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What Bacteria Causes Diabetes?

The Link Between Staph Infection And Diabetes

The Link Between Staph Infection And Diabetes

Researchers have found that toxins in staph bacteria may be causing diabetes. While many people may not realize it, staph infection is a very real concern in the realm of wound healing. Staphylococcus bacteria often lives on the skin without causing any real harm to the body. However, when there is a puncture to the outer dermal layer, whether it’s broken skin from dryness or a full incision, the bacteria can enter the opening, causing a staph infection. If left untreated, it can lead to sepsis, which causes the blood pressure to drop drastically and can be fatal. Now, research has revealed a new concern regarding staph infection – one that affects not only wound healing, but also one’s quality of life. A study published in the journal for the American Society for Microbiology found that staph infection may be one of the causes of Type 2 diabetes. Staph and diabetes: exploring the relationship This study, conducted by microbiologists from the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, sought to explore the notion that bacterial exposure can affect a person’s chances of developing some chronic conditions. The researchers exposed rabbits to the same toxin, or superantigen, that is produced by Staphylococcus aureus. What they found was that, in high amounts, this toxin led to the development of symptoms associated with diabetes, including resistance to insulin and intolerance for glucose as well as inflammation. “We basically reproduced Type 2 diabetes in rabbits simply through chronic exposure to the staph superantigen,” said lead researcher Dr. Patrick Schlievert in a news release. To check these finding, the researchers then turned to human patients who already have diabetes. The scientists measured the amount of the staph bacteria and related toxins on Continue reading >>

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

Gut Bacteria Linked To The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes

Gut Bacteria Linked To The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes

(NaturalHealth365) The intestinal environment plays a larger role in bodily function and health than just digesting food. Immunity begins in the gut and any decreases in health-promoting microbes can negatively impact the body’s immune system and therefore, the body’s ability to ward off disease. But research now shows that gut bacteria can also provide clues as to whether or not type 2 diabetes is present. In fact, changes in intestinal microbes are often detected before other symptoms of type 2 diabetes have even emerged. Editor’s note: Join me for the Heal Your Gut summit. It’s where health starts and your healing begins. Click here to learn more and gain INSTANT access today! Unhealthy gut microbes linked to the development of diabetes According to the World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 285 million people worldwide and about 21 million in the United States (alone) suffer from type 2 diabetes. U.S. numbers have steadily climbed in recent years to 9.3 percent of the population, a three-fold increase in the last 30 years. In type 2 diabetes, cells are no longer able to respond to insulin – the hormone that controls the uptake of glucose – so glucose is no longer absorbed. Even with adequate nutrition supplying glucose to the blood, cells don’t receive the energy they need. That search has recently led scientists to theorize there may be a link between type 2 diabetes and the composition of the intestinal microbial community. Recently, four Russian researchers studied differences in the changes in the microbes of the large intestine, reporting their findings in the journal Endocrinology Connections. Russian researchers discover the connection between gut bacteria and diabetes In the study, gut microbial Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms - Disruption In Your Bowel Could Be Causing Condition

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms - Disruption In Your Bowel Could Be Causing Condition

Scientists have been looking into how people develop abnormal blood glucose levels, one of the causes of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or the insulin produced does not work properly and can be linked to lifestyle factors such as being overweight. Metabolic syndrome - an umbrella term for diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure - has been dubbed the ‘new silent killer’ by medics. The condition, a cluster of three or more risk factors which include abdominal obesity - fat around the middle, high blood pressure, and diabetes, affect one in four adults in the UK. Now experts believe that developing the condition and type 2 diabetes in particular could be caused by bacteria penetrating the lining of the colon. They are also looking at ways to prevent it occurring. Crohn’s and colitis, two types of inflammatory bowel disease are through to occur when bacteria in the gut - called gut microbiotica - is disturbed. Gut microbiotica live on the outer regions of the mucus in the intestinal tract. Fri, August 19, 2016 Diabetes is a common life-long health condition. There are 3.5 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK and an estimated 500,000 who are living undiagnosed with the condition. bacteria that are able to encroach upon the epithelium might be able to promote inflammation that drives metabolic diseases However, if the macrobiotic penetrate the cells in the the gut, it could contribute to metabolic syndrome. The researchers also said people with inflammatory bowel disease often have gut bacteria in contact with the epithelium - cells in the gut. However, now experts believe type 2 diabetes could be closely linked to the same thing. Experts from Georgia in the US used samples of cells from participants i Continue reading >>

Bacteria May Cause Diabetes

Bacteria May Cause Diabetes

Most of the time, Staphylococcus aureus lives harmlessly as a member of the human skin microbiome. But when the opportunity arises, it readily turns pathogenic, causing such life threatening infections as toxic shock syndrome, pneumonia, or sepsis. Now, a study published in the journal mBio shows that this bacterium also promotes the development of type 2 diabetes (DMII) in obese individuals. "What we are finding is that as people gain weight, they are increasingly likely to be colonized by staph bacteria—to have large numbers of these bacteria living on the surface of their skin," explained Patrick Schlievert from the University of Iowa in a press release. "People who are colonized by staph bacteria are being chronically exposed to the superantigens (SAg) the bacteria are producing." Schlievert and his colleagues previously showed that SAgs associate with all major S. aureus infections, where they induce systemic inflammation. Since these bacteria increase significantly on the skin and nasal passages of obese individuals, and since obesity and inflammation play important roles in the development of DMII, the researchers wondered if S. aureus SAgs contributed to this process. The team focused on the SAg toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), which induces inflammatory cytokine production in adipocytes. Over the course of 6 weeks, they challenged rabbits with continuous sublethal doses of TSST-1 and monitored their ability to metabolize glucose. After only 2 weeks, the animals began to lose the ability to respond to glucose, a condition that worsened throughout the experiment. The rabbits also showed increased insulin production, systemic inflammation, liver damage, and increased levels of circulating endotoxins. "We basically reproduced type 2 diabetes in rabbits simp Continue reading >>

Bacteria May Cause Type 2 Diabetes

Bacteria May Cause Type 2 Diabetes

Findings suggest anti-bacterial therapy or vaccines may be able to prevent or treat Type 2 diabetes Bacteria and viruses have an obvious role in causing infectious diseases, but microbes have also been identified as the surprising cause of other illnesses, including cervical cancer (Human papilloma virus) and stomach ulcers (H. pylori bacteria). A new study by University of Iowa microbiologists now suggests that bacteria may even be a cause of one of the most prevalent diseases of our time: Type 2 diabetes. The research team led by Patrick Schlievert, professor and department executive officer of microbiology at the UI Carver College of Medicine, found that prolonged exposure to a toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria causes rabbits to develop the hallmark symptoms of Type 2 diabetes, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and systemic inflammation. “We basically reproduced Type 2 diabetes in rabbits simply through chronic exposure to the staph superantigen,” Schlievert says. The UI findings suggest that therapies aimed at eliminating staph bacteria or neutralizing the superantigens might have potential for preventing or treating Type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a known risk factor for developing Type 2 diabetes, but obesity also alters a person’s microbiome—the ecosystem of bacteria that colonize our bodies and affect our health. “What we are finding is that as people gain weight, they are increasingly likely to be colonized by staph bacteria—to have large numbers of these bacteria living on the surface of their skin,” Schlievert says. “People who are colonized by staph bacteria are being chronically exposed to the superantigens the bacteria are producing.” Schlievert’s research has previously shown that superantigens—tox Continue reading >>

Mouthwash May Kill Beneficial Bacteria In Mouth And Trigger Diabetes, Harvard Study Suggests

Mouthwash May Kill Beneficial Bacteria In Mouth And Trigger Diabetes, Harvard Study Suggests

Mouthwash may seem a beneficial, or at least harmless, addition to a daily tooth brushing routine. But a new study suggests that swilling with anti-bacterial fluid could be killing helpful microbes which live in the mouth and protect against obesity and diabetes. While mouthwash is supposed to target the bacteria which cause plaque and bad breath, in fact, it is indiscriminate, washing away beneficial strains. Researchers at Harvard University found that people who used mouthwash twice a day were around 55 per cent more likely to develop diabetes or dangerous blood sugar spikes, within three years. Although previous studies have found that poor oral hygiene can lead to health problems elsewhere in the body, it is the first research to show that seemingly positive practices can have unexpectedly negative consequences. Kaumudi Joshipura, professor of epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health, said: “Most of these antibacterial ingredients in mouthwash are not selective. “In other words, they do not target specific oral bacteria-instead, these ingredients can act on a broad range of bacteria.” The study looked at 1,206 overweight people aged between 40 and 65 who were deemed at risk of getting diabetes. Over the study period around 17 per cent of people developed diabetes or pre-diabetes, but that rose to 20 per cent for those using mouthwash once a day, and 30 per cent for those who used it in the morning and evening. Prof Joshipura said helpful bacteria in the mouth can protect against diabetes and obesity, including microbes which help the body produce nitric oxide, which regulates insulin levels. Nitric oxide is also important for regulating the metabolism, balancing energy and keeping blood sugar levels in check. Mouthwashes date back thousands of years, b Continue reading >>

Diabetic Foot Infections

Diabetic Foot Infections

Practice Essentials Compromise of the blood supply from microvascular disease, often in association with lack of sensation because of neuropathy, predisposes persons with diabetes mellitus to foot infections. These infections span the spectrum from simple, superficial cellulitis to chronic osteomyelitis. The radiograph below demonstrates a foot lesion in a patient with diabetes. Signs and symptoms Diabetic foot infections typically take one of the following forms: Cellulitis Tender, erythematous, nonraised skin lesions are present, sometimes with lymphangitis Lymphangitis suggests group A streptococcal infection Bullae are typical of Staphylococcus aureus infection, but occasionally occur with group A streptococci · No ulcer or wound exudate is present Deep-skin and soft-tissue infections The patient may be acutely ill, with painful induration of the soft tissues in the extremity Wound discharge is usually not present In mixed infections that may involve anaerobes, crepitation may be noted over the afflicted area Extreme pain and tenderness may indicate compartment syndrome or clostridial infection (ie, gas gangrene) The tissues are not tense, and bullae may be present Discharge, if present, is often foul Acute osteomyelitis Unless peripheral neuropathy is present, the patient has pain at the site of the involved bone Usually, fever and regional adenopathy are absent Chronic osteomyelitis The patient's temperature is usually less than 102°F Discharge is commonly foul No lymphangitis is observed Pain may or may not be present, depending on the degree of peripheral neuropathy Deep, penetrating ulcers and deep sinus tracts (diagnostic of chronic osteomyelitis) are usually located between the toes or on the plantar surface of the foot The medial malleoli, shins, or heels Continue reading >>

Skin Bacteria A Cause Of Diabetes?

Skin Bacteria A Cause Of Diabetes?

Toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a common skin bacteria, caused glucose intolerance in rabbit cells… Bacteria and viruses have an obvious role in causing infectious diseases, but microbes have also been identified as the surprising cause of other illnesses, including cervical cancer (Human papilloma virus) and stomach ulcers (H. pylori bacteria). A new study by University of Iowa microbiologists now suggests that bacteria may even be a cause of one of the most prevalent diseases of our time: Type 2 diabetes. The research team led by Patrick Schlievert, professor and department executive officer of microbiology at the UI Carver College of Medicine, found that prolonged exposure to a toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria causes rabbits to develop the hallmark symptoms of Type 2 diabetes, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and systemic inflammation. “We basically reproduced Type 2 diabetes in rabbits simply through chronic exposure to the staph superantigen,” Schlievert says. The UI findings suggest that therapies aimed at eliminating staph bacteria or neutralizing the superantigens might have potential for preventing or treating Type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a known risk factor for developing Type 2 diabetes, but obesity also alters a person’s microbiome — the ecosystem of bacteria that colonize our bodies and affect our health. “What we are finding is that as people gain weight, they are increasingly likely to be colonized by staph bacteria — to have large numbers of these bacteria living on the surface of their skin,” Schlievert says. “People who are colonized by staph bacteria are being chronically exposed to the superantigens the bacteria are producing.” Schlievert’s research has previously sho Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

As the incidence of diabetes mellitus continues to rise, common focus areas for diabetes control are blood glucose levels, diet, and exercise. Addressing and controlling these factors as well as other factors associated with diabetes are essential for a better quality of life; however, awareness of an increased risk of infections is also warranted in diabetes patients with chronic hyperglycemia. The immune system is comprised of two subcategories: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity, the first line of defense, is activated when a pathogen initially presents itself. This portion of immunity is inherited at birth and is not specific in its mechanism of defense. In addition, it serves the overall immune system by alerting specific cells of pathogen invasion to activate the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system has physical and chemical mechanisms of response. These include but are not limited to sneezing, coughing, sweating, maintenance of normal body temperature, and gram-positive normal flora on the skin. Adaptive immunity is a very specific aspect of a properly functioning immune system that provides protection against previous infections experienced by the host. These responses are mediated by lymphocytes, which consist of natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T cells. Vaccinations and exposure to pathogens benefit the adaptive immune system by establishing immunologic memory. In the event of another attack by the same foreign organism, the adaptive immune system is able to provide a more efficient response. Complications of Chronic Hyperglycemia Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are considered immunosuppressed due to the negative effects of elevated blood sugars on the immune system. Hyperglycemia impairs overall immunity through diffe Continue reading >>

Type I Diabetes — A Viral Thing?

Type I Diabetes — A Viral Thing?

Here's something I've been curious about for a long time. For a while I've been corresponding with a number of adult "late-onset" Type 1 (LADA) diabetics like myself who were told their disease manifested itself due to a virus. Strange, but a leading theory... I looked into this and discovered that the medical profession is pretty much still baffled about why people get Type 1 diabetes as adults. If we have the "genetic propensity," then why doesn't it manifest itself sooner? Adult-onset does appear to be more and more frequent, but why should this be if Type 1 is not brought on by poor diet or lifestyle? Here's one excellent link about What Causes Type 1 Diabetes from the University of Maryland Medical Center. Essentially this site tells us that "some researchers believe one or more viral infections may trigger the disease in genetically susceptible individuals." These researchers suggest: * An infection introduces a viral protein that resembles a beta-cell protein * T cells and antibodies are tricked by this resemblance into attacking the beta protein as well as the virus * Two people may be infected with the same virus and only one of them who is genetically prone will go on to develop diabetes * Among the viruses under scrutiny (suspected of triggering the Big D) are enteric viruses, which attack the intestinal tract. Coxsackieviruses are an enteric virus of particular interest. * BUT: One study has suggested that respiratory infection during a child's first year may actually be protective against diabetes, perhaps priming the immune response so that it is better able to respond to alien organisms later on. Gotcha. As usual, the theory sounds quite reasonable, but there is also intriguing evidence to suggest the opposite. What have we learned? It does seem pretty cl Continue reading >>

Causes

Causes

Gangrene can develop when the supply of blood to one or more areas of your body is interrupted. This can occur as the result of an injury, an infection, or an underlying condition that affects your circulation. Types of gangrene There are several different types of gangrene, each with a different cause. The main types are: dry gangrene – where the blood flow to an area of the body becomes blocked wet gangrene – caused by a combination of an injury and bacterial infection gas gangrene – where an infection develops deep inside the body and the bacteria responsible begin releasing gas necrotising fasciitis – caused by a serious bacterial infection that spreads quickly through the deeper layers of skin and tissue internal gangrene – where the blood flow to an internal organ, usually the intestines, gallbladder or appendix, becomes blocked Who's most at risk? People most at risk of gangrene are those with an underlying health condition that can affect the blood vessels and arteries (particularly if it's poorly managed), and those with a weakened immune system. Conditions affecting the blood vessels Conditions that can affect the blood vessels and increase your risk of developing gangrene include: diabetes – a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high, which can damage nerves and blood vessels (see below) atherosclerosis – where arteries narrow and become clogged with a fatty substance known as plaque peripheral arterial disease – where a build-up of fatty deposits in the arteries restricts blood supply to leg muscles Raynaud's phenomenon – where blood vessels in certain parts of the body, usually the fingers or toes, react abnormally to cold temperatures As blood vessels are naturally narrow, any damage or extra narrowin Continue reading >>

Gut Bacteria Compound May Help To Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

Gut Bacteria Compound May Help To Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

New research from Finland suggests that higher blood levels of indolepropionic acid - a product of gut bacteria that is increased by a fiber-rich diet - may help to protect against type 2 diabetes. Writing about the discovery in the journal Scientific Reports, the team - led by researchers from the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio - suggests that it increases our understanding of the important part played by gut bacteria in the relationship between diet, metabolism, and health. Diabetes is a disease in which the blood contains too much sugar, or glucose - a vital source of energy for the body's cells. If uncontrolled, high blood sugar can lead to blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, stroke, and amputation of lower limbs. Levels of blood sugar are regulated by the hormone insulin, which is made in the pancreas. The type of diabetes that develops depends on whether the high blood glucose results from lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or the body's inability to use insulin (type 2 diabetes). Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common form of diabetes around the world and largely develops from being overweight and not exercising. Molecular factors in type 2 diabetes less well-understood Once a disease occurring only in adults, the number of children with type 2 diabetes is now on the rise. Adults with diabetes have a two- to threefold higher risk of heart attacks and strokes. Type 2 diabetes patients can be treated with oral medication, but they may also need insulin. More than a fifth of healthcare spending in the U.S. is for people diagnosed with diabetes. The global prevalence of diabetes among adults (90 percent of which is type 2 diabetes) has gone up from 4.7 percent in 1980 to 8.5 percent in 2014. In the United States, there are more than 29 million people Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes May Be Triggered By Bacteria

Type 1 Diabetes May Be Triggered By Bacteria

The development of type 1 diabetes may be driven by some forms of bacteria, suggests a new study by researchers from Cardiff University in the United Kingdom. Study co-author Dr. David Cole, of the School of Medicine at Cardiff, and colleagues reveal how bacteria activate "killer T cells" - white blood cells that attack healthy cells instead of protecting them - to destroy insulin-producing cells, causing type 1 diabetes. The researchers recently published their findings in The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Type 1 diabetes accounts for around 5 percent of all diabetes cases. Previously known as "juvenile diabetes," the condition is most commonly diagnosed in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes arises when the body is unable to produce insulin - the hormone responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. Killer T cells have high 'cross-reactivity' While the precise cause of type 1 diabetes is unclear, past research has shown that the condition occurs when killer T cells destroy beta cells - the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. In a previous study, Prof. Sewell and colleagues found high "cross-reactivity" among killer T cells, meaning that they can react to numerous triggers, including pathogens. "Killer T cells sense their environment using cell surface receptors that act like highly sensitive fingertips, scanning for germs," explains Dr. Cole. "However, sometimes these sensors recognize the wrong target, and the killer T cells attack our own tissue. We, and others, have shown this is what happens during type 1 diabetes when killer T cells target and destroy beta cells." Once these beta cells are destroyed, insulin is no longer produced, meaning patients will require lifelong insulin therapy in order to control blood glucose levels. Study sheds li Continue reading >>

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