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What Are The Reasons For The Increase In The Rate Of Childhood Diabetes?

Rise In Type 1 Diabetes Can’t Be Explained

Rise In Type 1 Diabetes Can’t Be Explained

With mounting concern over the explosive rise in Type 2 diabetes, mostly among overweight and obese Americans, it is easy to forget that Type 1 diabetes, which is far less common, can be a much more serious disease that often seems to arise out of nowhere for no apparent reason. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks its own insulin-producing pancreatic cells. Most patients must be treated with insulin for their entire lives to prevent the blood sugar glucose from reaching levels that damage tissues and threaten life. Although it accounts for only 5 percent to 10 percent of all diabetes cases, it usually affects many more years of patients’ lives than the Type 2 variety. Long called juvenile diabetes because the majority of cases are diagnosed in children and teenagers, it can also start in adulthood, prompting the name change to Type 1. Now there is an international movement to change that name, too, to reduce confusion and stigma. Many adults with Type 1 diabetes feel obliged to explain that, unlike most cases of Type 2, the disease is not something they brought on themselves, say, by overeating and underexercising. Like Type 2, however, the incidence of Type 1 diabetes is also rising, in this case for reasons experts cannot yet explain. Often there is a genetic predisposition, which can raise a person’s risk of the disease twelvefold. But genetics alone cannot account for all those affected; even identical twins may not both develop the disease. Studies have suggested various environmental factors, including infections by enteroviruses that can invade insulin-producing cells in the pancreas; high birth weight and rapid infant weight gain; and the feeding of complex proteins like cow’s milk and gluten early in an infant’s life. Now Continue reading >>

Rapid Increase In Childhood Diabetes In Finland

Rapid Increase In Childhood Diabetes In Finland

Request permissions If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways. Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Among Children And Adolescents From 2001 To 2009

Prevalence Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Among Children And Adolescents From 2001 To 2009

Importance Despite concern about an “epidemic,” there are limited data on trends in prevalence of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes across US race and ethnic groups. Objective To estimate changes in the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in US youth, by sex, age, and race/ethnicity between 2001 and 2009. Design, Setting, and Participants Case patients were ascertained in 4 geographic areas and 1 managed health care plan. The study population was determined by the 2001 and 2009 bridged-race intercensal population estimates for geographic sites and membership counts for the health plan. Main Outcomes and Measures Prevalence (per 1000) of physician-diagnosed type 1 diabetes in youth aged 0 through 19 years and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10 through 19 years. Results In 2001, 4958 of 3.3 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.48 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.44-1.52). In 2009, 6666 of 3.4 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.93 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.88-1.97). In 2009, the highest prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 2.55 per 1000 among white youth (95% CI, 2.48-2.62) and the lowest was 0.35 per 1000 in American Indian youth (95% CI, 0.26-0.47) and type 1 diabetes increased between 2001 and 2009 in all sex, age, and race/ethnic subgroups except for those with the lowest prevalence (age 0-4 years and American Indians). Adjusted for completeness of ascertainment, there was a 21.1% (95% CI, 15.6%-27.0%) increase in type 1 diabetes over 8 years. In 2001, 588 of 1.7 million youth were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.34 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.31-0.37). In 2009, 819 of 1.8 million were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.46 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.43-0.49). In 2009, the prevalence of type Continue reading >>

How Has The Childhood Obesity Rate Changed In The Last 30 Years?

How Has The Childhood Obesity Rate Changed In The Last 30 Years?

Child obesity is a modern-day epidemic. The last 30 years have been especially devastating as the percentage of obese children skyrocketed to more than double what it was in the 80s. Thousands of non-profits, communities, schools, and political leaders have taken notice and started working to reverse the damage; but it is no easy featAmericas lifestyle has changed, and we must get to the root of the problem to change it all. Statistics: Child obesity has been closely measured since the early 1980s and the data shows us just how serious the problem is. The rate of obesity in children ages 6-11 increased from 6.5 to 19.6 percent between the years 1980 and 2008. In just 28 years, obesity nearly tripled in all age groups under 18 years old. Between 16 to 33 percent of adolescents are now obese, meaning in certain parts of the United States one in three kids is obese. Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado all have a child and adolescent obesity rate of fewer than 10% while Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, and Delaware have a rate of over 20 percent. This data is from 2005-2007, but the numbers have moved in the wrong direction since then. Risks and Affects: Obese kids are at risk for numerous health problems and diseases. Obesity-related medical problems include type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and disability. Diabetes is the seventh-leading cause of death in the United States. With between 100,000-400,000 obesity-related deaths per year and an estimated healthcare expenditure of $117 billion, obesity has surpassed health-care costs related to smoking and drinking. High cholesterol, high blood pressure, joint problems, sleep apnea, and psychological/social problems are just the beginning of what an obese child can expect to deal with. The causes and solutions Continue reading >>

Kids' Diabetes Rates Up Dramatically In 8 Years, Study Finds

Kids' Diabetes Rates Up Dramatically In 8 Years, Study Finds

Increase in type 1 diabetes especially baffling to experts Please note: This article was published more than one year ago. The facts and conclusions presented may have since changed and may no longer be accurate. And "More information" links may no longer work. Questions about personal health should always be referred to a physician or other health care professional. HealthDay Reporter SATURDAY, May 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Rates of diabetes in U.S. children have jumped sharply in just eight years, according to new research. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes increased 21 percent between 2001 and 2009. At the same time, rates of type 2 diabetes rose 30.5 percent, the study found. These increases affected both boys and girls, and nearly all racial groups, the researchers noted. The reasons behind the increases aren't entirely clear, said lead researcher Dr. Dana Dabelea, the associate dean for faculty at the Colorado School of Public Health in Aurora. "While we do not completely understand the reasons for this increase, since the causes of type 1 diabetes are still unclear, it is likely that something has changed in our environment, both in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world, causing more youth to develop the disease, maybe at increasingly younger ages," she said. Several reasons for the increase in type 2 diabetes are possible, Dabelea said. "Most likely is the obesity epidemic, but also the long-term effects of diabetes and obesity during pregnancy, which have also increased over time," she noted. This report shows the increasingly important public health burden that pediatric diabetes represents, Dabelea pointed out. "It also highlights the facts that all racial/ethnic groups are affected by both major forms of diabetes," she said. The report was scheduled to be pu Continue reading >>

What Are The Reasons For The Increase In Childhood Diabetes

What Are The Reasons For The Increase In Childhood Diabetes

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Symposium: Diabetes Mellitus The Epidemiology Of Childhood Diabetes

Symposium: Diabetes Mellitus The Epidemiology Of Childhood Diabetes

Abstract There are large differences between countries in the incidence of type 1 diabetes. Europe shows the greatest variation, with the highest incidence in the north-east and lowest in the south-west of the continent. Much of the variation can be explained by genetic differences, but there are notable exceptions and intriguing within-country variations which suggest environmental causes for the disease. One of the most interesting findings is a dramatic increase in diabetes (3–4% per year), predominantly in younger children. The incidence in Finland is now over five times greater than it was 50 years ago. Recently the rise has been most dramatic in countries undergoing substantial socio-economic change, such as those of Eastern Europe. The increase has been attributed to many causes, including diet, enterovirus infection, hygiene, and vitamin D. Epidemiology suggests new approaches for diabetes prevention on a population-wide scale, but further research is still needed to identify factors that can be modified to help reduce diabetes risk and incidence of the disease. Continue reading >>

Types 1 And 2 Diabetes Increase Dramatically In U.s. Youth

Types 1 And 2 Diabetes Increase Dramatically In U.s. Youth

Ron Levine via Getty Images From 2001 to 2009, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes increased significantly among American youth, according to new research. The study, published in the May 7 child health issue of JAMA, analyzed data from more than three million children and teens up to age 19 from California, Colorado, Ohio, South Carolina, Washington state and selected American Indian reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. After adjusting for confounding variables, the researchers found that type 2 diabetes increased by nearly a third, while type 1 diabetes increased by more than 20 percent over the eight year period of the study. “The increases in prevalence reported herein are important because such youth with diabetes will enter adulthood with several years of disease duration, difficulty in treatment, an increased risk of early complications, and increased frequency of diabetes during reproductive years, which may further increase diabetes in the next generation,” wrote the authors. In 2001, 1.48 per 1,000 American children from infancy through age 19 were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, according to the research, while by 2009 that rose 21.1 percent to a rate of 1.93 per 1,000. White children were most likely to have type 1 diabetes at a rate of 2.55 per 1,000 children diagnosed, but researchers found that rates also increased among minority groups. “Historically, type 1 diabetes has been considered a disease that affects primarily white youth; however, our findings highlight the increasing burden of type 1 diabetes experienced by youth of minority racial/ethnic groups as well,” the authors wrote. Type 2 diabetes rates grew even more. In 2001, there were 0.34 diagnoses per 1,000 U.S. kids ages 10 through 19, but by 2009 diagnoses rose 30.5 percent to a rate of Continue reading >>

Study Reveals Sizable Increase In Diabetes Among Children

Study Reveals Sizable Increase In Diabetes Among Children

For years doctors have warned of a rising epidemic of diabetes among children. Yet there has been surprisingly little firm data on the extent of this disease among younger Americans. Now a nationally representative study has confirmed that from 2001 to 2009 the incidence of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes drastically increased among children and adolescents across racial groups. The prevalence of Type 1 diabetes increased 21 percent among children up to age 19, the study found. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes among those ages 10 to 19 rose 30 percent during the period. Those are “big numbers,” said Dr. Robin S. Goland, a co-director of the Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center at Columbia University Medical Center in New York, who has been in practice for about 25 years. “In my career, Type 1 diabetes was a rare disease in children, and Type 2 disease didn’t exist. And I’m not that old.” The analysis, published on Saturday in JAMA, the journal of the American Medical Association, includes data from more than three million children younger than 20 in five states — California, Colorado, Ohio, South Carolina and Washington — as well as from selected American Indian reservations. The research was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health and is part of a continuing study, Search for Diabetes in Youth, examining the condition among children. In Type 1 diabetes, a patient’s immune system attacks cells in the pancreas that make insulin, a hormone required to control blood sugar levels. Historically, children affected by the disease were more often white. But the new report found the prevalence also has increased among black and Hispanic youths. The greatest increase occurred among 15- to 19-year-olds. “I don’t unde Continue reading >>

How To Prevent Childhood Obesity & Diabetes

How To Prevent Childhood Obesity & Diabetes

Thirty years ago, virtually all diabetes in young individuals was thought to be autoimmune Type 1 diabetes, but since the mid-90s, we started to see an increase in Type 2 diabetes among youth, particularly in the United States. Indeed, “the term adult onset diabetes has now been scrapped and replaced with ‘Type 2’ because children as young as eight are now developing the disease.” And the effects can be just as devastating. A 15-year follow-up of children diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes found an alarming rate in young adults of blindness, amputation, kidney failure and death in young adulthood. Why the dramatic rise in childhood diabetes? The dramatic rise in childhood diabetes is due to the dramatic rise in childhood obesity. During the past 30 years, the number of children diagnosed as being overweight has increased by more than 100 percent. Once an obese child reaches age six, it’s likely they’ll stay that way. And even if they don’t, being overweight in our youth predicts adult disease and death regardless of adult body weight. Being an overweight teen may predict disease risk 55 years later, including twice the risk of dying from heart attack, more cancer, gout, and arthritis. In fact being overweight as a teen “was a more powerful predictor of these risks then being overweight in adulthood.” This underscores the importance of focusing on preventing childhood obesity. How do we do it? From the official American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guidelines: the problem appears to be kids eating too much fat and added sugar, and not eating enough fruits and vegetables. Doctors, at every occasion beginning soon after a child’s birth, should endeavor to give sound advice regarding nutrition and growth so that obesity and its complications may b Continue reading >>

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Tweet Type 1 diabetes belongs to a group of conditions known as autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases are when the body incorrectly identifies its own useful cells as an attacking organism. In type 1 diabetes, it is the beta cells in the pancreas which produce insulin that are wrongfully targeted and killed off by specific antibodies created by the body’s immune system. Researchers have been investigating what may cause the immune system to act in this way but to date researchers have theories but no concrete proof. Genetic predisposition Researchers have uncovered a number of genetic regions that are linked closely with type 1 diabetes. Each of these is denoted with a name such as IDDM1. At least 18 different regions have been discovered and some of the genetic areas include an increased susceptibility for other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and coeliac disease. Whilst genetics offers clues as to why some people are more susceptible to type 1 diabetes, it doesn’t explain why some people with these genes develop type 1 diabetes and why others with these genes don’t. For example, having an identical twin with type 1 diabetes gives you a statistically higher risk but it doesn’t necessarily mean you will develop the condition. Genetics does not explain either why people will develop type 1 diabetes at different ages. Type 1 diabetes is most commonly diagnosed in 10 to 14 year olds but can be diagnosed at any age. Read more on diabetes and genetics Type 1 diabetes triggers Researchers have hypothesised that whilst some people are have a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes, there is likely to be an environmental factor that triggers the initial development of type 1 diabetes. Some of the possible triggers that have been suggested include: Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetes Steadily Increasing

Prevalence Of Diabetes Steadily Increasing

While sensational but exceedingly rare diseases such as Ebola send Americans into a frenzy of fear, commonplace diabetes is quietly responsible for tens of thousands and a contributing factor in hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. The statistics from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals are startling. Louisiana has the second-highest rate of death from diabetes in the nation. Diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death for residents. Even more disturbing is the trend: The prevalence of the disease has steadily increased, from 6.6 percent in 2000 to 10.3 percent in 2010, according to the most recent statistics available. And, like in the rest of the nation, more and more children are developing Type 2 diabetes, commonly called adult onset diabetes and often associated with obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. Evolving lifestyle factors are key, says John Guzzardo, executive director of the American Diabetes Association’s Louisiana office in New Orleans. “A growing percentage of the state’s children ages 10-17 years are overweight or obese, exceeding the national rate for childhood obesity,” he said. “Passive activities and our culture’s growing dependence on convenience foods are contributing to this. These negative factors are probably partially to blame for the increase of Type 2 diabetes in children in Louisiana. In the past, children with diabetes were typically diagnosed with type 1, where the pancreas cannot make insulin, and were treated with injections. With Type 2 — inefficiency processing of insulin or insulin resistance — the mainstay of treatment for juveniles is lifestyle changes.” Income and education level also play a part. Louisiana Diabetes Fact Sheet statistics show that 19.5 percent of those with incomes under $15,000 Continue reading >>

The Rise Of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes In The 20th Century

The Rise Of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes In The 20th Century

The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes increased worldwide in the closing decades of the 20th century, but the origins of this increase are poorly documented. A search through the early literature revealed a number of useful but neglected sources, particularly in Scandinavia. While these do not meet the exacting standards of more recent surveys, tentative conclusions can be drawn concerning long-term changes in the demography of the disease. Childhood type 1 diabetes was rare but well recognized before the introduction of insulin. Low incidence and prevalence rates were recorded in several countries over the period 1920–1950, and one carefully performed study showed no change in childhood incidence over the period 1925–1955. An almost simultaneous upturn was documented in several countries around the mid-century. The overall pattern since then is one of linear increase, with evidence of a plateau in some high-incidence populations and of a catch-up phenomenon in some low-incidence areas. Steep rises in the age-group under 5 years have been recorded recently. The disease process underlying type 1 diabetes has changed over time and continues to evolve. Understanding why and how this produced the pandemic of childhood diabetes would be an important step toward reversing it. At the start of the 20th century, childhood diabetes was rare and rapidly fatal. By its end, some 3–4 children per 1,000 in Western countries would require insulin treatment by the age of 20 years, and a steady rise in incidence had been reported from many other parts of the world. This increase has been extensively documented over the past two decades, over which time standard means of data collection have been agreed, central registries have been established, and numerous epidemiological stu Continue reading >>

The Alarming Rise Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes In Children And Teens

The Alarming Rise Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes In Children And Teens

Having lived with type 1 diabetes since the age of four, I can say with certainty that, while it doesn’t stop me from living a full life, it gets in the way and adds stress and anxiety to what should be normal daily activities. A 20 minute walk can send my blood sugars plummeting on some occasions, while a 30 minute walk on another day might not impact my blood sugar levels at all. I have learned to fine tune and predict as much as possible, but diabetes is still a major obstacle that I have to contend with not only daily, but hourly, sometimes even many times an hour. If I had to calculate the time I spent managing diabetes each day, month or year, it wouldn’t be much less than the same as the amount of time I spend breathing. Diabetes is always on my mind and I’m constantly making decisions based on it, so to read the results of a 10 year study about increasing rates of diabetes in young people is a tough pill to swallow. The study, recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine, shows that the annual rate of newly-diagnosed cases of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in young people increased considerably from 2002-2012. Why is this happening? In the case of type 2 diabetes, weight is often a contributing factor. But there are unknowns at play. And no one knows what causes type 1 diabetes, let alone why it’s increasing. What I do know is I wouldn’t wish this burden on anyone, even if it’s manageable, so I hope we figure out why rates of are increasing and put a stop to it. Over the course of a decade the SEARCH study looked at 11,245 youths (0 to 19 years old) with type 1 diabetes and 2846 young people (10 to 19 years old) with type 2 diabetes from five study centers across the USA. According to Pharmabiz, “This study is the first ever to estima Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms & Causes

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms & Causes

Because our research informs our treatment, our diabetes team is known for our innovative treatments and science-driven approach. Children’s Hospital Boston is home to the world’s most extensive pediatric hospital research enterprise, and we partner with elite health care and biotech organizations around the globe. But as specialists in family-centered care, our physicians never forget that your child is precious, and not just a patient. In dealing with your child’s diabetes, you probably want to know the basics about what diabetes is, and how type 1 diabetes differs from other forms of the disease. What is diabetes? Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a lifelong condition that occurs when the body doesn’t make enough insulin, or when the body doesn’t respond properly to the insulin it makes. There are many forms of diabetes mellitus, several of which have undergone name changes as the disease has become better understood. type 1 diabetes: Formerly known as “juvenile” or “insulin-dependent” diabetes,type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system’s failure to recognize the beta cells as belonging to the body, so it attacks and destroys them. This is why type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease. Children with type 1 diabetes must take insulin injections every day. type 2 diabetes: Formerly known as “adult onset” or “non-insulin dependent” diabetes, type 2 diabetes typically occurs in people who are overweight, physically inactive and over age 40, although more and more children are developing type 2 diabetes, possibly because of childhood obesity. Some children need insulin; others can control their diabetes with healthful eating and exercise, or oral medicines (hypoglycemic agents). MODY (maturity onset diabetes of youth): a form of dia Continue reading >>

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