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What Are The Numbers To Determine Diabetes?

What Is Considered Borderline Diabetes?

What Is Considered Borderline Diabetes?

Borderline diabetes is a term for a condition that's now called prediabetes. It's based on the level of blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, when you have fasted (which means you haven't eaten any food overnight). Your doctor will test your blood glucose in the office. If it is below 100 milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (mg/dL), it is normal. Borderline diabetes or prediabetes occurs when your fasting blood glucose is between 100 and 125 mg/dL. A level of 126 mg/dL or above indicates diabetes. When the diabetes police are in hot pursuit and you are within five miles of a state border you have borderline diabetes. Sorry. I couldn’t resist. In the medical world we use certain fixed blood sugar numbers to determine who has diabetes and who doesn’t. The standards are set by the American Diabetes Association and are adjusted from time to time as new research reveals new truths. So if your blood sugar is above a set threshold you have diabetes. If it’s below a set threshold you don’t. If you fall between the two sets of numbers you’re not a member of either tribe. You aren’t really quite “normal,” but your sugar isn’t high enough to really be considered a person with diabetes either. You have borderline diabetes, prediabetes, or in more technical terms, impaired glucose tolerance. But none of these labels convey the deadly seriousness of the condition. Here’s the truth, no bull, if you have borderline diabetes, full-blown diabetes is on the way. The conversion rate from prediabetes to full blown diabetes is mind numbing, and because of this I especially dislike the term “borderline” as it makes the condition sound somehow less serious than it is. At any rate, on to the numbers. We now use a quick and simple blood test called an A1C to Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Know Your Numbers

Diabetes: Know Your Numbers

Everyone should know certain things about their health - such as their height, weight, blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Knowing this information is all the more important in diabetes, because: these figures affect your cardiovascular health and everyone with diabetes has an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (heart attack, stroke). Statistic Unit Your age years Height (no shoes) m Weight (unclothed) kg Waist circumference cm Blood pressure ……/……mmHg Blood glucose mmol/l Blood cholesterol mmol/l Table 1: Essential health numbers. Combined with other factors such as your gender and smoking history, these figures help determine your chances of developing an event like a heart attack or stroke in the next few years. If you can complete all these boxes now, you're in the minority. Not sure why these figures are important? Read on… Fat estimation: waist measurement Your waist measurement indicates how much extra fat you are carrying around. The increase in girth that comes with being overweight is associated with an increase in risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This pattern of weight gain indicates a change in the body's metabolism called 'insulin resistance', which is associated with the acceleration of hardening of the arteries. If the arteries narrow too much, they can become blocked, leading to stroke or heart attack. How do I get my number? All you need is a tape measure: put the tape measure around your stomach at the level of your belly button (navel). stand up straight, but make sure your tummy muscles are completely relaxed. In other words, let it all hang out. if you draw in your spare tyre, you won't get an accurate reading. Men A normal waist circumference for men is 94cm or less. In men of South Asian or Chinese ethni Continue reading >>

8 Numbers You Need To Know For Diabetes

8 Numbers You Need To Know For Diabetes

How to Manage Diabetes With Numbers Diabetes self-management is a numbers game. But it's not just about your blood sugar. There are at least eight different numbers you should be familiar with to lower your risk for complications from diabetes symptoms. "Diabetes self-management is absolutely essential," says Enrico Cagliero, MD, an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and an associate physician at the Massachusetts General Hospital Diabetes Center. "Although managing these numbers may not improve diabetes symptoms, it can help decrease the risk of serious complications such as blindness or kidney failure down the road." Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs - Testing And Monitoring

Diabetes In Dogs - Testing And Monitoring

By Kristiina Ruotsalo, DVM, DVSc, Dip ACVP, Margo S. Tant BSc, DVM, DVSc, &Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP Diagnosis What tests are suggested for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in dogs? Generally, the following screening tests are performed when diabetes mellitus is suspected: a complete blood count (CBC), a serum biochemistry profile, and a urinalysis. Why so many tests? Can't diabetes be diagnosed by an elevated blood sugar value alone? Elevated fasting blood and urine glucose (sugar) values are absolutely essential for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, but other screening tests provide additional information regarding the severity of the diabetes, any conditions that may be contributing to the diabetes, and any complications related to the diabetic state. Because diabetes mellitus is usually diagnosed in middle-aged to older dogs, your dog may have other unrelated conditions that need to be managed along with diabetes. The screening tests will usually alert us to any such conditions. What might a CBC reveal if my dog has diabetes mellitus? The complete blood count (CBC) evaluates the red blood cells, the white blood cells, and the platelet components of a blood sample. With uncomplicated diabetes mellitus, these components are often within the normal range. However, changes may occasionally be seen in the red or white cell values. Despite drinking large quantities of water, diabetic dogs lose body water because they produce such dilute urine. Therefore, your dog may actually be dehydrated. Dehydration can be indicated on the CBC by increases in the packed cell volume (PCV - the proportion of the blood volume that is actually occupied by red blood cells) as well as increases in the total red blood cell count. In some severe diabetic states, lysis (ruptu Continue reading >>

Understanding Your A1c

Understanding Your A1c

The A1C is a blood test that helps determine if your diabetes management plan is working well. (Both Type 1 and Type 2 take this test.) It’s done every 2-3 months to find out what your average blood sugar has been. (You may also hear this test called glycosylated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c, and HbA1c.) A1c is the most common name for it though. How the test works Essentially, the test can tell how much sugar is in the blood stream by looking for proteins (hemoglobins). When glucose (sugar) enters the blood, it binds to the protein in the red blood cells. This binding creates “glycated hemoglobin”. The more sugar in the blood, the more glycated hemoglobin. It’s important to test your blood sugar levels (BGLs) throughout the day; however, an A1C test gives you a bigger picture with a long-term average of those blood sugar levels. What do these numbers mean? The A1c is an average of what your blood sugar levels have been over the 3-month period. In general, the higher your A1C number, the higher your likelihood of diabetes complications. (You don’t want a high A1C; it means there is too much sugar in your blood and your body isn’t absorbing it.) A1C number 4.6 – 6.0 Normal (does not have diabetes) 5.7 – 6.4 Pre-diabetes (warning that someone may develop Type 2 or have the beginning onset of Type 1) 6.7+ Diabetes (someone diagnosed with diabetes) <7.0 – 7.5 Target range (for adults diagnosed with diabetes – children diagnosed with diabetes) This target range varies between individuals, some people naturally run a little higher, some lower. It is important to note that especially in children a higher A1C (of 7.5) is recommended. The A1C number will help you and your doctor determine though if your diabetes management plan is working well. Continue reading >>

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

According to the latest American Heart Association's Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, about 8 million people 18 years and older in the United States have type 2 diabetes and do not know it. Often type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed until symptoms become severe and hospitalization is required. Left untreated, diabetes can cause a number of health complications. That's why it's so important to both know what warning signs to look for and to see a health care provider regularly for routine wellness screenings. Symptoms In incidences of prediabetes, there are no symptoms. People may not be aware that they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes because they have no symptoms or because the symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed for quite some time. However, some individuals do experience warning signs, so it's important to be familiar with them. Prediabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes No symptoms Increased or extreme thirst Increased thirst Increased appetite Increased appetite Increased fatigue Fatigue Increased or frequent urination Increased urination, especially at night Unusual weight loss Weight loss Blurred vision Blurred vision Fruity odor or breath Sores that do not heal In some cases, no symptoms In some cases, no symptoms If you have any of these symptoms, see your health care provider right away. Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your healthcare provider. Who should be tested for prediabetes and diabetes? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are: If your blood glucose levels are in normal range, testing should be done about every three years. If you have prediabetes, you should be checked for diabetes every one to two years after diagnosis. Tests for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes There are three ty Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Your health care professional can diagnose diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes through blood tests. The blood tests show if your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Do not try to diagnose yourself if you think you might have diabetes. Testing equipment that you can buy over the counter, such as a blood glucose meter, cannot diagnose diabetes. Who should be tested for diabetes? Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes should be tested for the disease. Some people will not have any symptoms but may have risk factors for diabetes and need to be tested. Testing allows health care professionals to find diabetes sooner and work with their patients to manage diabetes and prevent complications. Testing also allows health care professionals to find prediabetes. Making lifestyle changes to lose a modest amount of weight if you are overweight may help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Most often, testing for occurs in people with diabetes symptoms. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Because type 1 diabetes can run in families, a study called TrialNet offers free testing to family members of people with the disease, even if they don’t have symptoms. Type 2 diabetes Experts recommend routine testing for type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older are between the ages of 19 and 44, are overweight or obese, and have one or more other diabetes risk factors are a woman who had gestational diabetes1 Medicare covers the cost of diabetes tests for people with certain risk factors for diabetes. If you have Medicare, find out if you qualify for coverage . If you have different insurance, ask your insurance company if it covers diabetes tests. Though type 2 diabetes most often develops in adults, children also ca Continue reading >>

Blood Tests That Can Determine Prediabetes

Blood Tests That Can Determine Prediabetes

If you experience excessive thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, weight loss, or blurred vision—symptoms of diabetes—then your doctor may want to do bloodwork to determine if you have prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar is higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered type 2 diabetes. If you catch prediabetes early, there are steps you can take to help prevent it from developing into type 2 diabetes. Preventive measures include losing weight, exercising daily, and eating nutritious meals low in sugar and starchy carbs. Here are the three most common blood tests used to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes: HbA1c What it is: This test, often called A1c for short, shows your average blood sugar level for the past two or three months. Specifically, the HbA1c test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin—a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen—is coated with sugar, according to Mayo Clinic. Why it’s used: Many diabetes experts recommend that the A1c test be the primary test used to diagnose prediabetes. Because it measures your average blood sugar levels over time instead of at a specific point in time, it is a better overall reflection of your blood sugar levels. What it means: The test report gives the results as a percentage. The higher the percentage, the higher your blood sugar level. A normal A1c result is below 5.7 percent. An A1c level between 5.7 percent and 6.4 percent means you may have prediabetes. Fasting plasma glucose test What it is: This blood test measures glucose levels after you have fasted for at least eight hours. Why it’s used: Fasting stimulates hormones in the body that raise plasma glucose levels. In people without diabetes, the body will make enough insulin to counteract the rise in glu Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

Diabetes: Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

To control your diabetes, you must know your blood sugar numbers. Testing your blood sugar is the only way to know whether your blood sugar is too high, too low, or just right. 1. The hemoglobin A1c test (pronounced he-me-glo-bin A-one-C) measures your blood sugar control over the last 3 months. It is the best way to know if your blood sugar is under control. 2. A finger-stick test you do yourself using a blood glucose meter measures your blood sugar at the time you test. You need both tests to get a complete picture of your blood sugar control. The hemoglobin A1c test is a simple lab test that shows the average amount of sugar that has been in your blood over the last 3 months. Your health care provider does the test by taking a small sample of your blood and sending it to a lab. The hemoglobin A1c test shows if your blood sugar is close to normal or too high. It is the best test for your health care provider to tell if your blood sugar is under control. A finger-stick test is a simple test you can do using a blood glucose meter to check changes in your own blood sugar. The finger-stick test tells you what your blood sugar is at the time you test. Finger-stick testing using a blood glucose meter helps you see how food, physical activity, and diabetes medicine affect your blood sugar. The readings you get from these tests can help you manage your diabetes day by day or even hour by hour. Keep a record of your test results and review it with your health care provider. Ideal goals for most people with diabetes when finger-stick testing using a blood glucose meter are: Your blood sugar goals may be different from these ideal goals. Ask your health care provider what goals are best for you. Continue reading >>

Analyzing Your Numbers: When Is It Diabetes?

Analyzing Your Numbers: When Is It Diabetes?

Know the Numbers According to the American Diabetes Association's Standards of Medical Care, these numbers should be used to diagnose pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The ADA suggests everyone over age 45 be checked every three years -- especially if your body mass index (BMI) is over 25. People with a family history of diabetes should be tested at a younger age and more frequently. Normal Fasting glucose level: Less than 100 mg/dl Two hours after eating: Less than 140 mg/dl Pre-Diabetes Fasting glucose level: Equal to or greater than 100 mg/dl and less than 126 mg/dl Two hours after eating: Equal to or greater than 140 mg/dl and less than 200 mg/dl Type 2 Diabetes Fasting glucose level: Equal to or greater than 126 mg/dl. A second test is required for confirmation. Two hours after eating: Equal to or greater than 200 mg/dl. A second test is required for confirmation. Aim for these Targets Maintaining recommended targets for the following risk factors may help you avoid heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Aim for the targets below, as recommended by the ADA in its CheckUp America program at checkupamerica.org. Weight: Body mass index between 19 and 25 Waist circumference: Less than 35 inches for women and 40 inches for men LDL (bad) cholesterol: Less than 100 mg/dl HDL (good) cholesterol: Greater than 60 mg/dl Total cholesterol: Less than 200 mg/dl Triglycerides: Less than 150 mg/dl Blood pressure: Less than 120/80 mmHg Blood glucose: Less than 100 mg/dl Smoking cigarettes: No safe level Physical activity: At least 30 minutes of moderate activity most days Determining Your BMI Body mass index (BMI) is a ratio of weight to height that's used to measure body fat. Use this formula to calculate your BMI or go to nhlbisupport.com/bmi/bmicalc.htm for a quick calculation. Then Continue reading >>

Am I Diabetic? How To Test Your Blood Sugar To Find Out

Am I Diabetic? How To Test Your Blood Sugar To Find Out

If you have not been diagnosed with diabetes but suspect you might have something wrong with your blood sugar, there is a simple way to find out. What you need to do is to test your blood sugar after you have eaten a meal that contains about sixty grams of carbohydrates. You can ask your doctor to test your blood sugar in the office if you have an appointment that takes place an hour or two after you've eaten or, if this isn't an option, you can use an inexpensive blood sugar meter to test your post-meal blood sugar yourself at home. You do not need a prescription to buy the meter or strips. One advantage of testing yourself at home is that with self-testing you do not run the risk of having a "diabetes" diagnosis written into your medical records which might make it impossible for you to buy health or life insurance. To run a post-meal blood sugar test do following: Borrow a family member's meter or buy an inexpensive meter and strips at the drug store or Walmart. The Walmart Relion meter store brand meters sold at pharamcies like CVS, Walgreens, etc are usually the least expensive. Some meters come with 10 free strips. Check to see if the meter you have bought includes strips. If it doesn't, buy the smallest package size available. Strips do not keep for very long once opened, so don't buy more than you need for a couple tests. Familiarize yourself with the instructions that came with your meter so that you know how to run a blood test. Practice a few times before you run your official test. Each meter is different. Be sure you understand how yours works. The first thing in the morning after you wake up but before you have eaten anything, test your blood sugar. Write down the result. This is your "fasting blood sugar." Now eat something containing at 60 - 70 grams of Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: The Numbers Game

Gestational Diabetes: The Numbers Game

Copyright 1998 [email protected] All rightsreserved. DISCLAIMER: The information on this website is notintended and should not be construed as medical advice. Consultyour health provider. This particular web section isdesigned to present more than one view of a controversialsubject, pro and con. It should be re-emphasizedthat nothing herein should be considered medical advice. One thing that is especially confusing in gd is the variousnumbers that are tossed around all the time. It is very common toget confused! For example, 140 mg/dl is a numberyou see a lot, but it means different things in differentcontexts. It is the cutoff for the one-hour glucose challengetest in pregnancy, it used to be the number for diagnosing 'true'diabetes outside of pregnancy, and it is the cutoff for desirableblood glucose levels one hour after a meal in many programs. Whenthe levels for diagnosing diabetes outside pregnancy wererecently revised to lower levels (126 mg/dl), it confused manypregnant women, who wondered if the cutoff for the one-hour testin pregnancy was also going to be lowered or if their target bGfor one hour after eating was going to be lowered too. The answeris that one has nothing to do with the others. They all refer to differentmeasurements; it is just coincidence that they use the samenumber as a cutoff. But even among those who have studied the basics of gd, thevarious reference numbers commonly used in gd discussions can bevery confusing. Kmom knows from experience that when gd comes upfor discussion on mailing lists, people often mix up theirreferences, compare numbers incorrectly, and generally make thediscussion even more confusing. This websection is an attempt toclarify this very confusing issue and discuss thevarious guidelines that gd women are often given. Continue reading >>

Prediabetes

Prediabetes

What Is Prediabetes? Prediabetes is a “pre-diagnosis” of diabetes—you can think of it as a warning sign. It’s when your blood glucose level (blood sugar level) is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough to be considered diabetes. Prediabetes is an indication that you could develop type 2 diabetes if you don’t make some lifestyle changes. But here's the good news: . Eating healthy food, losing weight and staying at a healthy weight, and being physically active can help you bring your blood glucose level back into the normal range. Diabetes develops very gradually, so when you’re in the prediabetes stage—when your blood glucose level is higher than it should be—you may not have any symptoms at all. You may, however, notice that: you’re hungrier than normal you’re losing weight, despite eating more you’re thirstier than normal you have to go to the bathroom more frequently you’re more tired than usual All of those are typical symptoms associated with diabetes, so if you’re in the early stages of diabetes, you may notice them. Prediabetes develops when your body begins to have trouble using the hormone insulin. Insulin is necessary to transport glucose—what your body uses for energy—into the cells via the bloodstream. In pre-diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or it doesn’t use it well (that’s called insulin resistance). If you don’t have enough insulin or if you’re insulin resistant, you can build up too much glucose in your blood, leading to a higher-than-normal blood glucose level and perhaps prediabetes. Researchers aren’t sure what exactly causes the insulin process to go awry in some people. There are several risk factors, though, that make it more likely that you’ll develop pre-diabetes. These are Continue reading >>

1. The A1c (pronounced A-one-c) Test

1. The A1c (pronounced A-one-c) Test

Taking control of your diabetes can help you feel better and stay healthy. Keeping blood sugar close to normal reduces your chances of having heart, eye, kidney and nerve problems that can be caused by diabetes. To control your diabetes, you need to know your blood glucose numbers and your target goals. There are two different tests to measure your blood glucose. 2. The blood glucose test you do yourself – also called self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) Diabetes is: Common At least one in every 14 people has diabetes. Controllable Though there is no cure for diabetes, it can be managed by keeping blood sugar close to normal. This is done with proper meal planning, exercise, and pos- sibly medicines. Lifelong Your blood sugar levels should improve with treatment. However, this does not mean that your diabetes has gone away. It just means your blood sugars are in control. Self-managed Your health care team will advise and support you, but control depends on you. The choices you make help determine what your blood sugar level will be. Always changing It is common for your doctor to change your medicine or treatment plan over time because your diabetes changes over time. Keeping diabetes in check - know your blood sugar numbers A n on pr of it in de pe nd en t lic en se e of t he B lu e C ro ss B lu e Sh ie ld A ss oc ia tio n Diabetes is not like other health problems you may have had in the past. For one thing, it doesn’t go away like a cold or the flu. For another, you are just as responsible as your doctor for treating your diabetes. Because so much of your day-to-day treatment is in your hands, you must learn as much about diabetes as you can. The basic facts about diabetes National strength. Local focus. Individual care.SM Understanding Diabetes You Continue reading >>

Five Things You Should Know About Prediabetes

Five Things You Should Know About Prediabetes

After announcing the expansion of Diabetes Stops Here and asking you which topics you’d like covered, we received a specific request for more information about prediabetes. A staggering 79 million Americans deal with this condition, and while it can lead to crippling health consequences, it can be avoided. Here are five things you should know about prediabetes: 1. What is prediabetes? Before people develop type 2 diabetes, they almost always have prediabetes, a health condition where your blood glucose is higher than normal but not as high as if you had diabetes. 2. How can I find out if I have it? Your doctor can give you a blood test to tell if you have prediabetes (the same test that’s used to test for diabetes). At your next doctor visit, ask if you should be tested for prediabetes. 3. What can I do if I have prediabetes? If you have prediabetes, there are important steps you can, and should, take. Early intervention can turn back the clock and return elevated blood glucose levels to the normal range. Losing weight is an important step for most people with prediabetes, and the amount doesn’t have to be huge to make a difference. A weight loss of just 10 to 15 pounds can really stack the odds in your favor. Coupled with 30 minutes of exercise each day and healthy food choices, you’ll be on your way. Talk with your doctor and visit our website to learn more about other ways you can prevent or reverse the condition. 4. Does this mean I’m going to develop type 2 diabetes? Prediabetes can lead to type 2 diabetes…but it doesn’t have to. Scientific studies show taking the above steps can often halt or at least slow down the progression of prediabetes so it doesn’t take a turn for the worse. 5. Where can I find help? You are not alone. It’s never too late Continue reading >>

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