Gangrene can develop when the supply of blood to one or more areas of your body is interrupted. This can occur as the result of an injury, an infection, or an underlying condition that affects your circulation. Types of gangrene There are several different types of gangrene, each with a different cause. The main types are: dry gangrene – where the blood flow to an area of the body becomes blocked wet gangrene – caused by a combination of an injury and bacterial infection gas gangrene – where an infection develops deep inside the body and the bacteria responsible begin releasing gas necrotising fasciitis – caused by a serious bacterial infection that spreads quickly through the deeper layers of skin and tissue internal gangrene – where the blood flow to an internal organ, usually the intestines, gallbladder or appendix, becomes blocked Who's most at risk? People most at risk of gangrene are those with an underlying health condition that can affect the blood vessels and arteries (particularly if it's poorly managed), and those with a weakened immune system. Conditions affecting the blood vessels Conditions that can affect the blood vessels and increase your risk of developing gangrene include: diabetes – a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high, which can damage nerves and blood vessels (see below) atherosclerosis – where arteries narrow and become clogged with a fatty substance known as plaque peripheral arterial disease – where a build-up of fatty deposits in the arteries restricts blood supply to leg muscles Raynaud's phenomenon – where blood vessels in certain parts of the body, usually the fingers or toes, react abnormally to cold temperatures As blood vessels are naturally narrow, any damage or extra narrowin Continue reading >>
Skin Bacteria A Cause Of Diabetes?
Toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a common skin bacteria, caused glucose intolerance in rabbit cells… Bacteria and viruses have an obvious role in causing infectious diseases, but microbes have also been identified as the surprising cause of other illnesses, including cervical cancer (Human papilloma virus) and stomach ulcers (H. pylori bacteria). A new study by University of Iowa microbiologists now suggests that bacteria may even be a cause of one of the most prevalent diseases of our time: Type 2 diabetes. The research team led by Patrick Schlievert, professor and department executive officer of microbiology at the UI Carver College of Medicine, found that prolonged exposure to a toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria causes rabbits to develop the hallmark symptoms of Type 2 diabetes, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and systemic inflammation. “We basically reproduced Type 2 diabetes in rabbits simply through chronic exposure to the staph superantigen,” Schlievert says. The UI findings suggest that therapies aimed at eliminating staph bacteria or neutralizing the superantigens might have potential for preventing or treating Type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a known risk factor for developing Type 2 diabetes, but obesity also alters a person’s microbiome — the ecosystem of bacteria that colonize our bodies and affect our health. “What we are finding is that as people gain weight, they are increasingly likely to be colonized by staph bacteria — to have large numbers of these bacteria living on the surface of their skin,” Schlievert says. “People who are colonized by staph bacteria are being chronically exposed to the superantigens the bacteria are producing.” Schlievert’s research has previously sho Continue reading >>
The Root Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes Could Be A Common Childhood Viral Infection
A young child becomes very thirsty very often and seems tired all the time. A visit to the pediatrician determines she has type 1 diabetes. The onset of type 1 diabetes may seem sudden, and it can be, but the disease may actually have been triggered by common childhood viruses years earlier. Type 1 diabetes—also called diabetes mellitus—was previously called juvenile-onset diabetes because most people affected with this disease are diagnosed as children and young adults. It isn't the most common form of diabetes and only 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. That doesn't make it any less serious—in fact, it can be a life-threatening disease. When we eat something, our body converts carbohydrates and starches in the food into sugar (glucose), which is then processed by our bodies to either be used or stored for later. People with type 1 diabetes have trouble keeping their blood sugar level even: It spikes when they eat something and goes very low if they don't. That's because their pancreas doesn't make insulin, the hormone that in a healthy human moves glucose from the blood into cells where it can be used for energy, keeping it from spiking after eating. Type 1 diabetics must constantly monitor their blood sugar and take insulin to keep their levels within a normal range to keep this process running. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, a disease where the body forms antibodies to itself and attacks parts of its own body. In this case, antibodies are formed to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. Experts believe type 1 diabetes may be caused by a genetic risk factors and environmental factors, including viruses. A viral link to type 1 diabetes is one of the findings in a new study led by Hanna Honkanen and Heikki Hyöty in th Continue reading >>
The Link Between Staph Infection And Diabetes
Researchers have found that toxins in staph bacteria may be causing diabetes. While many people may not realize it, staph infection is a very real concern in the realm of wound healing. Staphylococcus bacteria often lives on the skin without causing any real harm to the body. However, when there is a puncture to the outer dermal layer, whether it’s broken skin from dryness or a full incision, the bacteria can enter the opening, causing a staph infection. If left untreated, it can lead to sepsis, which causes the blood pressure to drop drastically and can be fatal. Now, research has revealed a new concern regarding staph infection – one that affects not only wound healing, but also one’s quality of life. A study published in the journal for the American Society for Microbiology found that staph infection may be one of the causes of Type 2 diabetes. Staph and diabetes: exploring the relationship This study, conducted by microbiologists from the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, sought to explore the notion that bacterial exposure can affect a person’s chances of developing some chronic conditions. The researchers exposed rabbits to the same toxin, or superantigen, that is produced by Staphylococcus aureus. What they found was that, in high amounts, this toxin led to the development of symptoms associated with diabetes, including resistance to insulin and intolerance for glucose as well as inflammation. “We basically reproduced Type 2 diabetes in rabbits simply through chronic exposure to the staph superantigen,” said lead researcher Dr. Patrick Schlievert in a news release. To check these finding, the researchers then turned to human patients who already have diabetes. The scientists measured the amount of the staph bacteria and related toxins on Continue reading >>
Imbalance Of Gut Bacteria Linked To Elevated Risk For Diabetes
New data from researchers at the University of Copenhagen provides stronger evidence linking certain bacteria that populate our intestinal tract with a higher risk for developing insulin resistance, ultimately a precursor to developing diabetes. The research was published in the journal Nature late last week, suggesting that the gut microbiome might be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in this ravaging disease. Insulin resistance is a condition whereby the body still produces insulin, but is not able to utilize it effectively. When someone develops insulin resistance, glucose accumulates in the bloodstream rather than being absorbed by the cells in the body, ultimately leading to prediabetes or to type 2 diabetes. After extensively studying a population’s gut microbial composition to identify specific compounds (branched-chain amino acids, BCAA) that ultimately led to insulin resistance from the action of specific bacteria, the researchers then extracted the causative bacteria and fed them to mice who were devoid of any bacterial flora (sham mice) to prove that the action of the bacteria on the gut flora was truly the cause of insulin resistance. " We show that specific imbalances in the gut microbiota are essential contributors to insulin resistance , a forerunner state of widespread disorders like type 2 diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, which are in epidemic growth," said Professor Oluf Pedersen, Metabolism Center, University of Copenhagen, and senior lead author of the research. The researchers from the University of Copenhagen and the Technical University of Denmark evaluated 277 non-diabetic individuals and 75 type 2 diabetic patients, to better understand the effects of insulin in the body. In order to do this the Continue reading >>
Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia
As the incidence of diabetes mellitus continues to rise, common focus areas for diabetes control are blood glucose levels, diet, and exercise. Addressing and controlling these factors as well as other factors associated with diabetes are essential for a better quality of life; however, awareness of an increased risk of infections is also warranted in diabetes patients with chronic hyperglycemia. The immune system is comprised of two subcategories: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity, the first line of defense, is activated when a pathogen initially presents itself. This portion of immunity is inherited at birth and is not specific in its mechanism of defense. In addition, it serves the overall immune system by alerting specific cells of pathogen invasion to activate the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system has physical and chemical mechanisms of response. These include but are not limited to sneezing, coughing, sweating, maintenance of normal body temperature, and gram-positive normal flora on the skin. Adaptive immunity is a very specific aspect of a properly functioning immune system that provides protection against previous infections experienced by the host. These responses are mediated by lymphocytes, which consist of natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T cells. Vaccinations and exposure to pathogens benefit the adaptive immune system by establishing immunologic memory. In the event of another attack by the same foreign organism, the adaptive immune system is able to provide a more efficient response. Complications of Chronic Hyperglycemia Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are considered immunosuppressed due to the negative effects of elevated blood sugars on the immune system. Hyperglycemia impairs overall immunity through diffe Continue reading >>
Could Staph Bacteria On The Skin Trigger Type 2 Diabetes?
With commentary by Patrick Schlievert, Ph.D., professor and department executive officer of microbiology at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine There’s growing evidence that bacteria deep in your digestive system may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Now, recent University of Iowa research suggests something even more surprising: A bug that thrives on the surface of the skin — Staphylococcus aureus (staph) — may also trigger blood-sugar problems. In a rabbit study, microbiologists found that exposure to a toxic “superantigen” produced by staph led to higher blood glucose levels, more system-wide inflammation and worsening insulin resistance. “We worked with rabbits because their response to staph superantigens is similar to humans’,” says lead researcher Patrick Schlievert, Ph.D., professor and department executive officer of microbiology at the university’s Carver College of Medicine. “We feel we can say it’s a cause of type 2 diabetes in people.” The study was published in the March/April 2015 issue of mBio, the online journal of the American Society for Microbiology. Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com Schlievert made headlines in the 1980s when his lab at the University of Minnesota identified TSST-1— the staph superantigen responsible for outbreaks of toxic shock syndrome in tampon-users. His work has also shown that super-antigens—poisons churned out by all strains of staph bacteria—disrupt the human immune system and are also responsible for the deadly effects of staph infections of the bloodstream and the heart. The new study was inspired by a simple observation. “People with diabetes ofte Continue reading >>
Chronic Superantigen Exposure Induces Systemic Inflammation, Elevated Bloodstream Endotoxin, And Abnormal Glucose Tolerance In Rabbits: Possible Role In Diabetes
ABSTRACT Excessive weight and obesity are associated with the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMII) in humans. They also pose high risks of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and overt infections. S. aureus causes a wide range of severe illnesses in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Among S. aureus virulence factors, superantigens are essential for pathogenicity. In this study, we show that rabbits that are chronically exposed to S. aureus superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) experience impaired glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, and elevated endotoxin levels in the bloodstream, all of which are common findings in DMII. Additionally, such DMII-associated findings are also seen through effects of TSST-1 on isolated adipocytes. Collectively, our findings suggest that chronic exposure to S. aureus superantigens facilitates the development of DMII, which may lead to therapeutic targeting of S. aureus and its superantigens. IMPORTANCE Obesity has a strong correlation with type 2 diabetes, in which fatty tissue, containing adipocytes, contributes to the development of the illness through altered metabolism and chronic inflammation. The human microbiome changes in persons with obesity and type 2 diabetes, including increases in Staphylococcus aureus colonization and overt infections. While the microbiome is essential for human wellness, there is little understanding of the role of microbes in obesity or the development of diabetes. Here, we demonstrate that the S. aureus superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), an essential exotoxin in pathogenesis, induces inflammation, lipolysis, and insulin resistance in adipocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Chronic stimulation of rabbits with TSST-1 results in impaired systemic glucose Continue reading >>
Study: Heavy Mouthwash Use Linked To Higher Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes
Unable to play video. Neither flash nor html5 is supported! Could obsessing over fresh breath lead to needing insulin shots? A new study out of Harvard University makes a baffling connection between mouthwash and type 2 diabetes. While mouthwash kills off the bacteria that create bad breath and cause cavities, they can also smother good bacteria. One of the good bacteria mouthwash can kill is nitric oxide, which is important for regulating the metabolism and blood sugar levels - a major factor in diabetes. Of the 1,206 people who participated in the study, the researchers found those who used mouthwash two or more times per day were 55 percent more likely to develop diabetes over a three year period. The British Dental Association does not list mouthwash as an essential component to good oral health, and the American Dental Association warns while mouthwash “may be a helpful addition to the daily oral hygiene routine for some people,” it is “not a replacement for daily brushing and flossing.” "This may mean you need to cut back on the mouthwash, but for all of our sakes, please don't stop brushing!" RELATED: 10 myths about diabetes and food More from Aol.com: 3 coffees a day linked to more health than harm: study Mom goes to prison after son, 7, dies from strep throat because she didn't take him to the doctor One-fifth of cancer patients found to have PTSD, study says Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes 'could Be Caused By Germs'
Some germs may be responsible for people getting type 1 diabetes, according to a groundbreaking scientific study. Researchers from Cardiff University’s Institute of Infection & Immunity discovered that certain germs trigger killer T-cells, a form of white blood cell that can cause diabetes. The killer T-cells destroy insulin-producing ‘beta cells’, leading to an insulin deficiency. Dr David Cole, a senior research fellow in charge of the study, told The Independent: “These findings could be really helpful for us going forward, now that we are getting a better idea of the environmental risk factors that cause diabetes. “The behaviour of the T-cells is really like a case of friendly fire, or mistaken identity as they are provoked into attacking the beta cells. “It could potentially open the door for people to be screened for certain bacteria, lowering the risk of them developing type 1 diabetes through non-genetic causes.” During their experiments the Cardiff team shone powerful X-rays into infected blood samples, revealing the bacteria which may cause the condition. Researchers had previously isolated a killer T-cell from a patient with type 1 diabetes to view the interaction, which kills the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The Cardiff studies reveal that killer T-cells are highly cross-reactive, and respond to a variety of different pathogen triggers. Dr Cole continued: “Uncovering the mechanism by which white blood cells detect bacteria is key to us working towards a cure, and these results have been promising.” The research was published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation and was co-funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). At the start of May scientists from Cardiff’s School of Engineering an Continue reading >>
Diabetic Foot Infections
Practice Essentials Compromise of the blood supply from microvascular disease, often in association with lack of sensation because of neuropathy, predisposes persons with diabetes mellitus to foot infections. These infections span the spectrum from simple, superficial cellulitis to chronic osteomyelitis. The radiograph below demonstrates a foot lesion in a patient with diabetes. Signs and symptoms Diabetic foot infections typically take one of the following forms: Cellulitis Tender, erythematous, nonraised skin lesions are present, sometimes with lymphangitis Lymphangitis suggests group A streptococcal infection Bullae are typical of Staphylococcus aureus infection, but occasionally occur with group A streptococci · No ulcer or wound exudate is present Deep-skin and soft-tissue infections The patient may be acutely ill, with painful induration of the soft tissues in the extremity Wound discharge is usually not present In mixed infections that may involve anaerobes, crepitation may be noted over the afflicted area Extreme pain and tenderness may indicate compartment syndrome or clostridial infection (ie, gas gangrene) The tissues are not tense, and bullae may be present Discharge, if present, is often foul Acute osteomyelitis Unless peripheral neuropathy is present, the patient has pain at the site of the involved bone Usually, fever and regional adenopathy are absent Chronic osteomyelitis The patient's temperature is usually less than 102°F Discharge is commonly foul No lymphangitis is observed Pain may or may not be present, depending on the degree of peripheral neuropathy Deep, penetrating ulcers and deep sinus tracts (diagnostic of chronic osteomyelitis) are usually located between the toes or on the plantar surface of the foot The medial malleoli, shins, or heels Continue reading >>
Staph Bacteria May Be A Trigger For Type 2 Diabetes
A growing body of research indicates that exposure to bacteria and viruses affects one’s likelihood for developing a number of chronic health conditions. Increasingly, scientists are uncovering proof that certain features of the human microbiome may be a root cause of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. A new study published this week adds to this evidence, implicating staph bacteria as one potential cause of the disease. For the study, published in the journal mBio, a team of microbiologists at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine exposed rabbits to the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The researchers found that exposure to high levels of this toxin caused the animals to develop symptoms of the disease, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and inflammation. Their study suggests that drugs that eradicate or neutralize staph bacteria in the body may hold some promise as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes, which affects close to 30 million people in the U.S. Because obesity is one of the common risk factors for the condition, the authors suggest extreme weight gain has a cascade effect: Obesity alters the microbiome and makes a person—or in this case, a rabbit—more susceptible to staph bacteria. Then a higher than normal exposure to toxins produced by the bacteria will trigger the disease. Prior research has found that the toxins produced by staph bacteria disrupt normal immune system functioning, which can result in sepsis, inflammation of the heart and toxic shock, all of which can be fatal. But this new study shows staph toxins also affect fat cells. To test their theory, the team of researchers measured the amount of staph bacteria and staph-related toxins on the skin of four patients with diabetes. They then calculated that the Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes Begins With Bacterial Infection, Suggesting Room For A Vaccine
Scientists working in rabbit models have recreated the hallmark symptoms of type 2 diabetes using a common strain of bacteria found on the skin’s surface, a new study reports. The findings could pave the way for anti-bacterial treatments and vaccination against microbial invaders. Between 90 to 95 percent of diabetes cases are type 2 diabetes, an insulin deficiency that develops through lack of exercise and poor diet. This has led to the widespread belief that obesity poses direct risks to developing the disease; however, the new research suggests an alternate route to diagnosis, namely, the Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria living on the surface of the skin. “At any given time, 30 percent of folks are colonized in the [nostrils] and other mucosal surfaces with S. aureus, with nearly all of us occasionally colonized,” Dr. Patrick Schlievert, the study’s senior author and professor of microbiology at the University of Iowa College of Medicine, told Medical Daily in an email. As people gain weight, their skin effectively becomes “wetter” due to increased sweating and greater skin folds, making an ideal home for bacteria to colonize and enter the body. “We find that the colonization rate goes up to 100 percent.” Schlievert and his colleagues recently wanted to learn more about what happens when staph bacteria colonies grow to extraordinary numbers. Prior studies had shown a “superantigen” effect. When the bacteria reach a certain threshold, they initiate a defense mechanism against the body’s immune system, targeting key cells involved with immune-related functions, called T-cells. In their latest study, the investigators exposed a group of rabbits to the staph superantigen. Once in the body, the bacteria created a domino effect of physiologic re Continue reading >>
Could Bacteria Cause Overactive Bladder Symptoms?
You may have heard that healthy human urine has no germs. Many doctors believe it too. But a new study says that may not be so. These findings may lead us to rethink what causes overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and how they may be treated. Researchers at Loyola University Chicago studied the bladders and urine of 30 healthy women and 60 women who have urinary urge incontinence, the sudden, intense urges to urinate that may sometimes cause loss of bladder control. Contrary to popular belief, they found bacteria in the urine of both types of women. But perhaps the most intriguing finding was that the germs in the bladders of healthy women were different from strains found in women with OAB. That raises the question of whether bacteria may cause overactive bladder or contribute to its development. However, another possibility is that these different germs simply develop as a result of the disease instead of being a cause. Millions of Americans – mostly women – suffer from overactive bladder symptoms, yet an estimated 40 to 50 percent of them are not helped by conventional treatments. Until now, doctors didn’t know why. Now some say that the differences in urinary bacteria could be the answer. More research is needed to learn what role if any the newfound bacteria play in the disease. If proof is found that certain bacteria cause OAB, more effective treatments might be developed that target these germs. It might also become possible to identify people who are at risk for the disorder and prevent it. To learn more about overactive bladder: Sources: Continue reading >>
Diabetes Type 2
The collection of gut bacteria and how they function together is known as the intestinal microbiome. Under the right circumstances and bacterial makeup, the colon, where most of these organ organisms live, is a health organ. When the wrong or bad types of bacteria are predominant than this bad collection of bacteria is known as dysbiosis (dis bye os’ is). Bad health outcomes occur under these circumstances. It is now well known that patients with type 2 diabetes have dysbiosis of the colon which promotes and accelerates their diabetes. The article below is just one of a number where this abnormal colon dysbiosis has been found. A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes. Further studies by outstanding researchers have now shown how tightly this abnormal gut bacterial collection is tied to the development and progress of type 2 diabetes. Modulating the human gut microbiome as an emerging therapeutic paradigm. Role of Gut Microbiota in Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Disease. Having found that type 2 diabetes is almost always associated with colonic dysbiosis, the next round of research was directed to modulating the microbiota in these patients in to see if their diabetes improved. Prebiotics, including oligofructose-enriched inulin (Prebiotin), were studied and, indeed, favorable results occur when dietary management with these prebiotics were undertaken. Oligofructose-enriched inulin improves some inflammatory markers and metabolic endotoxemia in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Vitamin D and prebiotics may benefit the intestinal micro bacteria and improve glucose homeostasis in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Continue reading >>