Summary Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes. Ketoacidosis develops when the blood becomes more acidic than body tissues due to low insulin levels. Diabetic ketoacidosis is more common among type 1 diabetes patients, but also occurs in those with type 2 diabetes. Cell damage from acidosis can lead to severe illness and even death. People can fall into a deep coma when treatment is delayed. Alternative names DKA, ketoacidosis, diabetic coma What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes. It is caused by the build-up of by-products of fat breakdown, called ketones. This occurs when glucose is not available as a fuel source for the body, and fat is used instead. What causes this? People with diabetes lack enough insulin, a hormone the body uses to process glucose for energy. When glucose cannot be adequately used , body fat is broken down instead. The by-products of fat metabolism are ketones. When fat is metabolised, ketones build up in the blood and 'spill' over into the urine. A condition called ketoacidosis develops when the blood becomes more acidic than body tissues. Diabetic ketoacidosis may lead to the initial diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, as it is sometimes the first symptom that causes the person to seek medical attention. It can also be the result of increased insulin needs in someone already diagnosed with type 1or type 2 diabetes. Infection, trauma, heart attack, or surgery can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis in such cases. Often, however, the cause of the DKA is not apparent. What are the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis? frequent urination or frequent thirst for a day or more fatigue nausea and vomiting muscular stiffness or aching mental stupor that may progress to coma rapid breathing fruity breath (breath Continue reading >>
Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)
Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>
Home > Our Services > Health Info Library > Helping Hands > Diabetes: Ketoacidosis (dka)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (KEY toe as i DOE sis), also known as DKA, is a serious complication of diabetes. When the cells in the body cannot use glucose for energy, there is a buildup of acids called “ketones” in the blood. For the cells to use glucose for energy both glucose and insulin need to be in the blood. Insulin acts like a key to unlock the cell door. It allows glucose in to be used for energy. When cells do not have glucose to use for energy: The body starts to use fat for energy. Ketones are made when fat is used for energy. Ketones are present in the blood and in the urine. Ketones cause the blood to become more acidic. If untreated, this leads to DKA and life-threatening problems. Cause Not enough insulin: Missing doses of insulin Infection, illness or injury (which causes the body to need more insulin) Insulin doses too small If using insulin pump, interruption in delivery of insulin Signs of DKA and When to Test for Ketones You may or may not feel any different when you begin to have ketones. The only way to know is by checking the urine or blood for the presence of ketones. Check for ketones if blood glucose is higher than 300 mg/dl. Check for ketones when ill (fever, flu or vomiting) even if blood glucose is not higher than 300 mg/dl. Warning Signs of DKA Fast breathing Fruity smell to the breath Hard to wake up Feeling sick to the stomach (nausea), belly pain, or vomiting How to Check Urine for Ketones Step 1: Check the expiration date on the bottle. Note that ketone strips expire 6 months after opening bottle. Step 2: Collect urine in a cup. Dip the ketone strip into the cup. Remove it from the urine. Step 3: Wait 15 seconds. Step 4: Match the color on the ketone strip to the colors on the bottle. You can also check blood for ketones. Your health car Continue reading >>
What Are Some Early Warning Signs Of Diabetes?
The presence of diabetes is marked with increased thirst, frequent urination and weight loss. But diabetes may not always occur with these typical symptoms. Signs like change in vision, increased daytime sleeping, slow healing of wounds, restlessness at night are few early warning signs of diabetes. Click to know more about the 9 unusual signs of diabetes The fact is that diabetes treatment can work best if started early. Most people with diabetes know about it only when their blood sugar levels are alarmingly high. Knowledge about the early symptoms of diabetes is hence important. Continue reading >>
Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis, in pediatric and adult cases, is a metabolic derangement caused by the absolute or relative deficiency of the anabolic hormone insulin. Together with the major complication of cerebral edema, it is the most important cause of mortality and severe morbidity in children with diabetes. Signs and symptoms Symptoms of acidosis and dehydration include the following: Symptoms of hyperglycemia, a consequence of insulin deficiency, include the following: Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis may also have the following signs and symptoms: Cerebral edema Most cases of cerebral edema occur 4-12 hours after initiation of treatment. Diagnostic criteria of cerebral edema include the following: Major criteria include the following: Minor criteria include the following: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Laboratory studies The following lab studies are indicated in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis: Imaging studies Head computed tomography (CT) scanning - If coma is present or develops Chest radiography - If clinically indicated Electrocardiography Electrocardiography (ECG) is a useful adjunct to monitor potassium status. Characteristic changes appear with extremes of potassium status. See the images below. Consciousness Check the patient’s consciousness level hourly for up to 12 hours, especially in a young child with a first presentation of diabetes. The Glasgow coma scale is recommended for this purpose. See Workup for more detail. Management Replacement of the following is essential in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis: Insulin - Continuous, low-dose, intravenous (IV) insulin infusion is generally considered the safest and most effective insulin delivery method for diabetic ketoacidosis Potassium - After initial resuscitatio Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis (also known under the acronym DKA) is a complication of regular diabetes that can be lethal. It is the end result of a severe metabolic dysfunction, when although the blood stream is full of sugar in the form of glucose, the amount of insulin is insufficient to make it available to the cells. As a result, the cells don't get enough glucose, so they lack energy. The human body then starts an emergency response, converting its fat reserves and then the muscle tissue into energy. However, ketones are produced during this phase, which cause a metabolic acidosis named ketoacidosis, a severe disturbance of the metabolic system. Another problem is that the sugar in the blood stream can't be converted and burned as energy and remains there. The kidneys process some of the excess sugar and it is eliminated from the body in urine. Ketones are toxic to the body and cause diabetic ketoacidosis when they accumulate in high amounts. Any person who suffers from diabetes can get DKA eventually, but it rarely develops in type 2 diabetes. DKA is a severe condition that can cause death. It is very important for diabetes patients to monitor their urine and blood in order to identify the signs of this condition. Even if the actual treatment will be administered in a hospital, detecting the warning signs can save your life. The disease has a slow progress and usually the first major symptom is vomiting. However, it can evolve very quickly after this step and cause death after a few hours. It is very important to detect the first symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis, before it's too late. Some of them, like unusually frequent urination or excessive thirst, don't require any testing. Others can be detected by medical tools and include a very high amount of sugar in the blood Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes that occurs when sugar (glucose) is not available as a fuel source by the body and fat is used instead. Byproducts of fat breakdown, called ketones, build up in the body. People with Type I diabetes lack enough insulin, a hormone the body uses to process sugar (glucose) for energy. When glucose is not available, body fat is broken down instead. The byproducts of fat metabolism are ketones and acid. When fat is broken down, ketones and acid build up in the blood. A condition called ketoacidosis develops when the blood has more acid than normal. Blood glucose levels rise (usually higher than 300 mg/dL) because the liver produces glucose to try to combat the problem. However the cells cannot pull in that glucose without insulin. Diabetic ketoacidosis may lead to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, because it is often the first symptom that causes a person to see a doctor. It can also be the result of increased insulin needs in someone already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, trauma, heart attack, or surgery can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis in such cases. Missing doses of insulin can also lead to ketoacidosis in people with diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can develop ketoacidosis, but it is rare. It is usually triggered by a severe illness. People of Hispanic and African-American ethnicity seem to be more likely to have ketoacidosis as a complication of type 2 diabetes. Fruity breath (breath odor) Mental stupor that may progress to coma Shortness of breath Other symptoms that can occur with this disease: This disease may also affect the results of the following tests: Acidosis can lead to severe illness or death. Improved therapy for young people with diabetes has decreased the death rate from this condition. Continue reading >>
Symptoms Of Ketosis And Diabetic Ketoacidosis Warning Signs
Ketosis may give you a trademark fruity breath, trigger complications, and depart you feeling irritable. However look ahead to signs like belly ache, dehydration, nausea, speedy respiration, and confusion that might point out the problematic diabetic ketoacidosis that strikes diabetics. If left unchecked, you run the chance of dropping consciousness and even going right into a coma. Ketosis or dietary ketosis is a wonderfully wholesome metabolic course of by which the physique burns saved fat for vitality when it doesn’t have satisfactory glucose. Gentle ketosis could assist you to shed extra pounds and even be therapeutic. Sadly, there’s one other much less fascinating situation that’s simply confused with ketosis – and that’s diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). It is a hyperglycemic emergency that accounts for over 100,000 hospital admissions each single yr in the USA alone. DKA strikes these with diabetes and, if left unchecked, might even put you in a coma. Understanding ketosis and DKA and figuring out how they’re totally different might save your life for those who’re diabetic. Gentle Ketosis Has Therapeutic Advantages Folks on diets just like the ketogenic food plan or Atkins food plan lower down carb consumption and change to a food plan that’s excessive in protein and fats as a substitute. This units your physique up for ketosis, which is meant to assist with weight reduction. Some research have even discovered that ketosis may help decrease ranges of blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein ldl cholesterol, and triglycerides, apart from bringing down physique weight and physique mass index. Gentle ketosis has additionally been explored for its therapeutic functions in illnesses related to free radical injury, hypoxia (oxygen deficiency in tissues), and Continue reading >>
What Are Signs Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In An Unconscious Person?
Prehospital situation, the only ways I would know is by a high blood glucose reading on our glucometer, and/or if I could smell an acetone/fruity smell on their breath. If family/friend is present, a history of diabetes and a description of how the patient has been over the past few days would also be helpful. If they were having frequent urination, fatigue, or extreme thirst over the last few days, I would suspect ketoacidosis even more. Also knowing if they are insulin dependent or on medications for diabetes is important. Prehospital treatment at my level of certification isn’t much. Obtain vascular access and replace fluids with normal saline if there is signs of dehydration. Treat any other problems that may arise, like hyperventilation, hypotension, hypoxia, and protect the airway because they’re unconscious. An EKG for the hospital wouldn’t be a bad choice either. Trying to arouse the patient is something I would also do. The most important treatment I can do for a patient like this is transport them quickly and safely to the ER. Continue reading >>
Are There Any Visual Warning Signs Of Impending Diabetic Blindness?
Many signs. Diabetes effects your eyes in several ways. First large swings in blood sugar levels can temporarily change your prescription. This occurs because of a temporary change in lens radius causing myopia. When your blood sugar increases the lens swells you get nearsighted when your blood sugar goes down the lens goes back to normal and your vision goes back to base level. Secondly long term diabetes increases the rate of cataract formation. Eventually everyone gets cataracts you just have to be around long enough, but diabetics get them early. What you would notice is decreased night vision, decreased low contrast sensitivity, increased difficulty with glare, diffuse haze Finally diabetes is essentially a vascular disease. The hemoglobin gets glycosilated ....sugar attaches to the blood. Sugar is a big molecule and gets in the way. Blood flow to terminal vessels gets disrupted. The smallest vessels in your body are in the toes fingertips kidneys and eyes. These areas become starved of oxygen. In your eyes the effect the lack of oxygen has causes white patches in the retina where the receptors have died. The lack can also cause the macula to swell. Also hemmorages form in the sensory retina and finally new fenestrated incompetant blood vessels form which spread between the layers of the retina and push it appart. What you will notice is decreased vision uncorrectable with glasses, decreased color vision, distorted vision, black spots that dont move, floating blobs if hemmorages form in the vitreous and finally total blindness. Diabetes can also cause blood vessels to form in the iris...colored part of your eye... Causing secondary glaucoma or adhesions between the iris and lens. Currently diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in the US with an almost 100% inc Continue reading >>
Ketoacidosis In Diabetics, Know The Warning Signs.
As a type 1 diabetic I am quite familiar (unfortunately) with the signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from lack of insulin associated with high blood levels and your body starts to produce high levels of blood acids called ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with significant disturbances of the body’s chemistry, which resolve with proper therapy. This usually occurs in people with type 1 diabetes, but DKA can develop in any person with diabetes. Since type 1 diabetes typically starts before the age of 25, diabetic ketoacidosis is most common for this age group, but it may occur at any age with both males and females are equally affected. So is DKA something that we should be worried about? Lets take a closer look! What Causes Ketoacidosis ? So what’s the deal when our results come back showing ketones in urine? Circumstances arise for people with type 1 diabetes when the individual does not have enough insulin, a hormone the body uses to break down sugar (glucose) in the blood for energy. When glucose is not available to feed our cells due to high blood sugars, fat is broken down and used as fuel vs glucose and this is particularly not a good thing. As fats are broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are extremely poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Blood glucose levels rise (usually higher than 300 mg/dL) because the liver makes glucose to try to combat the problem. However, the cells cannot pull in that glucose without insulin. DKA is often the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who do not yet have other symptoms. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments
Diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs, sometimes shortened to DKA, is a deadly medical emergency that happens when there is not enough insulin in the body to regulate levels of blood sugar known as glucose. It is a complication of diabetes mellitus that requires immediate medical treatment before it becomes fatal. When insulin levels drop, the body can’t use glucose properly, so glucose builds up in the blood while the liver produces ketone bodies to act as an emergency fuel source. When ketone bodies are broken down, they cause the body’s pH balance to shift and become more acidic. Dogs can’t maintain their fluid and electrolyte balance, which results in deadly symptoms. If your dog shows signs of diabetic ketoacidosis, especially if they have been diagnosed with diabetes, it is important that you see an emergency veterinarian right away for treatment. Here is what you should know about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs. Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs Sometimes dogs that suffer from diabetic ketoacidosis only show mild symptoms, but the majority of affected animals get very sick within a week of the start of the illness. The symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis can resemble the warning signs of a diabetic condition, which also requires medical attention. The difference is that diabetic ketoacidosis is the body’s final effort at survival before succumbing to diabetes. Here are several symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs. Excessive thirst or urination Sweet breath Sudden weight loss Muscle loss Loss of appetite Fatigue Unhealthy, rough coat Rapid breathing Dandruff Weakness Vomiting Sudden impaired vision Causes Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs The main cause of diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs is ultimately insulin depende Continue reading >>
What Are The Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar?
Early Warning signs of diabetes: Being thirsty all the time Blurred vision Feeling more tired than normally Going to the toilet a lot, especially at night Losing weight without doing ant efforts Genital itching or thrush Cuts and wounds take longer time to heal These are some most common signs of diabetes, which you can observe at home. If you found any of the above mentioned signs, then consult your doctor immediately. The symptoms of type2 diabetes may be mild so that you don’t even notice them, but this does not happen in type1 diabetes case. The symptoms can be noticed within 1 week. Type 1 diabetes symptoms are more serve than the type1 diabetes. Common symptoms of diabetes Hunger and fatigue Our body converts the food into glucose, which is used by the body cells for energy. But the cells need insulin to bring the glucose in. If our body doesn't make enough insulin, then the glucose can't get into the cells and we don’t have the energy. This can make you more hungry and tired than normally. Peeing more often and being thirstier The healthy person has to pee usually 4-7 times in 24hours, but the diabetes patient may go more times. Diabetes pushes your blood sugar level up, so, your body starts producing more urine to get rid of glucose. For this the body uses more fluid and you feel more thirsty than normal. Dry mouth and itchy skin Your body uses more fluid so there is less moisture for other things. That is the reason your mouth and skin may feel dry. This dry skin can make you feel itchy. Blurred vision Change in fluid levels in the body can make the eye lenses swell up. This change in shape of the lens will make it less focused. Unplanned weight loss Your body starts burning stored fat for energy and you lose your weight without making any efforts. Nausea a Continue reading >>
Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis, or simply DKA, is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. It occurs suddenly, is severe and can be life-threatening if neglected. The diabetic ketoacidosis is a complex metabolic state comprising of increased blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), increased production and presence of ketone acids in the blood (ketonemia) and acidic changes in the internal environment of the body (acidosis). These changes together constitute the diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is more common in persons with type – 1 as compared to type – 2 diabetes mellitus. Sometimes, it may be the first sign of diabetes mellitus in patients with no previous diagnosis of diabetes. In normal individuals, insulin hormone is produced and secreted by an organ called pancreas. Insulin is necessary for the entry of blood glucose into our cells. Insulin works like a key and unlocks the cellular gates to help glucose enter the cells. The cells use entered glucose to produce energy. In type – 1 diabetes mellitus, the pancreatic cells producing insulin are destroyed. This lack of insulin prevents the entry of blood glucose into our cells as the cellular gates are closed, increasing the blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). Our body cells starve and cannot utilize glucose for energy despite increased amounts of glucose in our blood. In this starving state, our body burns fats and produces ketones for energy purposes. Ketones have an advantage that they do not need insulin to enter into cells but the ketones also have a disadvantage that they are acidic in nature and when produced in excessive amounts, they change our body environment and make it acidic, which can be life-threatening. The patients often develop ketoacidosis when: They have missed their insulin doses T Continue reading >>
Test One Drop To Stop diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition which often develops quickly when the signs and symptoms of Type 1 diabetes have been overlooked or mistaken for other illnesses. A simple glucose test can detect early onset Type 1 diabetes and stop diabetic ketoacidosis before it kills! Progressing symptoms of undiagnosed Type 1 diabetes often imitate flu, strep, stomach virus, urinary tract infections, growth spurts and other common illnesses. When left untreated, Type 1 diabetes can develop into a life-threatening complication called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If you or a loved one have a combination of the following symptoms, immediately request medical personnel Test One Drop of blood or urine for glucose (sugar) levels. A simple, inexpensive glucose test–performed in seconds–can save lives. These symptoms can be an indication of Type 1 diabetes. They are listed in possible order of progression, but your experience may vary. excessive thirst frequent urination bedwetting increased appetite abdominal pain irritability or mood changes headaches vision changes/blurriness itchy skin or genitals vaginal yeast infection thrush slow healing wounds recurrent infections sudden weight loss flushed, hot, dry skin muscle or leg cramps fruity/acetone scented breath nausea and vomiting* weakness or fatigue* shortness of breath* labored breathing* drowsiness or lethargy* confusion* stupor* unconsciousness* Anyone of any age, race, family medical history, socio-economic level, body type, general health condition, life-style, etc. can be diagnosed with an autoimmune disease called Type 1 diabetes. Despite the fact that it is also known as "juvenile diabetes", Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in people of all ages, both children and adults. In fact, according to the U Continue reading >>