What Is Diabetes? The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2
26 million people in America have it, in one type or another. 79 million have pre-type 2. But what exactly is Diabetes? There are a lot of myths and misunderstandings surrounding the disease, particularly when it comes to type 1 versus type 2. So let’s start with the basics. Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high blood glucose (sugar), but it’s really all about a hormone called insulin. Depending on the type of diabetes you have, your body either can’t make enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels down (type 1), or can’t effectively use the little insulin that it does produce (type 2). First, to understand what happens in the bodies of people who have diabetes, you should know what happens in the bodies of people who don’t. Blood sugar, or glucose, is the body’s main source of energy. This glucose comes from food—mostly carbohydrates, but occasionally from proteins, too. In a healthy body, carbs are all broken down into glucose. That glucose leaves the intestine, travels through the liver, and eventually makes its way into the blood stream. Its final destination is the body’s cells, where it is used to create energy. Insulin comes into play here, at the cells’ entrance. The hormone acts as a doorman, allowing glucose to come inside. Insulin is produced in the pancreas by little clusters of cells, known as beta cells. Beta cells sense when there is an excess of glucose in the blood stream, such as just after a meal, and they send insulin out to meet the glucose at the cell’s doors. When working properly, this interplay between glucose, insulin, and beta cells maintains glucose levels between 70 and 140 milligrams per deciliter of blood. In both types of diabetes, this balance gets interrupted in some way. In type 1, the body’s immune Continue reading >>
Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Which One Is Worse?
What are the differences between the causes of type 1 and type 2? The underlying causes of type 1 and type 2 are different. Type 1 diabetes causes Type 1 diabetes is believed to be due to an autoimmune process, in which the body's immune system mistakenly targets its own tissues (islet cells in the pancreas). In people with type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas that are responsible for insulin production are attacked by the misdirected immune system. This tendency for the immune system to destroy the beta cells of the pancreas is likely to be, at least in part, genetically inherited, although the exact reasons that this process happens are not fully understood. Exposure to certain viral infections (mumps and Coxsackie viruses) or other environmental toxins have been suggested as possible reasons why the abnormal antibody responses develop that cause damage to the pancreas cells. The primary problem in type 2 diabetes is the inability of the body's cells to use insulin properly and efficiently, leading to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and diabetes. This problem affects mostly the cells of muscle and fat tissues, and results in a condition known as insulin resistance. In type 2 diabetes, there also is a steady decline of beta cells that worsens the process of elevated blood sugars. At the beginning, if someone is resistant to insulin, the body can at least partially increase production of insulin enough to overcome the level of resistance. Over time, if production decreases and enough insulin cannot be released, blood sugar levels rise. In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger than normal quantities of insulin, but the body is not able to use it effectively. A major feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the ce Continue reading >>
What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?
Understanding the difference between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes is necessary since the treatment approach will differ according to the type of diabetes you have. People diagnosed with diabetes who are unable to produce any insulin are referred to as “type 1”. People that produce reduced amounts of insulin or are not able to efficiently use the insulin in the bloodstream are referred to as “type 2”. Why do we need Insulin? Insulin is a hormone that allows our body to convert sugar (glucose) and use it as energy. Muscles and nerves are glucose dependent. The regulation of insulin and glucose levels is critical for health and is necessary to live. What is Type 1? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The body’s immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. The actual cause is unknown and continues to be an ongoing debate among researchers. Once these cells are destroyed the body is unable to produce any insulin. Type 1 usually begins in childhood. This is why it was referred to as “juvenile diabetes” or “Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus”. Type 1 diabetics account for less than 10% of people diagnosed with Diabetes. Type 1 diabetics are prone to extreme low blood sugars hypoglycemia which can be life threatening. Can Type 1 be prevented? One of the most common misunderstandings about type 1 is that it is preventable or cureable. Type 1 cannot be prevented. It is not related to diet or exercise, it is an autoimmune disorder and not impacted by lifestyle choices. What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is a disease where you either produce limited amounts of insulin or your body is unable to effectively use the insulin that is present. Type 2 is more prevalent in adults and that is why it was referred to as “non-ins Continue reading >>
Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?
There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases that affect the way your body regulates blood sugar, or glucose. Glucose is the fuel that feeds your body’s cells, but to enter your cells it needs a key. Insulin is that key. People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin. You can think of it as not having a key. People with type 2 diabetes don’t respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often don’t make enough insulin. You can think of this as having a broken key. Both types of diabetes can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels. That increases the risk of diabetes complications. Both types of diabetes, if not controlled, share many similar symptoms, including: frequent urination feeling very thirsty and drinking a lot feeling very hungry feeling very fatigued blurry vision cuts or sores that don’t heal properly People with type 1 diabetes may also experience irritability and mood changes, and unintentionally lose weight. People with type 2 diabetes may also have numbness and tingling in their hands or feet. Although many of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar, they present in very different ways. Many people with type 2 diabetes won’t have symptoms for many years. Then often the symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop slowly over the course of time. Some people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all and don’t discover their condition until complications develop. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop fast, typically over the course of several weeks. Type 1 diabetes, which was once known as juvenile diabetes, usually develops in childhood or adolescence. But it’s possible to get type 1 diabetes later in life. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes may have simi Continue reading >>
Differences Between Type 1 And 2 Diabetes
A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Straits Times on November 15, 2016, with the headline 'Differences between Type 1 and 2 diabetes'. Print Edition | Subscribe Continue reading >>
The Differences Between Type One And Type Two Diabetes
Diabetes is an epidemic in 21st century Australia, with 280 Australians developing the disease every day. In 2017, approximately 1.7 million Australians are living with diabetes and around 500,000 of these people are undiagnosed. Diabetes, in both its forms, is a complex disease that affects the entire body and can cause secondary conditions such as heart and kidney disease. Diabetes in Australia has risen significantly in the past few decades and there are some fundamental differences between the two types that are important to understand. Here is what you need to know. What is diabetes? When a person has diabetes, their body is unable to properly manage the levels of glucose -- or sugar -- in the blood. Insulin is the hormone that helps manage blood sugar and it is produced by the pancreas. For the body to function efficiently, it needs to be able to convert glucose -- a form of sugar -- into energy. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body. Type one diabetes is a condition where the immune system destroys the cells in the immune system that produce insulin. So essentially, type one diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce insulin. Type two diabetes is a condition where the body becomes resistant to insulin or eventually stops being able to produce enough insulin for the pancreas to function properly. This can be influenced by lifestyle and genetic factors (but we'll get to that later). Diabetes in Australia has gone up enormously over the last few decades and and it is likely to continue to go up. How is diabetes developed? While the inability to manage level of glucose is the common thread from diabetes, type one and type two actually develop differently. Professor Bruce Neal from The George Institute For Global Health explains these differences. Continue reading >>
Case Study: New-onset Diabetes: How To Tell The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
L.C., a 25-year-old white woman, presented to the Emergency Department reporting that she was in good health until ~ 3 weeks ago, when she began experiencing polyuria and polydipsia. She had had an unintentional weight loss of ~ 10 lb in the past 2 months. She denied visual disturbances, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dysuria, history of the same symptoms, and recent illness. She also denied alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use. Her medications included only oral birth control pills, and she was a competitive volleyball player. Family history was negative for diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and autoimmune diseases. Physical exam revealed a blood pressure of 129/82 mmHg, pulse of 88 bpm, and respiration rate of 20 breaths per minute. L.C.'s weight was 62 kg, and her BMI was 21 kg/m2. She seemed healthy and aware. Her eyes, throat, and thyroid were normal, and her neck was negative for lymphadenopathy. She had a regular heart rate and rhythm, negative for murmurs, rubs, or gallops, with normal first and second heart sounds. Lungs were clear with normal respirations. Abdominal exam revealed normal breath sounds and no tenderness, guarding, or rebound. Extremities were normal, and neurological motor and sensory functioning was intact. Her fingerstick glucose on admission was 571 mg/dl, and subsequently measured serum glucose was 617 mg/dl. Testing revealed a sodium level of 133 mEq/l (normal 135–145), potassium of 4.0 mEq/l (normal 3.5–5.0), chloride of 99 mEq/l (normal 96–108), carbon dioxide of 25 mEq/l (normal 21–30), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of 18 mg/dl (normal 7.0–20.0), and creatinine of 0.8 mg/dl (normal 0.4–10). Serum acetone was positive at 1:2. Urinalysis revealed a specific gravity of 1.010 (normal 1.005–1.300), glucose of 3+, Continue reading >>
The Difference Between Type 1, Type 2 & Gestational Diabetes
SCROLL FOR IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION AND INDICATIONS Important Safety Information have a history of breathing problems have had shingles (herpes zoster) are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. DARZALEX® may harm your unborn baby. Females who are able to become pregnant should use an effective method of birth control during treatment and for at least 3 months after your final dose of DARZALEX®. Talk to your healthcare provider about birth control methods that you can use during this time. Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Your healthcare provider will decide the time between doses as well as how many treatments you will receive. Your healthcare provider will give you medicines before each dose of DARZALEX® and on the first day after each dose of DARZALEX® to help reduce the risk of infusion reactions. If you miss any appointments, call your healthcare provider as soon as possible to reschedule your appointment. Infusion reactions. Infusion reactions are common with DARZALEX® and can be severe. Your healthcare provider may temporarily stop your infusion or completely stop treatment with DARZALEX® if you have infusion reactions. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms: shortness of breath or trouble breathing dizziness or lightheadedness (hypotension) cough wheezing throat tightness runny or stuffy nose headache itching nausea vomiting chills fever Changes in blood tests. DARZALEX® can affect the results of blood tests to match your blood type. These changes can last for up to 6 months after your final dose of DARZALEX®. Your healthcare provider will do blood tests to match your blood type before you st Continue reading >>
Types Of Diabetes
Although there are three main types of diabetes, there is also a stage before diabetes called pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes, also known as Impaired glucose tolerance is a condition where your Blood sugar level elevates to a level higher than the normal range for most people, but is still low enough not to be considered diabetes. People who have pre-diabetes are at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life if they do not monitor their condition carefully. People who have been diagnosed with pre-diabetes can help keep from progressing to a full blown diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes by watching their weight, exercising and eating the right foods. The first main type of diabetes is Type 1 diabetes, an Autoimmune disease where the pancreas produces very little insulin or no insulin at all. People who get Type 1 diabetes are usually under the age of 20, usually presenting itself when the person is a child or young adult. Some scientists believe that Type 1 diabetes is a genetic condition where the cells of the Pancreas are attacked and then stop functioning. Others feel the disease may be caused by a virus that prompt the immune system to begin attacking the pancreas. Because the pancreas cells that produce Insulin are destroyed, people who develop Type 1 diabetes will have the disease for life and will need treatment in the form of insulin shots or an insulin pump. In addition to insulin therapy, exercise and careful attention to diet is necessary to prevent fluctuations of blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes is normally found in people who are overweight as they get older. Although it is sometimes called adult onset diabetes, in some country, such as the United States, more children and young adults are being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes because they are not getting enough acti Continue reading >>
Diabetes: Differences Between Type 1 And 2 - Topic Overview
In general, people with diabetes either have a total lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or they have too little insulin or cannot use insulin effectively (type 2 diabetes). Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes), accounts for 5 to 10 out of 100 people who have diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system destroys the cells that release insulin, eventually eliminating insulin production from the body. Without insulin, cells cannot absorb sugar (glucose), which they need to produce energy. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes) can develop at any age. It most commonly becomes apparent during adulthood. But type 2 diabetes in children is rising. Type 2 diabetes accounts for the vast majority of people who have diabetes-90 to 95 out of 100 people. In type 2 diabetes, the body isn't able to use insulin the right way. This is called insulin resistance. As type 2 diabetes gets worse, the pancreas may make less and less insulin. This is called insulin deficiency. How are these diseases different? Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Symptoms usually start in childhood or young adulthood. People often seek medical help, because they are seriously ill from sudden symptoms of high blood sugar. The person may not have symptoms before diagnosis. Usually the disease is discovered in adulthood, but an increasing number of children are being diagnosed with the disease. Episodes of low blood sugar level (hypoglycemia) are common. There are no episodes of low blood sugar level, unless the person is taking insulin or certain diabetes medicines. It cannot be prevented. It can be prevented or delayed with a healthy lifestyle, including maintaining a healthy wei Continue reading >>
What Is The Difference Between Type 1, Type 2 And Gestational Diabetes?
Diabetes: Know Your Type Diabetes SA has developed information resource called 'Diabetes: Know Your Type'. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. This means that the body's own immune system has attacked the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. The pancreas can no longer produce insulin when this occurs. Although often diagnosed in childhood or adolescence, it can occur at any age. How is it managed? Administering insulin by injections or a pump will help to manage blood glucose levels. The amount of insulin required will constantly need to be reviewed. Eating well, moving regularly and monitoring blood glucose levels are also important to stay well and manage type 1 diabetes. It's a big job! How can it be prevented? Currently type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented or cured. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the insulin being produced does not work effectively (this is called insulin resistance). Although often diagnosed in adulthood, more and more children and teens are being diagnosed. How is it managed? Eating well, focusing on carbohydrate serving sizes, monitoring blood glucose levels and staying active is important. Some people will also require medications or insulin to manage blood glucose levels. Using insulin DOES NOT mean a person with type 2 becomes a person with type 1 diabetes. How can it be prevented? In many people, type 2 diabetes can be prevented or its onset delayed with regular exercise, healthy eating, not smoking and maintaining a healthy weight. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) GDM occurs during pregnancy when the pregnancy hormones block the action of insulin. This leads to insulin resistance and high blood glucose levels. How is it managed? Eating well for pregnancy Continue reading >>
The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Why are there different types of diabetes? Find out what's behind the names and types July, 2017 Insulin is key to both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes Cells in your body need glucose (a form of sugar) as fuel, but your cells can’t use glucose without insulin. Your cells need insulin to allow glucose in to where it can be used as fuel. When there isn’t enough insulin or it isn’t able to work properly, the glucose stays in the blood. In diabetes, either: Your pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin (in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes) The cells in your body don’t react to the insulin that’s there (in Type 2 diabetes) Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes have different causes but similar results The causes of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are entirely different. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, meaning that your immune system attacks the body’s own cells. In Type 1 diabetes, the beta cells in the pancreas that create insulin are attacked to the point where they are no longer able to generate insulin at all. This means that people with Type 1 diabetes have to inject insulin regularly. Type 2 diabetes develops more slowly. In some people, the body becomes resistant to insulin over time, and the cells don’t respond as well to it. This is known as insulin resistance. If you have insulin resistance, the cells in your body are less and less able to use the insulin that’s there. To make up for this, your pancreas creates more insulin. Over time, the beta cells in the pancreas are worn down from this increased production, and eventually they become less and less able to make insulin. You then don’t have enough insulin to deal with the glucose in your blood. Diabetes differences There are some similarities in the two types of diabetes, but also some important differen Continue reading >>
Corneal Thickness Differences Between Type 2 Diabetes And Non-diabetes Subjects During Preoperative Laser Surgery Examination
Abstract To evaluate the differences in corneal thickness between type 2 diabetes subjects with HbA1c under 7.0% and non-diabetes subjects during their preoperative laser surgery examinations. The mean of five consecutive corneal thickness measurements at the central and mid-peripheral cornea was obtained by means of noncontact scanning-slit corneal topography (Orbscan Topography System II; Orbscan, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, USA) in 35 myopic non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes subjects (17 males and 18 females) and 48 healthy myopic controls (23 males and 25 females). The corneal thickness values at the central and mid-peripheral cornea were significantly higher in the diabetic group (p < .001). The diabetic subjects presented the highest thickness value in the superior cornea (n = 22; 62.9%) followed by the nasal (n = 9; 25.7%) and the temporal (n = 4; 11.4%) cornea, but never in the inferior cornea. The control subjects presented the highest thickness value in the superior cornea (n = 19; 39.6%) followed by the nasal (n = 18; 37.5%), the inferior (n = 6; 12.5%), and the temporal (n = 3; 6.3%) cornea. The central corneal thickness (CCT) of the diabetes patients was not statistically correlated with their HbA1c (r2 = .078; p = .104), body mass index (r2 = .007; p = .633), and time from diagnosis of diabetes (r2 = .025; p = .363), but it was correlated with their corneal endothelial cell density values (r2 = .543; p < .001). Diabetes subjects with HbA1c under 7.0% who are candidates for laser refractive surgery present thicker corneas than their age-matched control subjects. In these patients, there is a correlation between their CCT values and their corneal endothelial cell density values, so when higher CCT values were found, lower corneal endothelial cell density v Continue reading >>
Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
While type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes both are the result of elevated blood sugar levels, they are not the same disease and are treated differently. In type 1 diabetes, the problem is related to the amount of insulin in the body and, in type 2 diabetes, the problem is that, even though there is plenty of insulin around, the cells of the body are resistant to it so the glucose in the bloodstream is elevated. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetics have elevated blood sugar levels and complications of the disease. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes. While there are 26 million Americans with diabetes, only 5 percent of the time is the diabetes of type 1, while 95 percent of diabetics suffer from type 2 diabetes. Causes of Diabetes Type 1 diabetes mellitus is usually a disease that affects younger individuals. It is an autoimmune disease in which the antibodies produced by the diabetic patient are directed toward the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. This means the insulin levels are very low and blood sugar levels are very high. In type 2 diabetes, the insulin levels are normal or even higher than normal. The basic problem in type 2 diabetes is that the cells, which use glucose for cellular metabolism, are resistant to insulin putting the glucose into the cells, resulting in high circulating blood glucose levels. No one knows the exact cause behind type 1 diabetes. There may be a genetic defect along with an environmental trigger that causes the disease. In type 2 diabetes, there are many causes that play a role in getting the disease. While there may be some genetic basis for the disease, things like obesity, eating a poor diet, ethnicity, and obesity also play a role. Age at Onset of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes mellitus is usually Continue reading >>
What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?
Find the differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus as given below. (I) Type 1 diabetes mellitus: It is also known as Insulin-dependent DM (IDDM) or Juvenile-onset DM and is seen in childhood. It results from absolute deficiency of insulin due to destruction of beta-cells. (II) Type 2 diabetes mellitus: It is also known as Non-insulin dependent DM (NIDDM) or Maturity-onset DM and is seen in middle age persons/adults (>40 years). It results from either relative deficiency of insulin (due to dysfunction of beta-cells) or insulin resistance. It is most common type of diabetes. In type 1 diabetic patients, the acute complication of uncontrolled diabetes is keto-acidotic coma, which may lead to death, whereas in type 2 diabetic patients, the acute complication of uncontrolled diabetes is hyper-osmolar coma. Differences between type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus are given in following table. Ref: Textbook of Biochemistry with Biomedical Significance by Prem Prakash Gupta, CBS Publishers New Delhi, second edition Continue reading >>