What Causes Diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus results mainly from a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of insulin that is normally produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. It is characterised by high blood sugar, altered sugar and glucose metabolism and this affects blood vessels and causes several organ damage. Causes of diabetes can be classified according to the types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes mellitus This results from the body's failure to produce sufficient insulin. Here the pancreatic beta cells are irreversibly damaged and so they cannot produce adequate insulin. This is believed to be due to an over active immune system that instead of fighting foreign microbes turns on the body’s own cells and begins to destroy the pancreatic cells. Since type 1 diabetes has been found in both identical twins in studies, four genes are thought to be important. One (6q) determines the sensitivity of the islet cells of pancreas to damage. This damage could be due to viruses or cross-reactivity from cow's milk-induced antibodies. In addition, associations with HLA DR3 and DR4 and islet cell antibodies around the time of diagnosis have been noted. Risks of developing type 1 diabetes are similar in all ethnic groups. This could be due to diet during childhood or due to genes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus Type 2 diabetes mellitus results from a resistance to the insulin. There may be a normal or increased level of insulin initially. The pancreatic beta cells try to secrete more insulin initially to meet the raised demands of the body. When it fails, type 2 diabetes develops. Risks for type 2 diabetes mellitus include excess body weight and physical inactivity. All racial groups are affected but increased prevalence in people of South Asian, African, African-Caribbean, Polynesian, Middle-Eastern and Ame Continue reading >>
Overview: Types of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease in which the blood sugar (glucose) is abnormally elevated. Normally, the body obtains glucose from food, and additional glucose is made in the liver. The pancreas produces insulin, which enables glucose to enter cells and serve as fuel for the body. In patients with diabetes, glucose accumulates in the blood instead of being properly transported into cells. Excess blood sugar is a serious problem that may damage the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and other organs. About 5-10% of patients with diabetes are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, causing the organ to no longer produce insulin. Type 1 DM most commonly occurs in children or young adults, and the incidence of new cases is increasing. Approximately 90-95% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occurs when the body becomes unable to use the insulin produced by the pancreas. This condition is also called insulin resistance. The prevalence of type 2 DM is increasing dramatically worldwide. In the past, type 2 DM was associated with adulthood; however, it is rapidly increasing in children because of the rise in childhood obesity. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurs during pregnancy. This form of diabetes usually resolves after delivery, but patients with GDM have an increased risk of developing type 2 DM later in life. Causes and Risk Factors Type 1 DM is an autoimmune disorder and the exact cause is unknown. Causes may include genetic factors, environmental factors, and viruses. For type 2 DM, the major risk factors include a family history of type 2 DM, increased age, obesity, and a sed Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Seizures: What Are They? What Are The Symptoms?
Having a seizure is a very serious thing. It is dangerous for the person experiencing it, and it is also scary for those nearby. Seizures can be caused for several reasons. Some people have epilepsy, which is a disorder where seizures happen often. For those without epilepsy, they are often called “provoked seizures” because they were provoked, or brought on, by something reversible. Individuals with diabetes can experience these “provoked seizures” when their blood sugar drops too low. The following article explains the difference in these, how to prevent them, and how to care for someone that is having a diabetic seizure. The difference between epilepsy and seizures Epilepsy is a seizure disorder that happens because there is an electrical storm in the brain. People have recurrent seizures that involve loss of consciousness, convulsions, abnormal behavior, disruption of senses, or all of the above. Some have an “aura” before having a seizure and know when it is going to happen. Most causes of epilepsy are unknown, however they can be triggered by flickering light, loud noises, or physical stimulation. Treatment for this condition includes medications and sometimes diet changes. A “provoked seizure” happens because something abnormal is happening in the body. This can include low sodium, fever, alcohol, drugs, trauma, or low blood sugar. The same thing happens as with epilepsy, and there is unusual activity in the brain causing abnormal movements and behaviors. Unlike epilepsy though, where a seizure can happen for no reason, there is an actual cause for each one that occurs for “provoked seizure”. It is important to understand the cause of these so that preventative measures can be taken. There is no relationship between epilepsy and diabetes. One Continue reading >>
Diabetes is a long-term condition in which the blood sugar level in the body is higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. It is usually (although not exclusively) seen in young people. Type 2 diabetes or non insulin-dependent diabetes. It tends to affect adults over 40 and overweight people, although it is now becoming commoner amongst younger people. Type 2 diabetes occurs more frequently in people of South Asian and African-Caribbean descent. There are also other types of diabetes. Women can develop diabetes during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes, as it is sometimes referred to, usually disappears after the birth of the baby. However, having gestational diabetes increases the risk of type 2 diabetes later in life. Existing type 1 diabetes may be exacerbated during pregnancy. This is when diabetes is caused as the result of another condition, eg inflammation of the pancreas, or by the use of certain medication such as diuretics or steroids (the most common cause). How common is diabetes? Currently over 3 million people in the UK have with diabetes, the majority of which is type 2. It is estimated that more than half a million people more in the UK have type 2 diabetes, but are unaware of it. The last 30 years has seen a threefold increase in the number of cases of childhood diabetes. This is especially worrying in respect of the rising numbers of children and teenagers with Type 2 diabetes, which was once only seen in older people. This trend is likely to reflect the rising obesity levels in young people over the same time period. There has also been an increase in the number of children with Type 1 diabetes, the cause of which is unclear. What causes diabetes? Glucose is sugar. Blood sugar level is the sam Continue reading >>
5 Health Conditions That Are Caused By Diabetes
Source: Web exclusive: May 2011 If you’ve got diabetes, that’s not the only disease you should be concerned about. Diabetes is linked to a host of other health problems. But it’s not all doom and gloom, since there are ways to reduce your risk. Number one is blood glucose control. "If you can control your diabetes, then your risk of developing those complications and secondary conditions goes down," says Karen McDermaid, a diabetes educator in Moosomin, Saskatchewan. These five conditions are the big ones to look out for if you’re prediabetic or have diabetes. 1. Heart disease and stroke Cardiovascular disease is the leading causing of death for people who have diabetes. That’s because high blood sugar can cause a gradual buildup of fatty deposits that clog and harden the walls of blood vessels. And when blood vessels are partially blocked or narrowed, it can lead to a stroke or heart attack. Not everyone faces the same risk. You’re more likely to have cardiovascular disease if you’ve been living with diabetes for more than 15 years. Same applies if you’ve already had diabetes complications affecting your eyes, kidneys or nerves, or if you’ve noticed problems with circulation, like chest pain when you’re physically active, or leg pain when you spend time walking. Cardiovascular risk factors for people without diabetes also apply to you: If you smoke, have high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels, or have close relatives who have had heart attacks or stroke, your odds are higher of developing the disease. Reduce your risk: If you smoke, quit. Increase your level of regular physical exercise. And stick to a well-balanced, heart-healthy diet. 2. Kidney disease Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney failure. At least half of all people with diabetes Continue reading >>
What Is Diabetes?
Diabetes can strike anyone, from any walk of life. And it does – in numbers that are dramatically increasing. In the last decade, the cases of people living with diabetes jumped almost 50 percent – to more than 30 million Americans. Worldwide, it afflicts more than 422 million people. And the World Health Organization estimates that by 2030, that number of people living with diabetes will more than double. Today, diabetes takes more lives than AIDS and breast cancer combined -- claiming the life of 1 American every 3 minutes. It is a leading cause of blindness, kidney failure, amputations, heart failure and stroke. Living with diabetes places an enormous emotional, physical and financial burden on the entire family. Annually, diabetes costs the American public more than $245 billion. Just what is diabetes? To answer that, you first need to understand the role of insulin in your body. When you eat, your body turns food into sugars, or glucose. At that point, your pancreas is supposed to release insulin. Insulin serves as a “key” to open your cells, to allow the glucose to enter -- and allow you to use the glucose for energy. But with diabetes, this system does not work. Several major things can go wrong – causing the onset of diabetes. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most common forms of the disease, but there are also other kinds, such as gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy, as well as other forms. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 2 diabetes? Do you want to learn more about a cure for diabetes? We're developing a DRI BioHub mini organ to restore natural insulin production in those living with diabetes. Watch the BioHub video>> Keep up with the latest updates on the DRI BioHub. Be a DRInsider today. It's free and easy to sign up. Join no Continue reading >>
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Why Does Obesity Cause Diabetes? You Asked Google – Here’s The Answer
‘Cause” is a strong word. It means that A results in B happening. Causality is also surprisingly difficult to prove. Most medical studies only show association between A and B, while causality often remains speculative and frustratingly elusive. Obesity and diabetes are no exception. There are many types of diabetes. All are unified by elevated levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes accounts for less than 10% of cases and results from autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas, which produce and release insulin. (In an autoimmune process, antibodies that normally target and fight infection instead target one’s own cells). Type 3c (secondary) diabetes can occur when there has been destruction of the pancreatic beta cells through some other process, such as excessive alcohol, inflammation or surgical resection. There are also many genetic forms of diabetes, each usually resulting from a single gene mutation that affects pancreatic function in some way. Finally, there is type 2 diabetes (T2D), which accounts for more than 90% of cases globally. Media reports of diabetes, particularly in the context of obesity, usually relate to T2D, the two terms often being used interchangeably. Only T2D appears to be associated with obesity. Epidemiological studies across the world have shown that the greater one’s body mass index (BMI), the greater the chance of developing T2D. However, this is not the same as saying that obesity causes T2D. The majority of people who are obese will never develop T2D – a fact that exposes the statement “obesity causes diabetes” as absurd. Rather than referring to obesity as a cause of diabetes, it is more accurate to frame the issue as one of association between obesity and T2D (which is incontrovertibly true). As we gain wei Continue reading >>
Diabetes (mellitus, Type 1 And Type 2) (cont.)
A A A Type 1 diabetes (T1D): The body stops producing insulin or produces too little insulin to regulate blood glucose level. Type 1 diabetes affects about 10% of all people with diabetes in the United States. Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed during childhood or adolescence. It used to be referred to as juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Insulin deficiency can occur at any age due to destruction of the pancreas by alcohol, disease, or removal by surgery. Type 1 diabetes also results from progressive failure of the pancreatic beta cells, the only cell type that produces significant amounts of insulin. People with type 1 diabetes require daily insulin treatment to sustain life. Type 2 diabetes (T2D): Although the pancreas still secretes insulin, the body of someone with type 2 diabetes is partially or completely incapable of responding to insulin. This is often referred to as insulin resistance. The pancreas tries to overcome this resistance by secreting more and more insulin. People with insulin resistance develop type 2 diabetes when they fail to secrete enough insulin to cope with their body's demands. At least 90% of adult individuals with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed during adulthood, usually after age 45 years. It was once called adult-onset diabetes mellitus, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These names are no longer used because type 2 diabetes does occur in young people, and some people with type 2 diabetes require insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes is usually controlled with diet, weight loss, exercise, and/or oral medications. However, more than half of all people with type 2 diabetes require insulin to control their blood sugar levels at some point during the course of their i Continue reading >>
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Causes Of Diabetes
Tweet Diabetes causes vary depending on your genetic makeup, family history, ethnicity, health and environmental factors. There is no common diabetes cause that fits every type of diabetes. The reason there is no defined diabetes cause is because the causes of diabetes vary depending on the individual and the type. For instance; the causes of type 1 diabetes vary considerably from the causes of gestational diabetes. Similarly, the causes of type 2 diabetes are distinct from the causes of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system destroying the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This causes diabetes by leaving the body without enough insulin to function normally. This is called an autoimmune reaction, or autoimmune cause, because the body is attacking itself. There is no specific diabetes causes, but the following triggers may be involved: Viral or bacterial infection Chemical toxins within food Unidentified component causing autoimmune reaction Underlying genetic disposition may also be a type 1 diabetes cause. Type 2 diabetes causes Type 2 diabetes causes are usually multifactorial - more than one diabetes cause is involved. Often, the most overwhelming factor is a family history of type 2 diabetes. This is the most likely type 2 diabetes cause. There are a variety of risk factors for type 2 diabetes, any or all of which increase the chances of developing the condition. These include: Living a sedentary lifestyle Increasing age Bad diet Other type 2 diabetes causes such as pregnancy or illness can be type 2 diabetes risk factors. Gestational diabetes causes The causes of diabetes in pregnancy also known as gestational diabetes remain unknown. However, there are a number of risk factors that increase the chances of deve Continue reading >>
"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown. Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise. Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels. Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>
What Causes Diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic condition in which there are abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. There are two forms of diabetes – type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is known as an autoimmune disease, and it occurs when the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Scientists still don’t know why the immune system sees those cells in the pancreas as foreign, but without insulin, sugar builds up in the blood and starves the cells of it. This can cause irreparable damage to the kidneys, heart, eyes and nerves when left untreated. Of the two forms of diabetes, type 2 is the most common. Usually known as “adult onset” diabetes, it occurs most often in people ages 35 and over. Unlike type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 can produce some of their own insulin. However, it’s often not enough, or the insulin that is produced still will not allow glucose to enter the cells. Type 2 diabetes often can occur among people who are overweight, obese, or live a sedentary lifestyle. Diabetes symptoms include issues like sudden weight gain, pain or numbing of the extremities, blurry vision, extreme thirst or increased tiredness. Common Causes of Diabetes Diabetes may result when the body insufficiently produces insulin; there’s an absence of insulin altogether; or the body has an inability to use insulin properly. The most common cause of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance, which is a condition when the liver, muscle and fat cells do not use insulin as they should. The pancreas tries to keep up by producing more insulin to help glucose enter cells, but over time it simply can’t produce enough. This results in rising blood glucose levels. However, some people may be predisposed to diabetes for the following Continue reading >>
Can Eating Too Much Sugar Cause Type 2 Diabetes?
Because type 2 diabetes is linked to high levels of sugar in the blood, it may seem logical to assume that eating too much sugar is the cause of the disease. But of course, it’s not that simple. “This has been around for years, this idea that eating too much sugar causes diabetes — but the truth is, type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease with many different types of causes,” says Lynn Grieger, RDN, CDE, a nutrition coach in Prescott, Arizona, and a medical reviewer for Everyday Health. “Type 2 diabetes is really complex.” That said, some research does suggest that eating too many sweetened foods can affect type 2 diabetes risk, and with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimating that 30.3 million Americans have the disease — and that millions of more individuals are projected to develop it, too — understanding all the risk factors for the disease, including sugar consumption, is essential to help reverse the diabetes epidemic. The Sugar and Type 2 Diabetes Story: Not So Sweet After the suspicion that sugar was the cause of diabetes, the scientific community pointed its finger at carbohydrates. That makes sense, notes Grieger, explaining that simple and complex carbohydrates are both metabolized as sugar, leading blood sugar levels to fluctuate. Yet carbs are processed differently in the body based on their type: While simple carbs are digested and metabolized quickly, complex carbs take longer to go through this system, resulting in more stable blood sugar. “It comes down to their chemical forms: A simple carbohydrate has a simpler chemical makeup, so it doesn’t take as much for it to be digested, whereas the complex ones take a little longer,” Grieger explains. Sources of complex carbohydrates include whole-wheat bread an Continue reading >>
Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that prevents your body from properly using the energy from the food you eat. Diabetes occurs in one of the following situations: The pancreas (an organ behind your stomach) produces little insulin or no insulin at all. (Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone, produced by the beta cells of the pancreas, which helps the body use sugar for energy.) -Or- The pancreas makes insulin, but the insulin made does not work as it should. This condition is called insulin resistance. To better understand diabetes, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy (a process called metabolism). Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, the cells need food in a very simple form. When you eat or drink, much of your food is broken down into a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose provides the energy your body needs for daily activities. The blood vessels and blood are the highways that transport sugar from where it is either taken in (the stomach) or manufactured (in the liver) to the cells where it is used (muscles) or where it is stored (fat). Sugar cannot go into the cells by itself. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, which serves as the helper, or the "key," that lets sugar into the cells for use as energy. When sugar leaves the bloodstream and enters the cells, the blood sugar level is lowered. Without insulin, or the "key," sugar cannot get into the body's cells for use as energy. This causes sugar to rise. Too much sugar in the blood is called "hyperglycemia" (high blood sugar) or diabetes. What are the types of diabetes? There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2: Type 1 diabetes occurs because the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells) are damaged. In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas Continue reading >>
What Causes Diabetes?
Little Known Factors That Lead To Diabetes What are some of the lifestyle, genetics and other not-so-obvious factors that can trigger diabetes? What can you do to prevent this condition? Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. It affects over 29.1 million people in the U.S. – 9.3 percent of the population in the U.S. Another 86 million Americans have prediabetes and aren’t even aware of it. The cause of diabetes is the absence or insufficient production of the hormone insulin, which lowers blood sugar in the body. Two types of diabetes There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2, which are also known as insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is less common: it affects only 1 in 250 Americans and only occurs in individuals younger than age 20. It has no known cure. A majority of type 2 diabetes cases can be prevented or cured. Signs and symptoms Among the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are: Increased urine Excessive thirst Weight loss Hunger Fatigue Skin problems Slow-healing wounds Yeast infections Tingling or numbness in feet or toes Various factors Research has proven that there are certain lifestyle and genetic factors that lead to diabetes. Among them are: Leading a non-active lifestyle A family history of diabetes High blood pressure (hypertension) Low levels of the good cholesterol (HDL) Elevated levels of triglycerides (a type of fat) in the blood Increasing age Polycystic ovary syndrome Impaired glucose tolerance Insulin resistance Gestational diabetes during a pregnancy Some ethnic backgrounds (African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, Native Americans and Alaska natives) are at greater risk of diabetes. Get t Continue reading >>
Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a number of diseases that involve problems with the hormone insulin. While not everyone with type 2 diabetes is overweight, obesity and lack of physical activity are two of the most common causes of this form of diabetes. It is also responsible for about 90% to 95% of diabetes cases in the United States, according to the CDC. This article will give you a better understanding of the causes of type 2 diabetes, what happens in the body when type 2 diabetes occurs, and specific health problems that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Each section links to more in-depth information on that topic. In a healthy person, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help the body store and use the sugar from the food you eat. Diabetes happens when one or more of the following occurs: When the pancreas does not produce any insulin. When the pancreas produces very little insulin. When the body does not respond appropriately to insulin, a condition called "insulin resistance." Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes produce insulin; however, the insulin their pancreas secretes is either not enough or the body is unable to recognize the insulin and use it properly (insulin resistance). When there isn't enough insulin or the insulin is not used as it should be, glucose (sugar) can't get into the body's cells and builds up in the bloodstream instead. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, it causes damage in multiple areas of the body. Also, since cells aren't getting the glucose they need, they can't function properly. To understand why insulin is important, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy. Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, these cells need food in a Continue reading >>