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What Are The Genetic And Nongenetic Causes Of Diabetes Insipidus?

Central Diabetes Insipidus

Central Diabetes Insipidus

Not to be confused with Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Central diabetes insipidus, also called neurogenic diabetes insipidus, is a type of diabetes insipidus due to a lack of vasopressin (ADH) production in the brain. Vasopressin acts to increase the volume of blood (intravascularly), and decrease the volume of urine produced. Therefore, a lack of it causes increased urine production and volume depletion. It is also known as neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus,[1][2] referring to the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis), which is supplied by the hypothalamus in the brain. This condition has only polyuria in common with diabetes and although not mutually exclusive, with most typical cases, the name diabetes insipidus is a misleading misnomer.[3] A better name might be "hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal ADH deficiency". Causes[edit] Unknown[edit] In at least 25% of cases (the most commonly occurring classification), neurogenic diabetes insipidus is of unknown cause, meaning that the lack of vasopressin production arose from an unknown cause.[4] It is also due to damage of the hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, posterior pituitary, and can arise from head trauma. Acquired[edit] The lack of vasopressin production usually results from some sort of damage to the pituitary gland. It may be caused due to damage to the brain caused by: Benign suprasellar tumors (20% of cases)[4] Infections (encephalitis, tuberculosis etc.) Trauma (17% of cases)[4] or neurosurgery (9% of cases)[4] Non-infectious granuloma (sarcoidosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis etc.) Leukaemia Autoimmune - associated with thyroiditis Other rare causes which include hemochromatosis and histiocytosis. Vasopressin is released by the posterior pituitary, but unlike most other pituitary hormones, vasopressin is produced Continue reading >>

Causes

Causes

Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a chemical called vasopressin (AVP), which is also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH) . AVP is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland until needed. The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that controls mood and appetite. The pituitary gland is located below your brain, behind the bridge of your nose. AVP regulates the level of water in your body by controlling the amount of urine your kidneys produce. When the level of water in your body decreases, your pituitary gland releases AVP to conserve water and stop the production of urine. In diabetes insipidus, AVP fails to properly regulate your body's level of water, and allows too much urine to be produced and passed from your body. There are two main types of diabetes insipidus: cranial diabetes insipidus – where the body doesn't produce enough AVP, so excessive amounts of water are lost in large amounts of urine nephrogenic diabetes insipidus – where AVP is produced at the right levels but, for a variety of reasons, the kidneys don't respond to it in the normal way. Possible underlying causes for both types of diabetes insipidus are described below. Cranial diabetes insipidus The three most common causes of cranial diabetes insipidus are: a brain tumour that damages the hypothalamus or pituitary gland a severe head injury that damages the hypothalamus or pituitary gland complications that occur during brain or pituitary surgery No cause can be found for about a third of all cases of cranial diabetes insipidus. These cases, known as idiopathic, appear to be related to the immune system attacking the normal, healthy cells producing AVP. It's unclear what causes the immune system to do this. Less common causes of cranial diabetic insipidus include: Continue reading >>

What Are The Early Symptoms Of Diabetes Insipidus?

What Are The Early Symptoms Of Diabetes Insipidus?

The kidney filters about 180 liters of fluid from the blood into the glomerular filtrate and then reabsorbs 178.5 liters back into the blood; excreting 1.5 liters or 1500 mL of urine per day. AntiDiuretic Hormone (ADH), made in the pituitary, is responsible for the reabsorption. Without ADH, the body is unable to concentrate the urine and the person will have up to 20 gallons of pale urine; this causes thirst. The blood becomes concentrated and the urine is dilute. The word “diabetes” is Greek for “hollow tube” because the body becomes like a hollow tube- constantly drinking water and urinating. Those are the major symptoms, accompanied by dehydration and hypotension. The word “insipidus” means “lacking character” because the urine has no color or odor. This has nothing to do with sugar. The word “mellitus” is Greek for “sugar” and diabetes mellitus (DM) aka “sugar diabetes” is a different disease. In DM, the high sugar in the blood (from lack of insulin) pulls water from the tissues (by osmosis) and the kidneys excrete water along with the sugar aka osmotic diuresis. The symptoms are also increased urination and thirst , but the cause is different. Urine … lots of pale colored urine. Thirst, lots of thirst. Weight loss with no decrease in food eaten. If you think you have it, do a urine test for glucose. Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference In The Specific Gravity Of Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetes Insipidus?

What Is The Difference In The Specific Gravity Of Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetes Insipidus?

Urine specific gravity (SG) is typically normal in diabetes mellitus (sweet urine). By definition urine is dilute or low SG in diabetes insipidus (tasteless or insipid urine); the kidneys are unable to produce concentrated urine. Continue reading >>

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

NORD gratefully acknowledges Jeff M. Sands, MD, Juha P. Kokko Professor of Medicine and Physiology, Renal Division Director, Executive Vice-Chair of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, for assistance in the preparation of this report. Synonyms of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus NDI vasopressin-resistant diabetes insipidus General Discussion Summary Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare kidney disorder that may be inherited or acquired. NDI is not related to the more common diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes), in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. NDI is a distinct disorder caused by complete or partial resistance of the kidneys to arginine vasopressin (AVP). Vasopressin is an antidiuretic hormone used by the kidney to manage water balance in the body. NDI causes chronic excessive thirst (polydipsia), excessive urine production (polyuria), and potentially dehydration. If left untreated, repeated episodes of severe dehydration may develop, eventually resulting in serious complications. Most cases of hereditary NDI are inherited as X-linked recessive disorders. Rare cases are inherited as an autosomal recessive or dominant disorder. Two different genes have been identified that cause hereditary NDI. NDI may also be acquired during life as a result of drug use (e.g., lithium therapy), kidney disease, obstruction of the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder (ureters), and prolonged metabolic imbalances such as low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) or high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia). NDI may also be a temporary complication associated with pregnancy. Introduction Th Continue reading >>

Ac Duo Ds Suspension Tips

Ac Duo Ds Suspension Tips

Arthritis is an inflammatory joint disorder of autoimmune starting point. In arthritis, the joints get to be painful, inflamed, swollen and warm with checked stiffness. Chiefly the little joints of wrist, fingers, ankles and toes are included. Over the long haul, other huge joints may likewise get influenced. Homeopathy is a standout amongst the most prevalent all encompassing system of medicine. The determination of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms comparability by utilizing comprehensive approach. To the extent therapeutic medication is concerned, a few very much demonstrated medicines are accessible for homeopathic treatment of arthritis that can be chosen on the premise of cause, sensation, location, modalities and augmentation of the protests. For individualized remedy determination and treatment, the patient ought to counsel a qualified homeopathic doctor face to face. Causes of arthritis Injury: It can harm to ligament, bone, and cartilage that eventually prompts to extreme pain. Obesity and propelled age: Both are extremely regular cause of arthritis. Infection: Any sort of infection to the joint may come about arthritis. Sprain: Due to sudden unnatural developments causes pain and additionally limitation of development of the joint. Overuse: Overuse of knee joint can cause bursitis which eventually prompts to extraordinary pain. Dislocation: Also causes serious arthritis. Different causes: Include Sickle cell disease, Sarcoidosis, Kawasaki disease, Lupus, bone tumors, Crohn's disease, bleeding disorders and so forth. Will Homeopathy treat joint inflammation? Homeopathic method of treatment is extremely powerful in treating rheumatoid arthritis. Homeopathic medicines treat rheumatoid arthritis by directing the overactive immune s Continue reading >>

Mne: Diabetes Insipidus

Mne: Diabetes Insipidus

Sort Hyperosmolar Symptoms (of Diabetes Insipidus) Dry Mouth Thirst Decreased Sweating Lethargy Disorientation Obtundation (less than full alertness) Coma Venous Thrombosis Death Continue reading >>

Pediatric Diabetes Insipidus

Pediatric Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is part of a group of hereditary or acquired polyuria and polydipsia diseases in which the kidneys pass large amounts of water irrespective of the body's hydration state. DI is due either to (1) deficient secretion of ADH by the pituitary gland (central or neurogenic DI) or to (2) renal tubular unresponsiveness to vasopressin (nephrogenic DI). The hallmarks of central DI (CDI) are polyuria (urine volume in excess of 150 ml/kg/24 hr at birth, 100-110 ml/kg/24 hr until the age of 2 years, and 40-50 ml/kg/24 hr in older children and adults), dilute urine (osmolality <300 mOsm/L), and polydipsia (water intake of up to 20 L/day). [1] Nephrogenic DI (NDI) is characterized by polyuria with polydipsia, recurrent bouts of fever, constipation, and acute hypernatremic dehydration after birth that may cause neurologic sequelae. Acquired CDI can occur at any age and is usually secondary to a condition damaging the central nervous system. Typical injuries include head trauma, tumor, and neurosurgical procedures. CDI is considered idiopathic in 20-50% of cases. [2] Central DI with an autosomal dominant pattern inheritance is due to a mutation in the prepro-arginine vasopressin (prepro-AVP2) gene, mapped to locus 20p13. Central DI with diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and mental retardation (Wolfram syndrome) may be inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern (locus 4p16) or may be due to mitochondrial deletions. [1] In most cases, NDI is caused by mutations in the gene located on Xq28 coding for the V2 receptor of antidiuretic hormone (AVPR2). [3, 4, 5] In cases of autosomal recessive or dominant transmission, NDI is caused by mutations in the AQP2 gene (located on chromosome 12) that codes for aquaporin-2. Aquaporin-2 is involved in the transportation of wate Continue reading >>

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (ndi)

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (ndi)

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare disorder that occurs when the kidneys are unable to concentrate urine. In most people, the body balances the fluids you drink with the amount of urine you excrete, or expel, from your body. However, people with NDI produce excessive amounts of urine. This is a condition known as polyuria and it causes insatiable thirst, or polydipsia. NDI occurs when the balance between fluid intake and urine excretion is disrupted. NDI can cause dehydration, among other complications, so it’s important to talk to a doctor if you’re experiencing symptoms. NDI can be fatal if you don’t get treatment for it. The earlier you receive the diagnosis, the better your outlook will be. NDI is unrelated to diabetes mellitus, which is more commonly known as diabetes. The symptoms of NDI vary with age. Infants are severely affected, but the symptoms can resemble many other disorders. As children age, the symptoms become more recognizable. If a diagnosis isn’t made, the symptoms can become severe enough to be life-threatening. You should visit your doctor as soon as possible if you’re experiencing symptoms of NDI. Symptoms in infants The symptoms in infants can include: excessive wet diapers vomiting recurring fevers that have no known cause constipation Symptoms in young children The symptoms in young children can include: bedwetting difficulties in toilet training a failure to thrive mental confusion due to dehydration Symptoms in older children Older children and teenagers can display symptoms that include: high urine output disturbed sleep and fatigue from urinating at night low body weight due to preferring water to food a failure to thrive Symptoms in adults The most common symptoms experienced by adults include: excessive thirst excessi Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

During the day, your kidneys filter all your blood many times. Normally, most of the water is reabsorbed, and only a small amount of concentrated urine is excreted. DI occurs when the kidneys cannot concentrate the urine normally, and a large amount of dilute urine is excreted. The amount of water excreted in the urine is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is also called vasopressin. ADH is produced in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. It is then stored and released from the pituitary gland. This is a small gland just below the base of the brain. DI caused by a lack of ADH is called central diabetes insipidus. When DI is caused by a failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH, the condition is called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Nephrogenic means related to the kidney. Central DI can be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland as a result of: Head injury Infection Loss of blood supply to the pituitary gland Surgery Nephrogenic DI involves a defect in the kidneys. As a result, the kidneys do not respond to ADH. Like central DI, nephrogenic DI is very rare. Nephrogenic DI may be caused by: Certain drugs, such as lithium Genetic problems Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetes Insipidus?

What Is The Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetes Insipidus?

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that results from high blood sugar. When food is digested, glucose is absorbed and it enters the blood stream. Insulin is released by the pancreas which “pushes” the glucose from the blood into the cells for them to use it as a source of energy. In diabetes mellitus the cells start becoming resistant to the action of insulin. That is, insulin is no longer effectively recognized by the cells. Under these circumstances, insulin isn’t able to push glucose inside cells and glucose accumulates in the blood. Diabetes insipidus is not a form of diabetes, but is a rare condition where a person suffers from frequent urination and increased thirst. It’s called as diabetes insipidus because its symptoms are similar to that of diabetes. The condition is caused by inadequate output of vasopressin, the antidiuretic hormone or ADH, by the pituitary gland. It can also be caused by a lack of usual response by the kidney to ADH. Check out this excellent article that gives all the details on what diabetes insipidus is. Continue reading >>

Intracranial Calcification In Childhood: A Review Of Aetiologies And Recognizable Phenotypes

Intracranial Calcification In Childhood: A Review Of Aetiologies And Recognizable Phenotypes

Intracranial calcification (ICC) is a common finding on neuroimaging in paediatric neurology practice. In approximately half of all cases the calcification occurs in damaged, neoplastic, or malformed brain. For the large number of other disorders in which ICC occurs, no common pathogenetic mechanism can be suggested. Congenital infection, particularly with cytomegalovirus, accounts for a significant proportion of all cases. However, some genetic diseases, in particular Aicardi–Goutières syndrome, Band-like calcification, and RNASET2-related disease, may mimic congenital infection; therefore, a full consideration of the radiological and clinical features is necessary before concluding that congenital infection is the cause. In some disorders calcification is a universal finding, in others it is a frequent occurrence, and in some it is only an occasional finding. Characteristic patterns of calcification are seen in a number of conditions, and a systematic approach to the identification and description of radiological findings, taken together in the context of the clinical scenario, allows a diagnosis to be made in many cases. Nonetheless, there remain a number of presumed genetic disorders associated with ICC for which the underlying molecular cause has not yet been identified. Intracranial calcification (ICC) refers to calcification within the cranial cavity, and is generally taken to mean calcification within the parenchyma of the brain or its vasculature. The term physiological calcification is used to indicate calcification when seen as part of normal ageing. It is arguable whether physiological calcification occurs anywhere other than in the pineal gland or choroid plexus. Therefore, with the exception of calcification in these areas, which rarely manifests in the Continue reading >>

Hereditary Central Diabetes Insipidus

Hereditary Central Diabetes Insipidus

Summary Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown. Clinical description Symptoms usually develop between 1 and 6 years of age but onset in the neonatal period or in elderly patients has been described. They include polyuria, polydipsia and nocturia (often manifesting as enuresis in children). Additional symptoms seen in children can include: lethargy, irritability, growth retardation, weight loss, fever, vomiting or diarrhea. In the autosomal recessive form, symptoms are secondary to reduced biological activity of mutant AVP; heterozygous carriers have subclinical manifestations or are asymptomatic. Etiology The origin of the disease is genetic and is usually due to a mutation in the AVP gene located on chromosome 20p13 that encodes a precursor protein consisting of arginine vasopressin and two associated proteins, neurophysin 2 and copeptin. All except a few cases show an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Rarely, an autosomal recessive or X-linked pattern of inheritance is reported. Expert reviewer(s): Dr Stefano GHIRARDELLO - Last update: July 2012 Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Print Overview Diabetes insipidus (die-uh-BEE-teze in-SIP-uh-dus) is an uncommon disorder that causes an imbalance of water in the body. This imbalance leads to intense thirst even after drinking fluids (polydipsia), and excretion of large amounts of urine (polyuria). While the names diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus sound similar, they're not related. Diabetes mellitus — which can occur as type 1 or type 2 — is the more common form of diabetes. There's no cure for diabetes insipidus, but treatments are available to relieve your thirst and normalize your urine output. Symptoms The most common signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus are: Extreme thirst Excretion of an excessive amount of diluted urine Depending on the severity of the condition, urine output can be as much as 16 quarts (about 15 liters) a day if you're drinking a lot of fluids. Normally, a healthy adult will urinate an average of less than 3 quarts (about 3 liters) a day. Other signs may include needing to get up at night to urinate (nocturia) and bed-wetting. Infants and young children who have diabetes insipidus may have the following signs and symptoms: Unexplained fussiness or inconsolable crying Trouble sleeping Fever Vomiting Diarrhea Delayed growth Weight loss When to see a doctor See your doctor immediately if you notice the two most common signs of diabetes insipidus: excessive urination and extreme thirst. Causes Diabetes insipidus occurs when your body can't regulate how it handles fluids. Normally, your kidneys remove excess body fluids from your bloodstream. This fluid waste is temporarily stored in your bladder as urine, before you urinate. When your fluid regulation system is working properly, your kidneys conserve fluid and make less urine when your body water is decreased, suc Continue reading >>

Neurohypophyseal Diabetes Insipidus

Neurohypophyseal Diabetes Insipidus

Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is a disorder of water balance. The body normally balances fluid intake with the excretion of fluid in urine. However, people with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus produce too much urine (polyuria), which causes them to be excessively thirsty (polydipsia). Affected people need to urinate frequently, which can disrupt daily activities and sleep. People with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus can quickly become dehydrated if they do not drink enough water. Dehydration can lead to constipation and dry skin. If the disorder is not treated, more serious complications of dehydration can occur. These include confusion, low blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus can be either acquired or familial. The acquired form is brought on by injuries, tumors, and other factors, and can occur at any time during life. The familial form is caused by genetic mutations; its signs and symptoms usually become apparent in childhood and worsen over time. Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus should not be confused with diabetes mellitus, which is much more common. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high blood sugar levels resulting from a shortage of the hormone insulin or an insensitivity to this hormone. Although neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus have some features in common, they are separate disorders with different causes. Continue reading >>

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