’s discovered. Pancreatitis : The pancreas becomes inflamed and damaged by its own digestive chemicals. Swelling and death of tissue of the pancreas can result. Although alcohol or gallstones can contribute, sometimes a cause for pancreatitis is never found. Pancreatic pseudocyst : After a bout of pancreatitis, a fluid-filled cavity called a pseudocyst can form. Pseudocysts may resolve spontaneously, or they may need surgical drainage. Islet cell tumor : The hormone-producing cells of the pancreas multiply abnormally, creating a benign or cancerous tumor.  These tumors produce excess amounts of hormones and then rel Continue reading >>

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