diabetestalk.net

What Are The Similarities (if Any) Between Diabetes Insipidus And Diabetes Mellitus?

Share on facebook

Diagnosis Of Polyuria And Diabetes Insipidus

DEFINITION Polyuria has generally been defined as a urine output exceeding 3 L/day in adults and 2 L/m2 in children. It must be differentiated from the more common complaints of frequency or nocturia, which are not associated with an increase in the total urine output. The following is an overview of the diagnosis of polyuria and diabetes insipidus (DI). The causes and treatment of polyuria due to central or nephrogenic DI are presented separately. (See "Clinical manifestations and causes of central diabetes insipidus" and "Clinical manifestations and causes of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus" and "Treatment of central diabetes insipidus" and "Treatment of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus".) CAUSES In the absence of a glucose-induced osmotic diuresis in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, there are three major causes of polyuria in the outpatient setting, each of which is due to a defect in water balance leading to the excretion of large volumes of dilute urine (urine osmolality usually below 250 mosmol/kg): primary polydipsia, which is primarily seen in adults and adolescents; central DI; and nephrogenic DI [1]. Primary polydipsia — Primary polydipsia (sometimes called psychogenic poly Continue reading >>

Share on facebook

Popular Questions

  1. TAAOM

    I am getting confused between primary polydipsia also known as psychogenic polydispia and Diabetes insipidus ...can anyone clearly explain the difference between them?

  2. AlieuBarry70

    The above post was thanked by:

  3. pakbrain

    Psychogenic polydipsia is an excessive water intake seen in some patients with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, and/or the developmentally disabled. It should be taken very seriously, as the amount of water ingested exceeds the amount that can be excreted by the kidneys,and can on rare occasions be life-threatening as the body's serum sodium level is diluted ( in other words dilutional hyponatremia ) to an extent that seizures and cardiac arrest can occur.
    The excessive levels of fluid intake may result in a false diagnosis of diabetes insipidus since the chronic ingestion of excessive water can produce diagnostic results that closely mimic those of mild diabetes insipidus
    Excessive urination and extreme thirst (especially for cold water and sometimes ice or ice water) are typical for DI. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus are quite similar to those of untreated diabetes mellitus, with the distinction that the urine does not contain glucose and there is no hyperglycemia (elevated blood glucose). Blurred vision is a rarity. Signs of dehydration may also appear in some individuals since the body cannot conserve much (if any) of the water it takes in.
    In order to distinguish DI from other causes of excess urination, blood glucose levels, bicarbonate levels, and calcium levels need to be tested. Measurement of blood electrolytes can reveal a high sodium level (hypernatremia as dehydration develops). Urinalysis demonstrates a dilute urine with a low specific gravity. Urine osmolarity and electrolyte levels are typically low.
    Habit drinking (in its severest form termed psychogenic polydipsia) is the most common imitator of diabetes insipidus at all ages. While many adult cases in the medical literature are associated with mental disorders, most patients with habit polydipsia have no other detectable disease. The distinction is made during the water deprivation test, as some degree of urinary concentration above isosmolar is usually obtained before the patient becomes dehydrated.

  4. -> Continue reading
read more close

Related Articles

Popular Articles

More in diabetes