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What Are The Numbers For A Diabetic?

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

The aim of diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar (“glucose”) as close to normal as possible. What is a normal blood sugar level? And how can you achieve normal blood sugar? First, what is the difference between “sugar” and “glucose”? Sugar is the general name for sweet carbohydrates that dissolve in water. “Carbohydrate” means a food made only of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. There are various different kinds of sugars. The one our body uses most is called “glucose.” Other sugars we eat, like fructose from fruit or lactose from milk, are converted into glucose in our bodies. Then we can use them for energy. Our bodies also break down starches, which are sugars stuck together, into glucose. When people talk about “blood sugar,” they mean “blood glucose.” The two terms mean the same thing. In the U.S., blood sugar is normally measured in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (mg/dl). A milligram is very little, about 0.00018 of a teaspoon. A deciliter is about 3 1/3 ounces. In Canada and the United Kingdom, blood sugar is reported in millimoles/liter (mmol/L). You can convert Canadian or British glucose levels to American numbers if you multiply them by 18. This is useful to know if you’re reading comments or studies from England or Canada. If someone reports that their fasting blood glucose was 7, you can multiply that by 18 and get their U.S. glucose level of 126 mg/dl. What are normal glucose numbers? They vary throughout the day. (Click here for a blood sugar chart.) For someone without diabetes, a fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meal normal sugars are 70–99 mg/dl. “Postprandial” sugars taken two hours after meals should be less than 140 mg/dl. Those are the normal numbers for someone w Continue reading >>

What Does Your A1c Number Really Mean?

What Does Your A1c Number Really Mean?

We dFolk are bombarded with numbers, goals, and targets. We’re frequently told where we should be, but not how high our risk is when we can’t reach our targets. Here, we break down A1C numbers into a simple green-light, yellow-light, red-light format, to give you perspective on when (and how much) to worry, when to relax, when to call your doc, and when to call 911. Green-light A1C score For most people, the target for A1C, the green light, is between 6.0% and 6.9%. These numbers are commonly expressed simply as 6.0 and 6.9, without the % sign. If your A1C falls into this zone, you’re considered to be in control. For perspective, these numbers can be converted into “meter” numbers called estimated average glucose—eAG for short. The green light eAG range is 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/l) to 151 mg/dL (8.39 mmol/l). But what if your numbers are higher than target? Or lower than target? When are you actually in danger? Yellow-light A1C score If the light turns yellow as you approach the intersection, you need to either speed up or stop. Whichever is safe under the circumstances, right? If your A1C is between 7.0 and 8.9, you’ll be classified as “out of control.” But how much danger are you in? Frankly, it depends upon how close you are to either end of the spectrum. Yellow-light A1Cs are higher than is strictly healthy, but pose no immediate harm. However, the higher you are in this range, the closer you are to a red light. We’ll talk about just how serious that can be in a minute. I should point out that there are some special cases. If you’re a very young type 1, a yellow-light A1C score may be considered in-target for you until you get older. Similarly, if you’re an elderly type 2, or have a history of severe hypoglycemia, you doctor may choose to “green Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

Diabetes By The Numbers

Diabetes By The Numbers

Diabetes kills more Americans each year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. In the next 24 hours, over 130 people will develop kidney failure because of diabetes. Thats nearly 50,000 friends, neighbors, co-workers or family members every year. Recent estimates project that as many as 1 in 3 American adults will have diabetes by 2050 unless we take steps to Stop Diabetes. Every 19 seconds, someone is diagnosed with diabetes. Thats more than 32,000 friends, neighbors, co-workers and family members in the next 7 days. 1 in 4 adults who has it doesnt know it. 1 in 3 adults is at risk of developing it. In the next 24 hours, over 130 people will develop kidney failure because of diabetes. That's nearly 50,000 friends, neighbors, co-workers or family members every year. In the next 24 hours, 4,660 new cases of diabetes will be diagnosed. Thats more than 3 friends, neighbors, co-workers or family members every minute of every day. Stop Diabetes is the Association's movement to end the devastating toll that diabetes takes on the lives of millions of individuals and families across our nation. Join the Millions in the Movement. Together we can Stop Diabetes. Continue reading >>

8 Numbers You Need To Know For Diabetes

8 Numbers You Need To Know For Diabetes

How to Manage Diabetes With Numbers Diabetes self-management is a numbers game. But it's not just about your blood sugar. There are at least eight different numbers you should be familiar with to lower your risk for complications from diabetes symptoms. "Diabetes self-management is absolutely essential," says Enrico Cagliero, MD, an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and an associate physician at the Massachusetts General Hospital Diabetes Center. "Although managing these numbers may not improve diabetes symptoms, it can help decrease the risk of serious complications such as blindness or kidney failure down the road." Continue reading >>

Understanding Borderline Diabetes: Signs, Symptoms, And More

Understanding Borderline Diabetes: Signs, Symptoms, And More

Borderline diabetes, also called prediabetes, is a condition that develops before someone gets type 2 diabetes. It’s also known as impaired fasting glucose or glucose intolerance. It basically means your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but they’re not quite high enough to be considered diabetes. During the prediabetes phase, your pancreas usually still produces enough insulin in response to ingested carbohydrates. The insulin is less effective at removing the sugar from the bloodstream, though, so your blood sugar remains high. This condition is called insulin resistance. If you have prediabetes, you should know you’re not alone. In 2015, it was estimated that 84.1 million people age 18 and older had the condition. That’s 1 in 3 Americans. Having prediabetes doesn’t mean you’ll definitely develop diabetes. It is a warning of what could lie ahead, however. People with prediabetes have a 5 to 15-fold higher risk for type 2 diabetes than someone with normal blood sugar levels. Those chances increase if you don’t make any healthy changes to your diet or activity habits. “Prediabetes is not pre-problem,” says Jill Weisenberger, MS, RD, CDE, and author of “Diabetes Weight Loss Week by Week.” Someone with insulin resistance in its early stages can develop type 2 diabetes if it continues long enough. Only 10 percent of people with prediabetes even know they have it because they don’t display any symptoms. “Often, people consider these symptoms part of their normal day, so they’re ignored,” says Toby Smithson, RDN, CDE, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and co-author of “Diabetes Meal Planning and Nutrition for Dummies.” Any of these risk factors can increase your chances of developing prediabetes: being inacti Continue reading >>

Know Your Diabetes Health Numbers

Know Your Diabetes Health Numbers

Tweet Monitoring your weight and knowing how much you should weigh is just one of many diabetes health numbers you need to know. In order to maintain good health, every diabetic should know a number of different figures relating to their bodies. These include height, weight, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Type 2 diabetes is associated with being overweight and obese, and maintaining a healthy weight allows easier control of diabetes. The following health numbers also affect your cardiovascular health. Print out, fill in and cut out the following table: Essential numbers for diabetic health HbA1c (%) Ave. Blood Glucose (mmol/L) Age ___ years Height ___ metres/ft Weight ___ kg/stone Waist ___ inches/cm Blood pressure ___ mm/Hg Blood glucose ___ mmol/L Blood cholesterol ___ mmol/L Are there other essential numbers I need to remember for diabetic health? Yes, but the numbers above can help in a variety of diagnostics. They could indicate to you a danger of heart attack or stroke. Read about Diabetes Health Guidelines Once your medical history, gender and health history are understood, a clearer diagnosis can be reached. I can’t fill in the form above. Why do I need to do it? Most people will be able to determine their age, height and weight, but this does not make these numbers any less important. These figures are essential to calculate your body mass index. Why do I need to know my waist circumference? Your waist shows how much abdominal fat you have, and increased girth can signify an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Weight gain can also be a sign of ‘insulin resistance.’ You should measure around your relaxed stomach at belly button level. Men who have a waist circumference of 94-102cm face a 1.5-2 times greater risk of suffering from Continue reading >>

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

People with diabetes used to depend only on urine tests or daily finger sticks to measure their blood sugars. These tests are accurate, but only in the moment. As an overall measurement of blood sugar control, they’re very limited. This is because blood sugar can vary wildly depending on the time of day, activity levels, and even hormone changes. Some people may have high blood sugars at 3 a.m. and be totally unaware of it. Once A1C tests became available in the 1980s, they became an important tool in controlling diabetes. A1C tests measure average blood glucose over the past two to three months. So even if you have a high fasting blood sugar, your overall blood sugars may be normal, or vice versa. A normal fasting blood sugar may not eliminate the possibility of type 2 diabetes. This is why A1C tests are now being used for diagnosis and screening of prediabetes. Because it doesn’t require fasting, the test can be given as part of an overall blood screening. The A1C test is also known as the hemoglobin A1C test or HbA1C test. Other alternate names include the glycosylated hemoglobin test, glycohemoglobin test, and glycated hemoglobin test. A1C measures the amount of hemoglobin in the blood that has glucose attached to it. Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body. Hemoglobin cells are constantly dying and regenerating, but they have a lifespan of approximately three months. Glucose attaches, or glycates, to hemoglobin, so the record of how much glucose is attached to your hemoglobin also lasts for about three months. If there’s too much glucose attached to the hemoglobin cells, you’ll have a high A1C. If the amount of glucose is normal, your A1C will be normal. The test is effective because of the lifespan of the hemogl Continue reading >>

What Your Blood Glucose Numbers Mean

What Your Blood Glucose Numbers Mean

In order to get a complete picture of your blood glucose throughout the day, it is useful to test at different times. Your doctor will help you set your blood glucose targets. Here is what the numbers can mean. These examples are based upon the American Diabetes Association guidelines. Fasting blood glucose before breakfast. This reading on an empty stomach shows how well you use the long-acting insulin that you take. The number should be between 4 and 7 mmol/L. Pre-meal blood glucose before lunch and dinner. This reading shows the effectiveness of your breakfast and lunch insulin doses. The number should be between 4 and 7. Two hours after eating. Your blood glucose peaks a few hours after you eat. This reading shows if the insulin you took was enough to cover the carbs you ate. The reading should be less than 10 mmol/L. Just before bedtime. A target range for someone with diabetes is 6 to 8 mmol/L. You don't want to go to bed with blood glucose that is too low, because that puts you at risk of having a severe low blood sugar episode during the night. Blood Glucose Level Ask Your Doctor If your blood glucose before breakfast is lower than 4 mmol/L, that may be too low. Ask your doctor if you should eat a small snack before you go to bed or reduce your bedtime dose of long-acting insulin. You might want to do a 3:00 am blood glucose check. If the reading before breakfast is over 7 mmol/L, and several 3:00 am readings are in your target range, you may be experiencing "Dawn Phenomenon". This happens when levels of growth hormone begin to rise in the early morning hours, stimulating the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream. Ask your doctor if your supper or bedtime NPH insulin dose needs to be increased, or if you would do better using a different type of insulin. Continue reading >>

What Numbers Are Correct | Diabetic Connect

What Numbers Are Correct | Diabetic Connect

I am new to diabetes, and I am confused about the glucose level numbers. I have noticed that my glucose in the AM fastings is in the 150's is this correct? or is there a scale I have to follow the doc I saw at my last appt. didn't explain anything to me and it's a little overwhelming not knowing if I am controlling my glucose or not. I need HELP!!!! Graylin Bee below has the numbers right. A1C below 7 (I would emphasize not lower than 6you end up with too many lows trying to hit that number). Blood Glucose between 80 and 180 is what I aim for (and this usually results in an A1C of mid 6's (6.7 last test). I would call that perfect controlhowever you accomplish it. For me, the best way to accomplish this is with a reltively low carb diet. The more carbs you eat, the more Humalog/Novalog you have to take to achieve those numbers. The more Humalog/Novalog/instant insulin you have to take, the higher the probability of guessing wrong and ending up super lowor as they say on Twitter IMHO. (I'd like to know the abbreviations Congressman Wiener originated:>) JOSLIN:A1C..<7.0Fasting90-130PP*<160 NON-D:A1C..4.0-6.0Fasting70-100PP**.70-140**Non-diabetic *ADA: "Post-prandial glucose measurements should be made 12 hours after the beginning of the meal, generally peak levels in patients with diabetes." ADA = American Diabetes Assn. Joslin = Joslin Diabetes Center AACE= American Association Of Clinical Endocrinologists Non-diabetic= ranges compiled from goals VERY HELPFUL TO ME I have been trying to get this chart but had been unsuccesful THANK YOU for the CHART!!! It may be worth it to you to do a search on the topic terms, A1c numbers, How low is low, blood sugar readings, and so on. We seems to have many discussing that topic of late, and there are lots of good information and ar Continue reading >>

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers: Use Them To Manage Your Diabetes

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers: Use Them To Manage Your Diabetes

Checking your blood sugar, also called blood glucose, is an important part of diabetes care. This tip sheet tells you: why it helps you to know your blood sugar numbers how to check your blood sugar levels what are target blood sugar levels what to do if your levels are too low or too high how to pay for these tests Why do I need to know my blood sugar numbers? Your blood sugar numbers show how well your diabetes is managed. And managing your diabetes means that you have less chance of having serious health problems, such as kidney disease and vision loss. As you check your blood sugar, you can see what makes your numbers go up and down. For example, you may see that when you are stressed or eat certain foods, your numbers go up. And, you may see that when you take your medicine and are active, your numbers go down. This information lets you know what is working for you and what needs to change. How is blood sugar measured? There are two ways to measure blood sugar. Blood sugar checks that you do yourself. These tell you what your blood sugar level is at the time you test. The A1C (A-one-C) is a test done in a lab or at your provider’s office. This test tells you your average blood sugar level over the past 2 to 3 months. How do I check my blood sugar? You use a blood glucose meter to check your blood sugar. This device uses a small drop of blood from your finger to measure your blood sugar level. You can get the meter and supplies in a drug store or by mail. Read the directions that come with your meter to learn how to check your blood sugar. Your health care team also can show you how to use your meter. Write the date, time, and result of the test in your blood sugar record. Take your blood sugar record and meter to each visit and talk about your results with your h Continue reading >>

What Type 2s Can Do When Blood Sugar Soars

What Type 2s Can Do When Blood Sugar Soars

The emergency condition most type 2s dread is hypoglycemia, where plummeting blood sugar levels can bring on a dangerous semi-conscious state, and even coma or death. However, hyperglycemia, high-blood sugar levels consistently above 240 mg/dL, can be just as dangerous. Left untreated, at its most extreme high-blood sugar, can induce ketoacidosis, the build-up of toxic-acid ketones in the blood and urine. It can also bring on nausea, weakness, fruity-smelling breath, shortness of breath, and, as with hypoglycemia, coma. However, once they’ve been diagnosed with diabetes, most type 2s have taken steps to prevent or lessen the most dangerous effects of high-blood sugar levels. Their concern shifts to dealing with unexpected, sometimes alarming spikes in blood sugar levels. The symptoms of those spikes are the classic ones we associate with the onset of diabetes—unquenchable thirst, excessive urination, fatigue, weight loss, and headaches. When you do spike, what can you do right away to bring blood sugar levels down? Immediate Steps You Can Take: 1. Insulin—If you are on an insulin regimen; a bolus injection should drive numbers down fairly rapidly. 2. If you are not on insulin or don’t use fast-acting insulin, taking a brisk walk or bike ride works for most people to start bringing their numbers down. 3. Stay hydrated. Hyperglycemic bodies want to shed excess sugar, leading to frequent urination and dehydration. You need to drink water steadily until your numbers drop. 4. Curb your carb intake. It does not matter how complex the carbs in your diet are, your body still converts them to glucose at some point. Slacking off on carb consumption is a trackable maneuver that lets you better understand how to control your numbers. Preventative Steps: These are extensions Continue reading >>

Which Diabetes Numbers To Watch

Which Diabetes Numbers To Watch

Know your numbers and know where you stand With diabetes, you’re asked to know a lot of numbers. Knowing your numbers will help you and your doctor see where you are with your blood sugar. A1c What Measures average blood sugar levels over the past 2-3 months When Usually done every 3-6 months Why Tracks how your diabetes is being controlled over time Goal <7% (for most non-pregnant adults); ask your doctor what your individual A1c goal should be FPG Fasting Plasma Glucose What Measures amount of sugar in the blood after an overnight fast When Usually in the morning before breakfast after not eating for at least 8 hours Why Lets you find out if you’re on target for your blood sugar goals Goal 80-130mg/dL for most adults; ask your doctor what your individual blood sugar level goal should be PPG Postprandial Blood Glucose What Measures blood sugar levels after eating When Test should be done 1-2 hours after beginning of the meal Why Important because adding a medication that reduces PPG may help lower your A1C Goal The ADA suggests a target goal of <180 mg/dL Be sure to check with your healthcare provider, because your target goals may be different from the guidelines above. Why Keep Testing These numbers are important because they let your healthcare team and you know how you’re doing, and what impact food, exercise, and your medications have on your blood sugar. Learn how to handle highs and lows. Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Readings: What They Mean

Blood Glucose Readings: What They Mean

Source: Web exclusive: June 2011 When you have diabetes, perhaps the most important thing you need to know is the level of your blood glucose, also known as your blood sugar. Since many factors can raise or lower your blood glucose, you may have to check it several times a day. But once you obtain a blood glucose reading, what exactly does it mean? Crunch those numbers When you test a drop of your blood with a glucose meter, the big number that pops onto the screen refers to the number of millimoles (mmol) of glucose per litre (L) of your blood. A millimole (mmol) is one-thousandth of a mole, which is a standard unit for measuring the mass of molecules. And if that’s not already confusing enough, the United States uses a completely different system than Canadians for measuring blood glucose. South of the border, blood glucose is measured in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dL). This can sometimes be rather bewildering, especially if you’re brand new to diabetes and researching your disease on the Internet. “I tell people to go to a Canadian site first,” says Tabitha Palmer, a certified diabetes educator at the Centre for Clinical Research in Halifax. Know your targets So what numbers should you be looking for? Your target reading before meals should be between 4 and 7. Your blood sugar normally spikes two hours after a meal, so between 5 and 10 is a good range after you eat. Besides food, other factors that can cause your blood sugar to go up or down include exercise, illness, medications and stress. Your blood glucose readings are hands-down the best way to monitor whether or not your diabetes is generally well managed. "They really help the physicians and educators if we’re trying to look at whether you need to have your medication, insulin or mealtime adjusted, Continue reading >>

Analyzing Your Numbers: When Is It Diabetes?

Analyzing Your Numbers: When Is It Diabetes?

Know the Numbers According to the American Diabetes Association's Standards of Medical Care, these numbers should be used to diagnose pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The ADA suggests everyone over age 45 be checked every three years -- especially if your body mass index (BMI) is over 25. People with a family history of diabetes should be tested at a younger age and more frequently. Normal Fasting glucose level: Less than 100 mg/dl Two hours after eating: Less than 140 mg/dl Pre-Diabetes Fasting glucose level: Equal to or greater than 100 mg/dl and less than 126 mg/dl Two hours after eating: Equal to or greater than 140 mg/dl and less than 200 mg/dl Type 2 Diabetes Fasting glucose level: Equal to or greater than 126 mg/dl. A second test is required for confirmation. Two hours after eating: Equal to or greater than 200 mg/dl. A second test is required for confirmation. Aim for these Targets Maintaining recommended targets for the following risk factors may help you avoid heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Aim for the targets below, as recommended by the ADA in its CheckUp America program at checkupamerica.org. Weight: Body mass index between 19 and 25 Waist circumference: Less than 35 inches for women and 40 inches for men LDL (bad) cholesterol: Less than 100 mg/dl HDL (good) cholesterol: Greater than 60 mg/dl Total cholesterol: Less than 200 mg/dl Triglycerides: Less than 150 mg/dl Blood pressure: Less than 120/80 mmHg Blood glucose: Less than 100 mg/dl Smoking cigarettes: No safe level Physical activity: At least 30 minutes of moderate activity most days Determining Your BMI Body mass index (BMI) is a ratio of weight to height that's used to measure body fat. Use this formula to calculate your BMI or go to nhlbisupport.com/bmi/bmicalc.htm for a quick calculation. Then Continue reading >>

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