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What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs?

Diabetes Insipidus And Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs: Symptoms & Treatments

Diabetes Insipidus And Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs: Symptoms & Treatments

Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus are two different types of diabetes in dogs, and both can be serious if left untreated. Diabetes insipidus is also known as “water diabetes” and is the more rare form. It affects water metabolism and prevents the body from conserving water, which results in increased urination and diluted, almost clear urine. It is not related to diabetes mellitus in canines, which is also known as “sugar diabetes.” Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas that affects the body’s ability to convert food into fuel. Here is what you should know about the symptoms and treatments for diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. Symptoms Of Diabetes In Dogs Diabetes insipidus comes in two forms in canines, and both are related to the pituitary gland and result in similar symptoms. Central diabetes insipidus happens when the pituitary doesn’t release enough of a hormone called vassopressin, an anti-diuretic. This can be caused by birth defect, head injury, or tumor. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is the other form. It happens when the kidneys don’t respond to the vassopressin that the pituitary produces. It can be caused by birth defect, exposure to drugs, metabolic disorders, or renal failure. Both types will result in the following symptoms in dogs. Excessive urination Excessive drinking and thirst Weight loss Decreased urination due to dehydration Poor coat health Accidents in the house Diabetes mellitus is a pancreatic condition that also comes in two forms in canines. Insulin-deficiency diabetes mellitus is when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin, a hormone that tells the body’s cells to take glucose, a type of sugar, from the bloodstream to use as fuel. Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus happens when the body produces e Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

By David Bruyette, DVM, DACVIM, Medical Director, VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism due to relative or absolute insulin deficiency. Most cases of spontaneous diabetes occur in middle-aged dogs and middle-aged to older cats. In dogs, females are affected twice as often as males, and incidence appears to be increased in certain small breeds such as Miniature Poodles, Dachshunds, Schnauzers, Cairn Terriers, and Beagles, but any breed can be affected. In one study, obese male cats were more commonly affected than females; no breed predilection is seen in cats. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for decreased insulin production and secretion are multiple, but usually they are related to destruction of islet cells, secondary to either immune destruction or severe pancreatitis (dogs) or amyloidosis (cats). Chronic relapsing pancreatitis with progressive loss of both exocrine and endocrine cells and their replacement by fibrous connective tissue results in diabetes mellitus. The pancreas becomes firm and multinodular and often contains scattered areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. Later in the course of disease, a thin, fibrous band of tissue near the duodenum and stomach may be all that remains of the pancreas. In other cases, the numbers of β cells are decreased, and the cells become vacuolated; in chronic cases, the islets are difficult to find. Insulin resistance and secondary diabetes mellitus are also seen in many dogs with spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism and after chronic administration of glucocorticoids or progestins. Pregnancy and diestrus also can predispose to diabetes mellitus. In dogs, but not cats, progesterone leads to release of growth hormone from mammary tissue Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Management Of Insulin Resistance In Dogs And Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

Diagnosis And Management Of Insulin Resistance In Dogs And Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

Abstract Both dogs and cats with diabetes occasionally develop resistance to the action of insulin during treatment. Clinical insulin resistance should be suspected in any animal in which marked hyperglycemia persists throughout the day despite insulin doses of greater than 1.5 U/kg per injection. In a clinical setting it may be difficult to determine the underlying cause for insulin resistance, which makes management difficult. This article reviews the known causes for insulin resistance and outlines recommendations for diagnosis and management of diabetic dogs and cats. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In The Cat

Diabetes Mellitus In The Cat

Related: Diabetes Signs in Dogs | All About Diabetes in Pets Diabetes in cats is a common disease that involves the feline endocrine system. In fact, it is the second most common endocrine disease seen in cats. What Exactly Is Diabetes Mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a disease that revolves around the excretion of insulin by the pancreas and the ability of that insulin to properly regulate the blood glucose (blood sugar) levels. Insulin is necessary in all animals (and people) to regulate the level of glucose, or sugar, in the blood. When the pancreas is unable to produce insulin in adequate amounts or the body is unable to properly use that insulin, the blood glucose level increases above normal levels and diabetes mellitus results. Classification of Diabetes Mellitus Essentially, there are three different classifications of diabetes mellitus. Type I diabetes mellitus is insulin-dependent, meaning that the pancreas of the diseased animal (or person) can no longer produce adequate amounts of insulin. Type II diabetes mellitus is non-insulin-dependent and occurs when the body is not able to utilize the insulin that is produced in an efficient fashion. In these cases, the pancreas is still able to produce insulin, at least to some degree. Type III diabetes mellitus involves insulin interference by certain diseases, conditions and/or drugs. Examples include hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's disease), acromegaly, gestational diabetes and diestrus (part of the reproductive or heat cycle of the cat). Feline diabetes mellitus differs drastically from diabetes mellitus in dogs. Dogs with diabetes almost always suffer Type I diabetes. However, cats more often are diagnosed with Type II diabetes, at least in the early stages of the disease. In the early stages of feline diabetes, it Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Your Dog And Cat

Diabetes Mellitus In Your Dog And Cat

Print Friendly Comments What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease that affects both dogs and cats. It is caused by the loss of or an inability of specific cells in the pancreas to synthesize and/or release proper amounts of insulin or an inability for cells in the body to use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is essential to regulating carbohydrate metabolism, the process that a body goes through to break down ingested carbohydrates into energy. When a body is unable to properly synthesize, release or use insulin, this results in high blood glucose levels. Glucose is one of the many carbohydrates an animal can use as a source for energy. High glucose levels in the bloodstream can have many negative impacts when left untreated. Carbohydrate metabolism, blood glucose levels and insulin levels are all dependent on a system of balance in the body. In a non-diabetic animal, after it eats carbohydrates including glucose, the body goes into action to break down those carbohydrates into energy. Should the level of blood glucose be too high after an animal has eaten, the pancreas produces and releases insulin so that it may transfer the glucose into the body’s cells and store it for energy. The body will then use this glucose as fuel for typically eight to 12 hours after this process occurs. This process lowers the amount of glucose in the blood, and in turn, the body will lower the amount of insulin to bring the body back to equilibrium. In a diabetic animal, the body either cannot produce enough insulin to transfer the glucose inside the cells or the body’s cells are resistant to absorbing the glucose. This allows high levels of glucose to continue to circulate in the blood stream, unusable to the body for energy. There are two types of diabetes Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs And Cats

Diabetes In Dogs And Cats

Diabetes is something that most people think only humans can develop, but the truth is that dogs and cats can also develop diabetes. And like humans, dogs and cats are susceptible to both diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. This guide will help you learn more about diabetes in dogs and cats so you get your pet the treatment they need, or to help prevent your pet from developing diabetes in the first place. 4 Key Facts About Diabetes in Cats and Dogs Diabetes is a fatal disease for cats and dogs if it is left untreated If a cat or dog requires insulin, there is a chance that the pet could recover after a period and no longer need it How the insulin is administered can affect how it works A cat or dog’s diet is the top factor in causing, treating, and avoiding diabetes The Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus in Cats and Dogs Of the two types of diabetes, diabetes mellitus is the most common to develop in dogs and cats. It is diagnosed as either Type I or Type II diabetes mellitus. Type I is known as “Insulin Dependent Diabetes.” This type of diabetes is caused by a total or near-total destruction of the beta-cells in the animal’s body. Type II diabetes, on the other hand, leaves some insulin-producing cells in the body, although not enough to do an adequate job of regulating the animal’s blood sugar levels. For this reason, it is known as “Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.” This type of diabetes is most commonly caused by obesity and poor diet. Diabetes insipidus is the rarer of the two forms of diabetes. It is also known as “watery diabetes” or “weak diabetes” because it affects the animal’s water metabolism. Rather than storing water, the animal’s body releases it, thus causing increased thirst and urination Continue reading >>

What Causes Diabetes In Dogs? The Signs, Symptoms And What To Do About It

What Causes Diabetes In Dogs? The Signs, Symptoms And What To Do About It

Did you know one out of every 300 dogs is diagnosed with diabetes? Especially in senior and middle aged dogs, diabetes is becoming frighteningly common in dogs today. Once your dog gets diabetes, he will most likely need insulin for the rest of his life. So it’s really important to do everything you can to prevent your dog from becoming diabetic. There are many things that can contribute to the risk of your dog getting diabetes … but the good news is, there are also lots of things you can do to help prevent it and minimize the risk. So we called on an expert to tell us how to do that. At Raw Roundup 2017, Dr Jean Hofve gave a talk on canine diabetes and its connection to diet and environmental factors and the best ways to prevent it. But first, what is diabetes and what’s the difference between the two types of the disease? What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is all about glucose and how the body handles it. All cells use glucose as their primary source of energy. The pancreas produces the hormones that control glucose … primarily insulin and glucagon. The pancreas is mostly made up of tissue that secretes digestive enzymes … but about 5% of the pancreas is made up of beta cells that produce insulin.The body’s cells need glucose for energy – it’s their primary fuel. But glucose can’t get into those cells without the help of insulin. Dr Hofve explains insulin as the key to a lock … the cells need the “key” (insulin) to let the glucose in. When glucose can’t get into the cells without insulin, it builds up in the blood. This causes hyperglycemia, meaning too much sugar in the blood (hyper = too much, glyc = sugar and emia = in the blood) This is why the pancreas and its creation of insulin is so important. And when it’s not working right, your dog can b Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs

Diabetes mellitus is a common illness in dogs. It is caused by either a decreased production of insulin or decreased functioning of the insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps glucose move from the blood stream into the cells of the body where it can be used for energy. What causes diabetes in dogs? There appear to be many factors that can contribute to the development of diabetes in dogs. Genetics plays a role. Some diabetes may be immune-mediated. This means the dog's immune system works against the pancreas as it tries to produce insulin. What dogs are most at risk of developing diabetes? Dogs of any age can develop diabetes, but most are between 7 and 9 years old. Females appear to be at increased risk. Certain breeds appear to be more at risk, including Samoyeds, Australian terriers, miniature schnauzers, pugs, and miniature and toy poodles. Dogs who have had multiple episodes of pancreatitis also appear to be more likely to develop diabetes mellitus. What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes in dogs? Most dogs with diabetes will have increased thirst and urination. Although the appetite is usually good or increased, there is often weight loss. Some dogs, however, may become obese. In some cases, blindness due to cataracts may be the first indication to an owner that there is a problem. Cataracts would appear as cloudy eyes with vision loss. Several diseases often occur in conjunction with diabetes mellitus, including Cushing's disease (hyperadrenocorticism), urinary tract infections, hypothyroidism, acute pancreatitis and cancer. The presence of these diseases can complicate the diagnosis and effective treatment of diabetes. Dogs may develop a serious complication of diabetes known as ketoacidosis. In this emergency condition, the blood Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Mellitus In Pets?

What Is Diabetes Mellitus In Pets?

Diabetes Mellitus is the most common of the two types of diabetes that can affect dogs and cats, the other being Diabetes Insipidus. Diabetes Mellitus itself is broken down into two different types – Type I and Type II. Also known as “Insulin Dependent Diabetes,” Type I Diabetes Mellitus develops as a result of total or near-total destruction of the beta-cells in the animal’s body, whereas Type II, or “Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus,” leaves some insulin-producing cells in the body. In Type II, there are just not enough insulin-producing cells left to perform an adequate job of regulating the blood sugar. Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus in Pets Both types of Diabetes Mellitus require insulin treatments to stabilize the pet’s blood sugar and control the progression of the disease. Of the two types of Diabetes Mellitus, Type II typically affects older and more obese cats and dogs. Both types of this disease are diagnosed by the presence of a persistently high level of glucose in the blood stream (hyperglycemia). In addition, urine tests will usually show the presence of glucose in the urine. Just like in humans, Diabetes Mellitus is preventable in cases where the pet is not genetically predisposed to the disease. In most cases, a healthy diet and a good exercise regimen is all that’s needed to keep a pet’s risk level low. Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus in Animals If you think your dog or cat might have this form of diabetes, you may start to notice several tell-tale signs. Here is a checklist that you can use to monitor your pet so your veterinarian will have the most comprehensive information at their disposal when treating him. Simply check the box beside the symptom if you have observed it in your pet. Check the symptoms if your pet e Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs - Overview

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs - Overview

This handout provides general information about diabetes mellitus in dogs. For information about its treatment, see the fact sheets "Diabetes Mellitus - Principles of Treatment" and "Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment". What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas, a small but vital organ located near the stomach. The pancreas has two significant types of cells. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta cells, produces the hormone insulin. Insulin regulates the level of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream and controls the delivery of glucose to the tissues of the body. In simple terms, diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. The clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are related to elevated concentrations of blood glucose and the inability of the body to use glucose as an energy source. What are the clinical signs of diabetes and why do they occur? The four main symptoms of uncomplicated diabetes mellitus are increased thirst, increased urination, weight loss, and increased appetite. Glucose is a vital substance that provides much of the energy needed by cells, but it must first be absorbed by the cells. Insulin attaches to receptors on the surface of cells and opens "pores" in the cell wall that allow glucose molecules to leave the bloodstream and enter the cell's interior. Without an adequate amount of insulin to "open the door," glucose is unable to get into the cells, so it accumulates in the blood, setting in motion a series of events that result in diabetes mellitus. "When there isn't enough insulin, the cells of the body become starved for their promary source of energy - glucose." When there isn't enough insulin, the cells of the bod Continue reading >>

Juvenile Onset Diabetes Mellitus (sugar Diabetes) In Dogs & Puppies

Juvenile Onset Diabetes Mellitus (sugar Diabetes) In Dogs & Puppies

Located near the stomach and small intestine, the pancreas is a small gland that provides two important functions. It produces digestive enzymes, which are necessary for the proper digestion of food within the small intestine. And, it produces hormones, which help regulate the blood sugar (glucose) levels. When starches and carbohydrates are eaten, they are broken down into the sugar glucose. This is absorbed through the wall of the digestive tract and passes into the bloodstream. Insulin allows glucose to leave the bloodstream and enter the body's tissue. Glucose can then be utilized as energy for the cells. When glucose levels are high, glucagon causes it to be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. Diabetes mellitus is generally referred to as diabetes or sugar diabetes. Simply put, diabetes mellitus is the result of the pancreas producing insufficient quantities of the hormone insulin. If the pancreas was producing normal amounts of insulin, then failed during adulthood (after one year of age), we refer to this as adult onset diabetes mellitus. When the pancreas does not develop normally in the puppy (usually prior to one year of age) with the result being inadequate insulin production, it is referred to as juvenile onset diabetes mellitus. Regardless of cause or age of onset, the result is, the pancreas does not produce sufficient quantities of the hormone insulin. Insulin is necessary to move glucose into the cells from the bloodstream. Most brain cells, as well as intestinal and red blood cells, do not need high levels of insulin for glucose transport across their walls. It is the body tissues such as the liver and muscles which need insulin to move the glucose into their cells and provide energy. However, with diabetes, the glucose simply builds up in the Continue reading >>

Managing Diabetes In Dogs

Managing Diabetes In Dogs

Dogs can have diabetes just like humans - both Type 1 and Type 2. Diabetic dogs are increasingly common, but the disease is entirely manageable unless left untreated. MY DOG HAS DIABETES: OVERVIEW 1. If your dog shows symptoms of diabetes (described below), seek veterinary care at once. 2. Work with your vet to determine the right type of insulin and the right dose for your individual dog. 3. Take your dog for frequent veterinary checkups. 4. Learn how to give insulin injections and reward your dog for accepting them. 5. Consistently feed your diabetic dog the same type of food at the same time of day. 6. Report any unusual symptoms or reactions to your vet. For years public health officials have reported a diabetes epidemic among America’s children and adults. At the same time, the rate of canine diabetes in America has more than tripled since 1970, so that today it affects about 1 in every 160 dogs. But while many human cases are caused and can be treated by diet, for dogs, diabetes is a lifelong condition that requires careful blood sugar monitoring and daily insulin injections. The medical term for the illness is diabetes mellitus (mellitus is a Latin term that means “honey sweet,” reflecting the elevated sugar levels the condition produces in urine and blood). Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin to metabolize food for energy, or when the body’s cells fail to utilize insulin properly. The pancreas’s inability to produce insulin is known in humans as type 1 (formerly called juvenile or insulin-dependent) diabetes. This is analogous to the type that affects virtually all dogs. Dogs can also develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Type 2 (formerly adult onset) diabetes, which is the result of insulin resistance often l Continue reading >>

Genetic Welfare Problems Of Companion Animals

Genetic Welfare Problems Of Companion Animals

Poodle (all types) Diabetes Mellitus Related terms: Canine diabetes mellitus, DM, Diabetic Ketoacidosis VeNom term: Diabetes mellitus (VeNom code: 658). Related conditions: Cataract, Pancreatitis, Hyperadrenocorticism Outline: Diabetes mellitus is a hormonal disorder that occurs when there is a failure to adequately control blood sugar levels. Dogs that have the condition are unable to use blood sugar as an energy source for the cells in their body as they would normally, and therefore the level of sugar in the blood increases. The most common signs of diabetes mellitus are excessive thirst and urination with weight loss. The onset of diabetes mellitus occurs most commonly in middle aged or older dogs. Left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to complications including a severe illness called diabetic ketoacidosis where the body begins to break down body tissue, such as fats and muscle, to use as a source of energy in place of blood sugars. This process produces toxins that can cause dehydration, nausea and vomiting and can be life-threatening if left untreated. Diabetic dogs are generally reliant on dietary management and daily injections of the hormone insulin for the rest of their lives. There is evidence of a genetic basis for the development of diabetes mellitus, and Poodles have been shown to be at increased risk of the condition compared with the general dog population. Summary of Information (for more information click on the links below) 1. Brief description Diabetes mellitus is a hormonal disorder which results in high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Glucose is an important source of energy in the body. In animals that are diabetic, the cells in the body are unable to absorb glucose properly, and this leads to an increase in the blood. In dogs, the m Continue reading >>

Preventing And Treating Canine Diabetes

Preventing And Treating Canine Diabetes

The growing diabetes epidemic is not limited to people—diabetes mellitus is increasing among dogs as well. Researchers estimate that one in 200 dogs will develop the disease. Fortunately, treatment has made huge strides in recent years, and as a result, dogs with diabetes are living longer, healthier lives. The mechanism of diabetes is relatively simple to describe. Just as cars use gas for fuel, body cells run on a sugar called glucose. The body obtains glucose by breaking down carbohydrates in the diet. Cells then extract glucose from the blood with the help of insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas in specialized cells called beta cells. (The pancreas, an organ situated behind the stomach, produces several hormones.) In diabetes mellitus, cells don’t take in enough glucose, which then builds up in the blood. As a result, cells starve and organs bathed in sugary blood are damaged. Diabetes is not curable, but it is treatable; a dog with diabetes may live many happy years after diagnosis. Kinds of Diabetes Humans are subject to essentially three kinds of diabetes. By far the most common is Type 2, followed by Type 1 and gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has typically been a disease of middle and old age (though it is being seen increasingly in young people), and has two causes: The beta cells don’t make enough insulin, or muscle cells resist insulin’s help and don’t take in enough glucose (or both). As a result, blood glucose levels climb. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs when the immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells, cutting off insulin production; the reason for this attack is thought to be a combination of genetic predisposition plus exposure to a trigger (research into possible triggers is ongoing). Glucose then stays in the blood and, aga Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes In Dogs

Sugar diabetes in dogs is common and is a result of inadequate production of insulin. Dogs with diabetes drink and urinate a lot and have a large appetite at the onset. Read on and learn more about the symptoms, possible causes, dietary change, and treatment of canine diabetes mellitus. Sugar diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a common hormonal disease in dogs, characterized by an inadequate production of the hormone insulin by the islet cells in the dog’s pancreas. Insulin enables glucose to pass into cells, where it is metabolized to produce energy for metabolism. Diabetes mellitus therefore impairs the body’s ability to metabolize sugar, resulting in high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and high urine sugar (glycosuria). There are two types of sugar diabetes in dogs – Type I and Type II. Type I diabetes is congenital and can occur even in young dogs less than 1 year of age, similar to juvenile diabetes in people. Type II diabetes is an acquired type that occurs mostly in middle-aged dogs, similar to adult-onset diabetes in humans. This type is also commonly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Most canine diabetes mellitus is Type II IDDM. Canine diabetes mellitus affects all breeds of dogs, but some breeds have higher incidence, such as Golden Retrievers, German Shepherds, Labrador Retrievers, Miniature Schnauzers, Keeshonden, and Poodles. Type II IDDM in females is three times as common as in males. The average age of onset is 6 to 9 years. Causes of Diabetes in Dogs There are several factors that may trigger sugar diabetes in dogs. They include: Genetic Predisposition: As mentioned above, some dogs have higher incidence of diabetes and appear to be genetically predisposed. Obesity: Similar to people, dogs who are overweight are more prone to develop Continue reading >>

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