diabetestalk.net

What Are The Complications Of Diabetes Insipidus?

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Print Overview Diabetes insipidus (die-uh-BEE-teze in-SIP-uh-dus) is an uncommon disorder that causes an imbalance of water in the body. This imbalance leads to intense thirst even after drinking fluids (polydipsia), and excretion of large amounts of urine (polyuria). While the names diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus sound similar, they're not related. Diabetes mellitus — which can occur as type 1 or type 2 — is the more common form of diabetes. There's no cure for diabetes insipidus, but treatments are available to relieve your thirst and normalize your urine output. Symptoms The most common signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus are: Extreme thirst Excretion of an excessive amount of diluted urine Depending on the severity of the condition, urine output can be as much as 16 quarts (about 15 liters) a day if you're drinking a lot of fluids. Normally, a healthy adult will urinate an average of less than 3 quarts (about 3 liters) a day. Other signs may include needing to get up at night to urinate (nocturia) and bed-wetting. Infants and young children who have diabetes insipidus may have the following signs and symptoms: Unexplained fussiness or inconsolable crying Trouble sleeping Fever Vomiting Diarrhea Delayed growth Weight loss When to see a doctor See your doctor immediately if you notice the two most common signs of diabetes insipidus: excessive urination and extreme thirst. Causes Diabetes insipidus occurs when your body can't regulate how it handles fluids. Normally, your kidneys remove excess body fluids from your bloodstream. This fluid waste is temporarily stored in your bladder as urine, before you urinate. When your fluid regulation system is working properly, your kidneys conserve fluid and make less urine when your body water is decreased, suc Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

During the day, your kidneys filter all your blood many times. Normally, most of the water is reabsorbed, and only a small amount of concentrated urine is excreted. DI occurs when the kidneys cannot concentrate the urine normally, and a large amount of dilute urine is excreted. The amount of water excreted in the urine is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is also called vasopressin. ADH is produced in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. It is then stored and released from the pituitary gland. This is a small gland just below the base of the brain. DI caused by a lack of ADH is called central diabetes insipidus. When DI is caused by a failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH, the condition is called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Nephrogenic means related to the kidney. Central DI can be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland as a result of: Head injury Infection Loss of blood supply to the pituitary gland Surgery Nephrogenic DI involves a defect in the kidneys. As a result, the kidneys do not respond to ADH. Like central DI, nephrogenic DI is very rare. Nephrogenic DI may be caused by: Certain drugs, such as lithium Genetic problems Continue reading >>

5 Common Diabetes Insipidus Complications

5 Common Diabetes Insipidus Complications

5 Common Diabetes Insipidus Complications Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition in which the affected person feels excessive thirst and passes large amounts of urine frequently. Even if the person drinks less amount of water, the urine formation remains unaffected. The patient passes pale and diluted urine as often as every 15 minutes, and this causes a lot of inconvenience as well as distress. The symptoms may appear to be that of diabetes mellitus, but these two conditions are totally unrelated. In most cases, diabetes insipidus is caused when the body does not produce, release, or store sufficient amount of a key hormone called arginine vasopressin (AVP). Also, if the kidneys are not able to properly respond to this key hormone, it can cause diabetes insipidus. In very rare cases, this condition may also develop in women during pregnancy. A person diagnosed with diabetes insipidus may suffer from many complications if this condition is left untreated. Given here are some of the main complications that may occur in people suffering from diabetes insipidus. One of the main complications of diabetes insipidus is severe dehydration. Your body is not able to retain water and frequent excretion of urine leads to dehydration. Even if you drink water regularly, it is not enough to prevent dehydration. This can cause symptoms like dry mouth, fever, headache, muscle weakness, weight loss, etc. It is best to take rehydration fluids in this condition. Severe dehydration needs to be treated in a hospital with intravenous fluids. People suffering from diabetes insipidus tend to lose a lot of fluids due to excessive urination. This can cause complications like electrolyte imbalance and cause lot of discomfort to the patient. The patient feels irritable and lethargic. Electrolyte Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the body loses too much fluid through urination, causing a significant risk of dangerous dehydration as well as a range of illnesses and conditions. There are two forms of the disease: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and central diabetes insipidus (also known as neurogenic diabetes insipidus). A number of factors have been linked to the development of diabetes insipidus, which may also occur in pregnancy or with the use of certain medications. Establishing the cause of the problem can help determine the most appropriate treatment to support the regulation of water balance in the body. Diabetes insipidus is a condition that can be managed successfully. Contents of this article: What is diabetes insipidus? An uncommon condition, diabetes insipidus is a disorder affecting the regulation of body fluid levels. Two key symptoms resemble those of the more common forms of diabetes that affect blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2).1-5 People with diabetes insipidus produce excessive amounts of urine (polyuria), resulting in frequent urination and, in turn, thirst (polydipsia). However, the underlying cause of these two symptoms is quite different from the causes in types 1 and 2 diabetes. In diabetes mellitus, elevated blood sugar prompts the production of large volumes of urine to help remove the excess sugar from the body. In diabetes insipidus, it is the body's water balance system itself that is not working properly. Here are some key points about diabetes insipidus. More detail and supporting information is in the body of this article. Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the body fails to properly control water balance, resulting in excessive urination. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by low or absent secretion of t Continue reading >>

Complications Of Diabetes Insipidus

Complications Of Diabetes Insipidus

Having a doctor say that the diagnosis is diabetes insipidus (DI) can be a scary experience. When the word “diabetes” is heard, many people think of insulin shots, finger pokes for blood tests, and a life of avoiding sugary products that will spike their blood sugar. None of that exists with diabetes insipidus. This disease affects the kidneys and how fluids are reabsorbed or expelled from the body. Why is it called diabetes? Diabetes insipidus is in many ways the exact opposite of Type I or Type II diabetes. Instead of having too much sugar in the body and the kidneys trying to remove it by placing a bunch of sugar into the urine, DI causes the urine to be clear, like water. It is dull and lifeless. If one were to compare the two types of urine, Type I or Type II diabetes would create sugary urine, like overly sweetened iced tea. Diabetes insipidus creates urine that the average person would mistake for water. Although diabetes insipidus isn’t necessarily life-threatening or shorten a person’s expected lifespan, there are some concerns that should be noted and observed when this diagnosis is received. Here are the complications that may happen and how to properly respond to them. 1. Increased Thirst. Many people with diabetes insipidus find that they feel more thirsty than normal. This is caused by the increased need for the body to push fluids through the body. Because the kidneys aren’t concentrating urine on their own, the body responds by requesting more fluids to make that happen. To resolve this situation, a doctor may recommend the following options. Drink more fluids if the increased thirst is not bothersome or causing more frequent bathroom trips. Recommend Desmopressin treatments to encourage urine concentration. Add diuretics and NSAID medications Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Introduction Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder where the system used by the body to regulate its water levels becomes disrupted. This disruption leads to the main symptoms of diabetes insipidus: excessive and prolonged thirst needing to urinate frequently passing large amounts of urine – in the most severe cases a person can pass up to 20 litres a day Read more about the symptoms of diabetes insipidus. What causes diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a hormone called antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin. ADH plays a key role in regulating the amount of liquid in the body. ADH is made by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus and is stored just below the brain, in the pituitary gland, until needed. When the amount of water in the body becomes too low, ADH is released from the pituitary gland. This helps to retain water in the body by stopping the kidneys producing urine. In cases of diabetes insipidus, ADH does not stop the kidneys from producing urine and allows too much water to be passed from the body. Read more about the causes of diabetes insipidus. Types of diabetes insipidus There are two main types of diabetes insipidus: Cranial diabetes insipidus Cranial diabetes insipidus occurs when there is not enough ADH in the body to regulate the production of urine. This is the most common type of diabetes insipidus and can be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, for example after an infection, operation, brain tumour or head injury. However, in around one in three cases of cranial diabetes insipidus there is no obvious reason why the hypothalamus stops making enough ADH. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus occurs when there is enough ADH in the body, but the kidneys fai Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

What are the types of diabetes insipidus? Central Diabetes Insipidus The most common form of serious diabetes insipidus, central diabetes insipidus, results from damage to the pituitary gland, which disrupts the normal storage and release of ADH. Damage to the pituitary gland can be caused by different diseases as well as by head injuries, neurosurgery, or genetic disorders. To treat the ADH deficiency that results from any kind of damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary, a synthetic hormone called desmopressin can be taken by an injection, a nasal spray, or a pill. While taking desmopressin, a person should drink fluids only when thirsty and not at other times. The drug prevents water excretion, and water can build up now that the kidneys are making less urine and are less responsive to changes in body fluids. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus results when the kidneys are unable to respond to ADH. The kidneys' ability to respond to ADH can be impaired by drugs-like lithium, for example-and by chronic disorders including polycystic kidney disease, sickle cell disease, kidney failure, partial blockage of the ureters, and inherited genetic disorders. Sometimes the cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is never discovered. Desmopressin will not work for this form of diabetes insipidus. Instead, a person with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may be given hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or indomethacin. HCTZ is sometimes combined with another drug called amiloride. The combination of HCTZ and amiloride is sold under the brand name Moduretic. Again, with this combination of drugs, one should drink fluids only when thirsty and not at other times. Dipsogenic Diabetes insipidus Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect in or damage to the thirst Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

On this page: What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person's kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid—dilute and odorless. In most people, the kidneys pass about 1 to 2 quarts of urine a day. In people with diabetes insipidus, the kidneys can pass 3 to 20 quarts of urine a day. As a result, a person with diabetes insipidus may feel the need to drink large amounts of liquids. Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus—which includes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes—are unrelated, although both conditions cause frequent urination and constant thirst. Diabetes mellitus causes high blood glucose, or blood sugar, resulting from the body's inability to use blood glucose for energy. People with diabetes insipidus have normal blood glucose levels; however, their kidneys cannot balance fluid in the body. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the kidneys normally filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluid. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder. How is fluid regulated in the body? A person's body regulates fluid by balancing liquid intake and removing extra fluid. Thirst usually controls a person’s rate of liquid intake, while urination removes most fluid, although people also lose fluid through sweating, breathing, or diarrhea. The hormone vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone, con Continue reading >>

Everything You Should Know About Diabetes Insipidus

Everything You Should Know About Diabetes Insipidus

What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare condition that occurs when your kidneys are not able to conserve water. DI is not related to diabetes mellitus, which is often referred to simply as diabetes. That means you can have DI without having diabetes. In fact, the condition can occur in anyone. DI results in extreme thirst and frequent urination of dilute and odorless urine. There are several types of DI, and they can often be successfully treated. Keep reading to learn more about this condition. The main symptoms of DI are excessive thirst, which can cause an uncontrollable craving for water, and excessive urine volume. A healthy adult will typically urinate less than 3 quarts of urine a day. People with DI may eliminate up to 16 quarts of urine a day. You may need to get up during the night to urinate frequently, or you may experience bed-wetting. Possible symptoms in young children and infants include: fussiness and irritability unusually wet diapers or bed-wetting, or excessive urine output excessive thirst dehydration high fever dry skin delayed growth Adults can experience some of the above symptoms, plus confusion, dizziness, or sluggishness. DI can also lead to severe dehydration, which can lead to seizures, brain damage, and even death if not treated. You should contact your doctor immediately if you or your child is experiencing these symptoms. To understand diabetes insipidus, it helps to understand how your body normally uses and regulates fluids. Fluids make up as much as 60 percent of your overall body mass. Maintaining the proper amount of fluid in your body is key to your overall health. Consuming water and food throughout the day helps provide fluid to your body. Urinating, breathing, and sweating help to eliminate fluid from your b Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Symptoms The most common symptoms associated with diabetes insipidus (DI) are extreme thirst and excessive urination. Some patients may drink as much as a full glass of fluids every 10 to 20 minutes. As DI may start in the toddler age group, the excessive thirst and asking for fluids may be misinterpreted as “bad behavior” or habit and parents may be mistakenly told to withhold fluids to break the habit. It is important that these children are allowed open access to fluids until treatment is started. If unable to find fluids easily, some children have been known to drink directly from faucets, baths, pet dishes, swimming pools, and other unusual sources around the home. The extreme urination may continue throughout the day and the night, sometimes as often as every 15-20 minutes, and often includes bed-wetting. The urine is usually pale, without color. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus are very similar to those of diabetes mellitus, except that the urine does not contain high sugar levels. Diabetes insipidus can interfere with appetite and eating. In children, it can interfere with growth and weight gain. Signs of dehydration often appear, since the body is unable to keep enough of the water it takes in. Symptoms of dehydration include: Dry skin Dry mucous membranes (sticky mouth) /reduced tears Sunken appearance to eyes Sunken fontanelles (soft spot in the skull) in infants Fatigue/sleepiness Weight loss Headache Irritability Low body temperature Muscle pains Rapid heart rate Low blood pressure/shock Adults with untreated DI may be able to drink enough water to make up for the extreme loss of urine. However, there is a serious risk of dehydration and imbalances in the blood, such as salt and potassium. Most patients with diabetes insipidus have an abnormal appearance Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition where the body cannot retain enough water. It occurs in approximately 1 in 25,000 people, and can affect anyone of any age, although it is more common in adults. Brought to you by NHS Choices Introduction Diabetes insipidus is very different from diabetes mellitus, which is often just referred to as diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is far more common and occurs when there is too much glucose (sugar) in the blood. It is possible for someone with diabetes mellitus to also develop diabetes insipidus, although this is extremely rare. What is diabetes insipidus? The amount of water in the body is regulated by a hormone which is known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or vasopressin. ADH is made by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus, and is stored just below the brain, in the pituitary gland, until it is needed. When the amount of water in the body becomes too low, ADH is released from the pituitary gland. This helps to retain water in the body by stopping the kidneys from producing urine. However, in diabetes insipidus, ADH does not stop the kidneys from producing urine and allows too much water to be passed from the body. This results in symptoms such as needing to pass large quantities of urine often, and feeling extremely thirsty all the time. Types of diabetes insipidus There are two types of diabetes insipidus: cranial diabetes insipidus - which occurs when there is a shortage of ADH in your body, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus - which occurs when your kidneys do not respond properly to ADH. Cranial diabetes insipidus Cranial diabetes insipidus occurs when there is not enough ADH in the body to regulate the amount of urine that is produced. This type of diabetes insipidus is more common than nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Diabetes Insipidus article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition caused by hyposecretion of, or insensitivity to the effects of, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as arginine vasopressin (AVP). ADH is synthesised in the hypothalamus and transported as neurosecretory vesicles to the posterior pituitary. There it is released into the circulation, governed by plasma osmolality. Its deficiency or failure to act causes an inability to concentrate urine in the distal renal tubules, leading to the passage of copious volumes of dilute urine. Usually the person with this condition passes >3 litres/24 hours of low osmolality (<300 mOsmol/kg) urine. There are two major forms of DI: Cranial DI: decreased secretion of ADH. Decreased secretion of ADH reduces the ability to concentrate urine and so causes polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic DI: decreased ability to concentrate urine because of resistance to ADH in the kidney. There are two other forms of DI (both caused by deficiencies in ADH; however, the deficiencies do not result from a defect in the neurohypophysis or kidneys): Gestational DI: results from degradation of vasopressin by a placental vasopressinase. Gestational DI may be associated with increased complications of pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia.[1] Primary polydipsia (dipsogenic DI): caused by a primary defect in osmoregulation of thirst. Dipsogenic DI has been reported in tuberculous meningitis, multiple sclerosis and neurosarcoidosis. The combined prevalence of cranial DI and nephrogenic D Continue reading >>

Complications

Complications

The two main complications of diabetes insipidus are dehydration and an electrolyte imbalance. Complications are more likely if the condition goes undiagnosed or is poorly controlled. Dehydration If you have diabetes insipidus, your body will find it difficult to retain enough water, even if you drink fluid constantly. This can lead to dehydration (a severe lack of water in the body). If you or someone you know has diabetes insipidus, it's important to look out for the signs and symptoms of dehydration. These may include: dizziness or light-headedness sunken features (particularly the eyes) confusion and irritability Dehydration can be treated by rebalancing the level of water in your body. If you're severely dehydrated, you may need intravenous fluid replacement in hospital. This is where fluids are given directly through a drip into your vein. Read more about treating dehydration. Electrolyte imbalance Diabetes insipidus can also cause an electrolyte imbalance. Electrolytes are minerals in your blood that have a tiny electric charge, such as sodium, calcium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium and bicarbonate. If the body loses too much water, the concentration of these electrolytes can go up simply because the amount of water they're contained in has gone down. This dehydration disrupts other functions of the body, such as the way muscles work. It can also lead to: headache fatigue (feeling tired all the time) irritability muscle pain Next review due: 01/04/2019 Continue reading >>

Complications Of Diabetes Insipidus

Complications Of Diabetes Insipidus

Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Custom Courses are courses that you create from Study.com lessons. Use them just like other courses to track progress, access quizzes and exams, and share content. Organize and share selected lessons with your class. Make planning easier by creating your own custom course. Create a new course from any lesson page or your dashboard. Click "Add to" located below the video player and follow the prompts to name your course and save your lesson. Click on the "Custom Courses" tab, then click "Create course". Next, go to any lesson page and begin adding lessons. Edit your Custom Course directly from your dashboard. Name your Custom Course and add an optional description or learning objective. Create chapters to group lesson within your course. Remove and reorder chapters and lessons at any time. Share your Custom Course or assign lessons and chapters. Share or assign lessons and chapters by clicking the "Teacher" tab on the lesson or chapter page you want to assign. Students' quiz scores and video views will be trackable in your "Teacher" tab. You can share your Custom Course by copying and pasting the course URL. Only Study.com members will be able to access the entire course. In this lesson you're going to learn a bit about a condition known as diabetes insipidus, the basics of why it occurs, and its most important and deadliest complications. How many times a day do you go #1? Well, that's a secret, so you don't actually have to say anything. But if you are anything like the average person, you probably go at least a few times a day. And over the course of a day you may pass between 1 and 2 quarts of urine. Now imagine a situation where you are urinating up to 20 t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is characterised by extreme thirst and the passing of large amounts of urine. It is caused by the lack of sufficient vasopressin, a hormone produced by the brain that instructs the kidneys to retain water. Treatment options include vasopressin replacement. On this page: Diabetes insipidus is characterised by extreme thirst and the passing of vast amounts of urine. It is caused by insufficient vasopressin, a hormone produced by the brain that instructs the kidneys to retain water. Without enough vasopressin, too much water is lost from the body in urine, which prompts the affected person to drink large amounts of fluids in an attempt to maintain their fluid levels. In severe cases, a person may pass up to 30 litres of urine per day. Without treatment, diabetes insipidus can cause dehydration and, eventually, coma due to concentration of salts in the blood, particularly sodium. The name of this condition is a little misleading, since diabetes insipidus has nothing to do with diabetes mellitus (a condition characterised by high blood sugar levels), apart from the symptoms of thirst and passing large volumes of urine. The word diabetes means 'to go through' - describing the excessive urination. Insipidus means the urine is tasteless, whereas mellitus suggests it is sweet from its sugar content. This terminology dates back to a time when physicians literally dipped a finger in the patient's urine and tested its taste. Not a diagnostic method much in use today! Symptoms The symptoms of diabetes insipidus include: Extreme thirst that can't be quenched (polydipsia) Excessive amounts of urine (polyuria) Colourless urine instead of pale yellow Waking frequently through the night to urinate Dry skin Constipation Weak muscles Bedwetting. Too much water is lost in Continue reading >>

More in diabetes