5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work
What you need to know If you have to take insulin to treat diabetes, there’s good news: You have choices. There are five types of insulin. They vary by onset (how soon they start to work), peak (how long they take to kick into full effect) and duration (how long they stay in your body). You may have to take more than one type of insulin, and these needs may change over time (and can vary depending on your type of diabetes). Find out more about the insulin types best for you. Rapid-acting insulin What it’s called: Humalog (lispro), NovoLog (aspart), Apidra (glulisine) Rapid-acting insulin is taken just before or after meals, to control spikes in blood sugar. This type is typically used in addition to a longer-acting insulin. It often works in 15 minutes, peaks between 30 and 90 minutes, and lasts 3 to 5 hours. “You can take it a few minutes before eating or as you sit down to eat, and it starts to work very quickly,” says Manisha Chandalia, MD, director of the Stark Diabetes Center at the University of Texas Medical Branch, in Galveston. Short-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin R, Novolin R Short-acting insulin covers your insulin needs during meals. It is taken about 30 minutes to an hour before a meal to help control blood sugar levels. This type of insulin takes effect in about 30 minutes to one hour, and peaks after two to four hours. Its effects tend to last about five to eight hours. “The biggest advantage of short-acting insulin is that you don't have to take it at each meal. You can take it at breakfast and supper and still have good control because it lasts a little longer,” Dr. Chandalia says. Intermediate-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin N (NPH), Novolin N (NPH) Intermediate-acting insulin can control blood sugar levels for about Continue reading >>
Diabetes, Any Type: Are We Really So Different?
I ask this question because I hear the pain of people who live with types of diabetes other than Type 2. I think it’s a good question to explore. First, it gives me a chance to look into each of the different types. Second, it offers the opportunity to see where we have differences. Third, we can close the gap between our differences to acknowledge how similar we really are. Types of Diabetes Gestational Diabetes: diabetes during pregnancy, usually resolves when pregnancy ends. Type 1 Diabetes: previously called juvenile (child) onset, typically people under 25 years of age, pancreas does not produce insulin due to some insult, requires insulin injections to live. Type 2 Diabetes: often seen in ((cough, cough)) older adults, typically people over 25 years of age, may be associated with overweight or obesity, has a genetic component, may run in families, pancreas produces insulin but the body can’t use it effectively, pancreas eventually stops producing insulin. What are the differences? Obviously there are differences in how each of these diabetes types presents. Also in how they are treated. Type 1 diabetes requires insulin. Period. The pancreas doesn’t function. Some people with diabetes refer to their pancreas as being ‘dead.’ The first time I heard that, it sounded harsh. The more I learned, the more I had to admit, it was an accurate description. I have further been able to glimpse into the life of a parent whose child has type 1 thereby helping me to understand on a small scale what the child/teen/young adult lives with. From the seat I sit in, I could never truly understand. It is different than the type 2 I live with. Imagine giving your small baby a needle once, twice a day, knowing your baby will cry, hurt. You would do it because you have to, becaus Continue reading >>
"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown. Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise. Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels. Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>
There are three main types of diabetes: Diabetes type 1 Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease where the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes cannot produce insulin and require lifelong insulin replacement for survival. The disease can occur at any age, although it mostly occurs in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes is sometimes referred to as 'juvenile onset diabetes' or 'insulin dependent diabetes'. Personal story: diabetes mellitus type 1 Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes can be both emotionally and practically challenging. Listening to others who have experienced similar situations is often re-assuring and can be helpful for you, your loved ones or when preparing questions for your doctor or a specialist. Watch this video about a patient's experience after being diagnosed with diabetes type 1. Play Video Play Mute Current Time 0:00 / Duration Time 0:00 Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% Stream TypeLIVE Remaining Time -0:00 Playback Rate 1 Chapters Chapters descriptions off, selected Descriptions subtitles off, selected Subtitles captions settings, opens captions settings dialog captions off, selected Captions Audio Track Fullscreen This is a modal window. Caption Settings Dialog Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaque Font Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400% Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadow Font FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifC Continue reading >>
How Many Different Types Of Diabetes Are There?
Diabetes is a chronic condition where the body cannot produce enough insulin or properly use the insulin that is produced, or a combination of both. Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced by the beta cells in the pancreas. This hormone helps to transport glucose to the body tissues where it is stored and used for energy. Glucose is a form of sugar which is generally the main source of energy for your body. Without insulin, glucose cannot be processed, so it will stay in the bloodstream and begin to build up. Too much glucose in the blood stream can lead to serious health complications, such as nerve damage and kidney problems. People with diabetes take insulin medications to replace the natural hormone produced by the pancreas. There are different types of diabetes, such as diabetes insipidus (DI), type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D), gestational diabetes, mature-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) among others. However, some of these types of diabetes are more prevalent compared to others. For example, MODY is a rare condition that affects one to two percent of the population with diabetes. This rare condition is caused by a change in one gene and develops before the patient reaches the age of 25. DI is another rare type of diabetes, which, unlike other types of diabetes, it is not related to blood glucose. DI is a condition caused by an antidiuretic hormone known as vasopressin, and it is characterized by excessive thirst and urination. LADA is a form of T1D which develops later in adulthood. This condition can be mistakenly diagnosed for T2D because it too develops later in adulthood, while T1D is usually diagnosed in childhood and young adults. However, the most common type of diabetes is T2D Continue reading >>
Types Of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is the full medical name for diabetes, a condition where the body has a problem making insulin or using it effectively to process glucose (sugar) from food. Diabetes mellitus is a life-long condition and includes type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Glucose and diabetes mellitus All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body, but the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes and nervous system. That's why diabetes - especially if left untreated - can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness and damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It used to be called insulin-dependent diabetes, and is caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves ( diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys ( diabetic nephropathy). In addition, there is the increased risk of heart disease and s Continue reading >>
Types Of Diabetes
There are other types of diabetes, though they occur less frequently. Here are the main types. Diabetes resulting from specific disease Diabetes can occur in individuals suffering or having suffered from certain disease or health conditions, such as: Pancreatic diseases (cystic fibrosis, cancer, pancreatitis, pancreatectomy, etc.) Endocrine diseases (Cushing syndrome, acromegaly, hyperthyroid, etc.) Genetic syndromes (Down syndrome, Friedreich ataxia, Turner syndrome, etc.) Viral infections (congenial rubella, cytomegalovirus, etc.) Diabetes resulting from medication Certain drugs can trigger the onset of diabetes, either temporarily or permanently. Here are the main ones: Glucocorticoids, such as cortisone Drugs prescribed for a cancer or to stop an organ-transplant rejection Drugs for hypothyroid Certain drugs used to treat high cholesterol (statins) Drugs to treat epilepsy Drugs used to treat certain mental health problems MODY and LADA diabetes Some people have a form of diabetes that cannot be classified as either type 1 or type 2. These are rare cases where a diagnosis is difficult or questionable due to an unexpected or atypical development of the disease. MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young) MODY is a rare form of diabetes that generally occurs before the age of 25 in individuals of normal weight. Although many of the characteristics are similar to type 1 diabetes, this diabetes more closely resembles type 2. Among others, the symptoms at the time of diagnosis are less pronounced than type 1 diabetes and there is no acidosis present. This diabetes is characterized by abnormal insulin secretion due to a genetic mutation. This condition is highly hereditary; the chances of transmission to a child are 50% if either parent carries the genetic defect. MODY is Continue reading >>
Types Of Diabetes
Although there are three main types of diabetes, there is also a stage before diabetes called pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes, also known as Impaired glucose tolerance is a condition where your Blood sugar level elevates to a level higher than the normal range for most people, but is still low enough not to be considered diabetes. People who have pre-diabetes are at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life if they do not monitor their condition carefully. People who have been diagnosed with pre-diabetes can help keep from progressing to a full blown diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes by watching their weight, exercising and eating the right foods. The first main type of diabetes is Type 1 diabetes, an Autoimmune disease where the pancreas produces very little insulin or no insulin at all. People who get Type 1 diabetes are usually under the age of 20, usually presenting itself when the person is a child or young adult. Some scientists believe that Type 1 diabetes is a genetic condition where the cells of the Pancreas are attacked and then stop functioning. Others feel the disease may be caused by a virus that prompt the immune system to begin attacking the pancreas. Because the pancreas cells that produce Insulin are destroyed, people who develop Type 1 diabetes will have the disease for life and will need treatment in the form of insulin shots or an insulin pump. In addition to insulin therapy, exercise and careful attention to diet is necessary to prevent fluctuations of blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes is normally found in people who are overweight as they get older. Although it is sometimes called adult onset diabetes, in some country, such as the United States, more children and young adults are being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes because they are not getting enough acti Continue reading >>
Types Of Diabetic Neuropathy
Diabetic neuropathy can be broken into several types. This is because we have different kinds of nerves in our bodies that serve different functions. Your symptoms and treatments depend on which type of diabetic neuropathy you have. There are four types of diabetic neuropathy: Peripheral diabetic neuropathy goes by various names: peripheral diabetic nerve pain and distal polyneuropathy. In this Patient Guide, we’ll refer to it as peripheral diabetic neuropathy, or simply peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is the most common form of neuropathy caused by diabetes. It affects nerves leading to your extremities—to your feet, legs, hands, and arms. The nerves going to your feet are the longest in your body: after they branch off the spinal cord in the lumbar region (low back), they have to go all the way down your legs and into the feet—quite a distance. Because the nerves leading to your feet are so long, it’s most often these nerves that are damaged; there’s more of them to be damaged. This nerve damage can lead to the foot problems often associated with diabetes, including foot deformities, infections, ulcers, and amputations. The article on diabetic neuropathy symptoms will help you learn more about the specific symptoms associated with peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Proximal neuropathy can also be called diabetic amyotrophy. That myo in the word means muscle, so this is a form of neuropathy that can cause muscle weakness. It specifically affects the muscles in the upper part of your leg(s), buttocks, and hips. Sometimes, proximal neuropathy can also involve nerve pain, especially pain that shoots from the low back and down the leg. The technical medical term for that is radiculopathy, although most people refer to it as sciatica. If there’s also s Continue reading >>
Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)
Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult onset diabetes. Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include increased urine output, excessive thirst, weight loss, hunger, fatigue, skin problems slow healing wounds, yeast infections, and tingling or numbness in the feet or toes. Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the "good" cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. If you think you may have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health-care professional. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes And Insulin
It’s necessary to take insulin when you have type 1 diabetes. Your body doesn’t produce the hormone insulin, and without that, your body can’t properly get the energy and fuel it needs from glucose. Because people with type 1 diabetes rely on insulin, it was formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes. To learn about how the hormone insulin works, we have an article that explains the role of insulin. As soon as you are (or your child is) diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you will be immersed in the world of insulin, and it may feel overwhelming at first. There are doses to calculate, different types of insulin to consider, and the pressure of needing to keep blood glucose in a normal range to prevent short- and long-term complications. Your diabetes treatment team is there to help you. They can walk you through the basics of insulin dosing, answer any questions, and help you figure out how to balance food, exercise, and insulin. You will learn to take care of your diabetes with your diabetes team. If you are a parent of a child with type 1 diabetes, we also encourage you to visit our Patients' Guide to Managing Your Child's Type 1 Diabetes. It's often comforting to hear stories about others who are also going through the same things you are. Jay Cutler, quarterback for the Chicago Bears, was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 2008, and he is still getting used to regular blood sugar testing and insulin injections. To learn more about his journey with type 1 diabetes, read Jay Cutler's interview with EndocrineWeb. This article will provide basic details on insulin treatment. You can also visit our Patients' Guide to Insulin for more details. Types of Insulin With type 1 diabetes, you will need to take insulin on a daily basis, and there are several types of insulin you Continue reading >>
- Relative contribution of type 1 and type 2 diabetes loci to the genetic etiology of adult-onset, non-insulin-requiring autoimmune diabetes
- Relative effectiveness of insulin pump treatment over multiple daily injections and structured education during flexible intensive insulin treatment for type 1 diabetes: cluster randomised trial (REPOSE)
- Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Youth With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study
Other Types Of Diabetes
In addition to Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes, there are a range of other types, which are just as important. If you add up everyone with the rarer types of diabetes together that’s quite a lot of people. Unfortunately, many of these people are misdiagnosed leading to delays in getting the right treatment. We’re proud of the research we have supported to ensure better diagnosis and treatments for all types of diabetes, and it’s taught us a lot about the condition. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) MODY is a rare form of diabetes which is different from both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, and runs strongly in families. MODY is caused by a mutation (or change) in a single gene. If a parent has this gene mutation, any child they have, has a 50 per cent chance of inheriting it from them. If a child does inherit the mutation they will generally go on to develop MODY before they’re 25, whatever their weight, lifestyle, ethnic group etc. Neonatal diabetes Neonatal diabetes is a form of diabetes that is diagnosed under the age of six months. It’s a different type of diabetes than the more common Type 1 diabetes as it’s not an autoimmune condition (where the body has destroyed its insulin producing cells). Wolfram Syndrome Wolfram Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder which is also known as DIDMOAD syndrome after its four most common features (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness). Alström Syndrome Alström Syndrome is a rare genetically inherited syndrome which has a number of common features. Save for later Continue reading >>
What Is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. Type 2 diabetes If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chan Continue reading >>
- American Diabetes Association® Releases 2018 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, with Notable New Recommendations for People with Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes
- Leeds diabetes clinical champion raises awareness of gestational diabetes for World Diabetes Day
- Diabetes doctors: Which specialists treat diabetes?
What Is Type 1 Diabetes And Why Does It Occur?
There are two main types of diabetes, known as "Type 1 Diabetes" and "Type 2 Diabetes". These two conditions are generally considered to be 2 different and separate conditions, so it is important to understand the differences between the two. Some old names for Type 1 Diabetes include: "Juvenile Diabetes", "Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus" and "IDDM". These old names should not be used, as they are no longer considered correct. Important Stuff to Know In our bodies, an organ known as the pancreas produces insulin, which is a very important hormone. Insulin is vital because it enables the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. We need insulin to survive. In Type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. This usually happens in younger people, but it can happen at any age. When this happens, the pancreas no longer produces insulin. So what happens if there is no insulin in your body? The main effect is high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia). Insulin normally moves blood sugar into body tissues where it is used for energy. When there is no insulin, sugar builds up in the blood. High blood sugar is dangerous, with many side effects. It also causes damage to the body. What are the symptoms of Type 1 diabetes? The symptoms of Type 1 diabetes are all based on the fact that there is high blood sugar. The symptoms include: Extreme thirst Frequent urination Lethargy, fatigue and drowsiness Blurred vision Sudden weight loss Increased appetite, hunger When the blood sugar is stabilised by treatment, these symptoms go away. How is Type 1 diabetes treated? Every person with Type 1 diabetes needs to inject themselves with insulin to survive. There are quite a number of different types of insulin, and a number of different insulin t Continue reading >>
Types Of Diabetes
There are three types of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational. All are metabolic disorders that affect how the body uses (metabolizes) food to make glucose. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where the body does not make enough insulin or that your body is not able to use the insulin it does make. Your body needs the hormone insulin to change blood sugar (glucose) into energy. Without insulin, too much glucose collects in your blood. Diabetes may also be a result of other conditions such as include genetic syndromes, chemicals, medicines, pancreatitis, infections, and viruses. The three main types of diabetes are similar in the buildup of blood glucose because of problems with insulin. But each has a different cause and treatment: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The body’s immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This means that your body has no or only a small amount of insulin. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day in order to live. Type 2 diabetes happens when the body cannot make enough insulin or is not able to use it properly. Type 2 diabetes may be controlled with diet, exercise, and weight loss, or may need oral medicines or insulin injections. Gestational diabetes happens in pregnant women who have not been diagnosed with diabetes in the past. In a woman with gestational diabetes, her body cannot effectively use the insulin that is present. This type of diabetes goes away after delivery. If it does not go away, it was not gestational diabetes but type 1 or 2 diabetes that started during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes may be controlled with diet, exercise, and attention to weight gain. Women with this type of diabetes may need to take medicines to control Continue reading >>